Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

597 results found
Article

Canadian CT head rule

The Canadian CT head rule (CCTHR) is a validated clinical decision rule to determine the need for CT head in adult emergency department patients with minor head injuries. Inclusion criteria Patient has suffered minor head trauma with resultant: loss of consciousness GCS 13-15 confusion amn...
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Capitellum fracture

Capitellum fractures are uncommon, but their prompt diagnosis and management are crucial due to the severity of the consequent functional impairment resulting from these intra-articular elbow fractures.  Epidemiology Capitellar fractures are relatively rare, with approximately 3-4% of distal h...
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Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different etiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as such...
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Carpometacarpal joint dislocation

Carpometacarpal (CMC) joint dislocations are uncommon dislocations of the hand. Epidemiology There is a strong younger male predominance. These injuries account for less than 1% of hand injuries 4 and are more common in the dominant hand. Clinical presentation Typical mechanism: punching (m...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually, the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most common...
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Cerclage wire

Cerclage wire refers to a type of orthopedic fixation/stabilization wire placed to approximate fractured bone fragments. Types full - 360° circumferential wire used in diaphysis segments of long bones hemicerclage - wire is placed through one of the main fractured bone fragments, as used in t...
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Cerebral hemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral hemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral hemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterized on CT as hyperattenuating foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epid...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
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Cervical spine collar

Cervical spine collars are a form of spine orthoses, typically used to immobilize the cervical spine of patients who are thought to be at risk of unstable spine injury (e.g. due to a motor vehicle accident).  Practical points Cervical spine collars are often utilized for trauma patients, and t...
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Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterized by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
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Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
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Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females with the median age of injury being 56 years. Falls, motor vehicle collisions, pedestrian accidents, cyclin...
Article

Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
Article

CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
Article

Chalk stick fracture

Chalk stick, also known as carrot stick fractures, are fractures of the fused spine, classically seen in ankylosing spondylitis. Terminology Some authors define the chalk stick fracture as a fracture through a Pagetoid long bone (see Paget disease) 3. Pathology They usually occur through the...
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Chance fracture

Chance fractures, also referred to as seatbelt fractures, are flexion-distraction type injuries of the spine that extend to involve all three spinal columns. These are unstable injuries and have a high association with intra-abdominal injuries. Pathology Mechanism They tend to occur from a fl...
Article

Chauffeur fracture

Chauffeur fractures (also known as Hutchinson fractures or backfire fractures) are intra-articular fractures of the radial styloid process. The radial styloid is within the fracture fragment, although the fragment can vary markedly in size. Pathology Mechanism These injuries are sustained eit...
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Chopart fracture-dislocation

Chopart fracture-dislocations occur at the midtarsal (Chopart) joint in the foot, i.e. talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints which separate the hindfoot from the midfoot. The commonly fractured bones are the calcaneus, cuboid and navicular. The foot is usually dislocated medially and superior...
Article

Classification of gamekeeper thumb

This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al. 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a sp...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Clavicular fracture

Clavicular fractures are common and account for ~5% (range 2.6-10%) of all fractures 2,3. They usually require minimal treatment, which relies on analgesia and a collar-and-cuff. However, in some cases, open reduction and internal fixation are required. Epidemiology Clavicular fractures are mo...
Article

Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
Article

Closed reduction

Closed reduction or manipulation is a common non-invasive method of treating mildly displaced fractures. Usually performed in an emergency department or orthopedic clinic with light sedation and analgesia, the fracture is manipulated back into anatomic alignment and immobilized with a cast, brac...
Article

Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...
Article

Coccygeal fracture

Coccygeal fractures are generally low-severity injuries, which nonetheless can be diagnostically challenging.  Diagnosis may be delayed or missed due to coccygeal anatomy and patient/technical factors (e.g. obesity, overlying bowel gas/feces). Given that management of coccygeal fractures is nea...
Article

Colles fracture

Colles fractures are very common extra-articular fractures of the distal radius that occur as the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand. They consist of a fracture of the distal radial metaphyseal region with dorsal angulation and impaction, but without the involvement of the articular surf...
Article

Comminuted fracture

Comminuted fractures are fractures where more than 2 bone components are created. The problem with the term is that it includes a very heterogeneous group of fractures from a 3 part humeral head fracture to a multi-part fracture of the femur following a high-energy road traffic accident.
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Complete fracture

Complete fractures are fractures where the parts of the bone that have been fractured are completely separated from each other. There is complete separation of the cortex circumferentially. Complete fractures can be classified as: transverse: straight across the bone oblique: oblique line acr...
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Complex midfacial fracture

Complex midfacial fractures consist of multiple facial fractures that cannot be classified as any of the defined complex facial fracture (e.g. Le Fort fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, naso-orbital-ethmoid fracture).
Article

Complications of petrous temporal bone fracture (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the complications of transverse and longitudinal petrous temporal bone fractures is: Listen Carefully To Something Funny Mnemonic listen carefully = longitudinal / conductive hearing loss to something funny = transverse / sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve...
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Condylar process fractures

Condylar process fractures are fractures of the condylar process of the mandible. The condylar process of the mandible is involved in around 30% of all mandibular fractures. Condylar fractures are classified according to the location of the fracture and the direction displacement of the condyle...
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Condyle-C1 interval (CCI)

The condyle-C1 interval (CCI) is the measurement of the interval between condyle and C1 at four equidistant points on the joint surface in sagittal and coronal reconstructions of computed tomography. The CCI is reported to have a high lateral symmetry in children 1. Used with a cut-off of 4 mm,...
Article

Congenital insensitivity to pain

Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) refers to a group of rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) characterized by an inability to feel pain 1. Terminology Although not clearly defined in the literature, congenital insensitivity to pain is not one specific diagnosis but de...
Article

Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

Coracoclavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with the presence o...
Article

Coracoid process fracture

Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or other scapular fracture, as well as glenohumeral dislocation or acromioclavicular joint injury. Epidemiology Coracoid fractures repr...
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
Article

Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
Article

Costal hook sign (flail chest)

The costal hook sign is a chest x-ray feature seen in some cases of flail chest. It represents the rotation of a fractured rib along its long axis, something that is only possible if a second fracture is present along its length, even if the second fracture is not visible 1. 
Article

Coup-contrecoup injury (brain)

A coup-contrecoup injury is a term applied to head injuries and most often cerebral contusions and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. It refers to the common pattern of injury whereby damage is located both at the site of impact (often less marked) and on the opposite side of the head to the poi...
Article

Cranioplasty

Cranioplasty is the surgical intervention to repair cranial defects, and is mostly performed after traumatic injuries. The procedure is performed using different materials and techniques, with no consensus about the best option. Methyl methacrylate is the prosthetic material most extensively use...
Article

CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
Article

CT comma sign (head)

The CT comma sign is a characteristic sign seen in head trauma. It is the presence of concurrent epidural and subdural hematomas, which gives the characteristic appearance of this sign as a "comma" shape.
Article

CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
Article

CT hypoperfusion complex

CT hypoperfusion complex refers to the predominantly abdominal imaging features that occur in the context of profound hypotension. Multiple abdominal organs can display atypical appearances not related to the initial trauma but reflect alterations in perfusion secondary to hypovolemia which affe...
Article

CT polytrauma (approach)

Below is an approach used for the "primary survey" of a CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT or whole body CT), often performed at the CT console with the patient still on the CT table. It allows rapid communication of significant findings to the trauma team as well as the decision ...
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CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
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Deep sulcus sign (chest)

The deep sulcus sign on a supine chest radiograph raises suspicion of a pneumothorax. On a supine plain chest film (common in intensive care units or as part of a trauma radiograph series), it may be the only suggestion of a pneumothorax because air collects anteriorly and basally, within the n...
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Deep sulcus sign (disambiguation)

The deep sulcus sign can refer to two different radiographic signs but is best known in the chest: deep sulcus sign (chest): of pneumothorax on supine CXR: deep sulcus sign (knee): better known as the lateral femoral notch sign of ACL injury
Article

Degloving bowel injury

Degloving bowel injuries are a rare type of bowel and mesenteric injury only being described a handful of times in the literature 1-5. In these injuries the bowel is stripped of its mesentery and muscle, leaving a "mucosal tube" 2,3. Perforation may or may not be present.  See also degloving i...
Article

Degloving injury

Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions: degloving soft tissue injury Morel-Lavallée lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury) intramuscular degloving injury degloving bowel injury
Article

Degloving soft tissue injury

Degloving soft tissue injuries can be extensive and quite severe conditions. These may be open or, less commonly, closed injuries, which are known as Morel-Lavallée lesions. This article focuses on open injuries, with closed injuries discussed in the Morel-Lavallée article.  Terminology "Deglo...
Article

Delbet classification

The Delbet classification helps predict the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in neck of femur fractures, as well as determine operative vs non-operative management.  Classification type I: trans-epiphyseal separation fracture through proximal femoral physis, and represents Salte...
Article

Deltoid ligament injury

Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones. Pathology Mechanism of injury It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures. ...
Article

Dental fracture

Dental fractures are often clinically apparent but can be overlooked in the cases of associated facial fractures, especially as root fractures may be clinically occult.  Terminology When both a tooth and alveolar process are fractured, the term dentoalveolar fracture can be used 1.  Pathology...
Article

Dental luxation

Dental luxation is a common manifestation of dental trauma and may be associated with socket fractures.   Pathology Dental luxation is a general term encompassing 1: concussion: tender tooth, no loosening/displacement subluxation: tender tooth, loosening without displacement extrusive luxat...
Article

Dental trauma

Dental trauma is common, affecting up to one-third of the population. While often clinically apparent, they may be overlooked in the setting of severe trauma.  Pathology The maxillary incisors are the most commonly injured tooth. Dental trauma can be classified as 1,2: luxation (loosening): m...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria used to determine when CT angiography of the neck is indicated to detect blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma patients.  Screening criteria The Denver criteria were initially developed in 1996 1, modified in 2005 to limit the types o...
Article

Depressed skull fracture

Depressed skull fractures result in the bone of the skull vault being folded (depressed) inward into the cerebral parenchyma. It is usually the result of a high energy impact to the skull. Pathology These mostly (~75%) occur in the frontoparietal region 3. Associations There are a number of ...
Article

Describing a fracture (an approach)

Describing a fracture is a basic requirement when making an assessment of a plain radiograph. There are many ways to approach the assessment of the radiograph; this is just one approach. I: Describe the radiograph What radiograph (or radiographs) are you looking at? Check the who, what, why, w...
Article

Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle collision. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it is perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. The estimated ...
Article

Die-punch fracture

Die-punch fractures result from an axial loading force on the distal radius. It is an intra-articular fracture of the lunate fossa of the distal radius 1. It is by definition depressed or impacted and is named after the machining technique of shearing a shape, depression or hole in a material wi...
Article

Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), also known as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in...
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Diffuse axonal injury (grading)

Grading of diffuse axonal injury due to trauma is described according to the anatomic distribution of injury. Contrary to the implication of the word "diffuse," diffuse axonal injury has a topological predilection for focal involvement of certain sites in the brain. These sites, in turn, vary in...
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Disarticulation

The term disarticulation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body, specifically through a joint. This is in contrast to amputation, which is the disconnection or removal of the structure through a bone.
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Dislocation versus subluxation

Malalignment of a joint may be a dislocation or subluxation: dislocation is the complete (100%) loss of articular congruity, i.e. no part of the articular surfaces of the bones contributing to the joint are touching each other subluxation is the partial (<100%) loss of articular congruity, i.e...
Article

Distal femoral fracture

Distal femoral fractures - ICD-11 NC72.6Z involve the femoral condyles and the metaphyseal region and are often the result of high energy trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or a fall from a height. In the elderly, they may occur as a domestic accident 1-3. Epidemiology They are quite rare ...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathophy...
Article

Distal humeral fracture

Distal humeral fractures are traumatic injuries involving the epicondyles, the trochlea, the capitellum and the metaphysis of the distal humerus and are often the result of high energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or a fall from a height. In the elderly, they may occur as a domestic acc...
Article

Distal phalanx fracture

Distal phalanx fractures are among the most common fractures in the hand.  They represent > 50% of all phalangeal fractures and frequently involve the ungual tuft 1. They are frequently related to sports, with lesions such as the mallet finger and the Jersey finger. When associated with a crus...
Article

Distal radial fracture

Distal radial fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur at the distal radius and are the dominant fracture type at the wrist. These common fractures usually occur when significant force is applied to the distal radial metaphysis.  Epidemiology Distal radial fractures can be s...
Article

Distal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal radial fractures are a relatively common group of injuries that usually occur following a fall. The commonest of these fractures is a transverse extra-articular fracture and where there is associated dorsal angulatio...
Article

Distal radioulnar joint dislocation

Isolated distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocations are rare and are more commonly part of complex forearm fracture-dislocations.  Clinical presentation Wrist pain, swelling and deformity following FOOSH or direct trauma. The patient will be unable to supinate/pronate the forearm 1,2.  Patho...
Article

Distal ulnar fractures

Distal ulnar fractures are common and usually occur with a concurrent distal radius fracture. Pathology Isolated fractures occur as a result of direct force to the ulna. Fractures associated with radius fractures usually occur as the result of a fall on an outstretched arm. Distal ulnar fract...
Article

Dolan's lines

Dolan's lines are the collective name given to three lines described by Dolan and Jacoby 1 that aid in evaluating for maxillofacial fractures on an occipitomental skull radiograph. They are usually used as an adjunct to McGrigor-Campbell lines. orbital line traces the inner margins of the later...
Article

Dorsal bridge plate fixation

Dorsal bridge plate fixation is an open reduction internal fixation technique for extensive comminuted articular and metaphyseal radial fractures. Terminology Dorsal bridge plate fixation is also known as dorsal spanning plate fixation. Indications The main indication is the treatment of dif...
Article

Dorsal intercalated segment instability

Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) is a form of instability involving the wrist. It occurs mainly after the disruption of the scapholunate ligament and is more often encountered than volar intercalated segment instability (VISI). Clinical presentation radial or dorsal wrist pain, m...
Article

Double delta sign (meniscal tear)

The double delta sign is a feature that has been described in a bucket handle meniscal tear when the inner meniscal fragment flipped anteriorly adjacent to the anterior horn of the donor site and is referred to as a displaced bucket handle tear. The original location of the posterior horn remain...
Article

Duodenal hematoma

Duodenal hematoma results in hematoma formation in the duodenal wall. It may occur as a result of blunt abdominal trauma, non-accidental injury to children and spontaneously in anti-coagulated patients. Distinction must be made from duodenal perforation since the latter will require immediate s...
Article

Dupuytren fracture

Dupuytren fracture is an eponymous name (although not widely used in the English-speaking medical world) for an injury originally described as a mid-distal fibular fracture occurring above the syndesmosis with diastasis 1 but now refers to that fracture pattern with various other injuries: medi...
Article

Eaton classification of volar plate avulsion injury

The Eaton classification was proposed by Eaton and Malerich in 1980, and presently (time of writing, August 2016) along with Keifhaber-Stern classification, is the most widely accepted classification of volar plate avulsion injuries 1.  Knowledge of the orthopedic Eaton classification is practi...
Article

Elbow (Coyle's view)

The Coyle's view or trauma oblique view of the elbow is an axial projection that is performed in addition to the standard elbow series when there is suspicion of a radial head or capitellum fracture. Indications The Coyle's view is performed for any patient with a suspected radial head fractur...
Article

Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in adults and the most common in children.  Epidemiology Elbow dislocations are common and account for 10-25% of all elbow injuries in the adult population 1. They are the most common dislocation in children 4. Associations ...
Article

Elbow extension test

The elbow extension test is a clinical decision rule aimed at reducing the number of unnecessary elbow radiographs in patients aged ≥3 years.  The test has a specific examination whereby the seated patient, with the arm in supination and 90º shoulder flexion, is asked to fully extend the elbow ...
Article

Elbow series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists An elbow series is the standard series of radiographs that are performed when looking for evidence of fracture, dislocation or elbow joint effusion following trauma. Reference article This is a summary article. For more i...
Article

Emphysema (disambiguation)

Emphysema refers to any disease process involving an abnormal accumulation of air/gas in the tissues. When used alone, it is usually taken to mean the lung disease, pulmonary emphysema, which forms part of the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  gastric emphysema: include...
Article

Epibasal fracture of the thumb

Epibasal fractures of the thumb (also called pseudo-Bennett fracture) are extra-articular two-piece fractures of the proximal first metacarpal bone. They are usually stable, depending on the degree of displacement, and often do not require surgery. It is important to distinguish them from intra-...
Article

Epicondyle fracture (elbow)

Epicondyle fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiother...
Article

Eponymous fractures

There are numerous eponymous fractures which are named after the people who first described their existence (but see Stigler's law of eponymy) 1: Bankart fracture: glenoid Barton fracture: wrist Bennett fracture: thumb Bosworth fracture: ankle Chance fracture: vertebral Charcot joint: foot...
Article

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation is characterized by a fracture of the radial head, dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint and rupture of the antebrachial interosseous membrane 3. Epidemiology As little as 20% of Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations are recognized at the time of initial...
Article

Extension teardrop fracture

Extension teardrop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extension ...
Article

External fixation

External fixation is a method for stabilizing open limb fractures and other complex limb injuries (e.g. extensive soft tissue or vessel injuries). It is mostly a temporary measure until definitive surgical treatment (open reduction and internal fixation) can be safely performed 1. It is also use...
Article

Extracranial brain herniation

Extracranial or transcalvarial brain herniation refers to herniation of brain tissue external to the calvaria through a skull bone defect, which may be post-traumatic or post-surgical. Unlike encephaloceles, brain herniation is not surrounded by the meninges.  Craniectomy may be performed to de...

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