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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

597 results found
Article

Pelvic bucket handle fracture

Bucket handle fractures of the pelvis are a result of anteroposterior compression energy vectors. It is described as a vertically-oriented fracture through ipsilateral superior and inferior pubic rami with contralateral sacroiliac joint disruption/dislocation 1, 2. See also pelvic fractures b...
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Pelvic fractures

Pelvic fractures can be simple or complex and can involve any part of the bony pelvis. Pelvic fractures can be fatal due to pelvic hemorrhage, and an unstable pelvis requires immediate management. Epidemiology Pelvic fractures can be seen in any group of patients. Like much trauma, there is a ...
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Pelvic fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pelvic fractures are a heterogeneous group of injuries that can occur secondary to a variety of mechanisms that range from an innocuous simple fall to severe high-energy trauma in a road traffic collision. Reference articl...
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Penetrating thoracic trauma

Penetrating thoracic trauma, namely gunshot and stab injuries, vary widely in incidence globally but nevertheless result in high mortality and serious morbidity. CT is the modality of choice in imaging these patients and can reduce the need for surgical exploration.  Pathology Penetrating thor...
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Penetrating traumatic neck injury

Penetrating traumatic neck injury can be a potentially devastating injury due to the high density of crucial anatomical structures within the neck.  Epidemiology Young males are highly represented in patients with a traumatic neck injury. In one study, 11:1 ratio of males to females were ident...
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Penile fracture

Penile fracture or rupture is a rare event, however, requires emergency diagnosis and intervention. It is a rupture of penile tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa or spongiosum caused by trauma to an erect penis, most commonly during sexual intercourse. The urologist needs to know whether t...
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Perched facet joint

Perched facet joint is a vertebral facet joint whose inferior articular process appears to sit 'perched' on the ipsilateral superior articular process of the vertebra below. Any further anterior subluxation will result in dislocation, with one facet "jumping" over the other and becoming locked ...
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Pericardial fat tag sign (pneumothorax)

The pericardial fat tag sign is a sign of pneumothorax on supine CXR where the cardiac border has a lumpy contour. When gas is located in the pleural space between the lung and mediastinum, the pericardial fat is no longer compressed against the mediastinum and therefore can hang or dangle late...
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Perilunate dislocation

Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture-dislocations are potentially devastating closed wrist injuries that are often missed on initial imaging.  These injuries involve dislocation of the carpus relative to the lunate which remains in normal alignment with the distal radius. They should...
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Periprosthetic fracture

Periprosthetic fracture is a term used to describe any fracture that occurs around an implanted orthopedic prosthesis, most commonly knee or hip arthroplasties. Epidemiology Periprosthetic fractures complicate, ~1% of total hip arthroplasties and ~1.5% of total knee arthroplasties 1,2. Radiog...
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Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
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Peritalar dislocation

Peritalar dislocation, also referred to as subtalar dislocation, involves the combined dislocation of the talocalcaneal/subtalar and talonavicular joints without the involvement of the tibiotalar and calcaneonavicular joints. It is generally associated with high-energy trauma and accounts for a ...
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Perthes lesion

Perthes lesion of the shoulder is one of the types of the anterior glenohumeral injury in which the anterior inferior labrum is torn and lifted from the edge of the glenoid 1 but still attached to the intact lifted periosteum from the anterior aspect of the glenoid. Although the labrum may be no...
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Phalanx fracture

Phalanx fractures are common injuries, although less common than metacarpal fractures. They have different prognosis and treatment depending on the location of the fracture. Pathology Phalanx fractures can be intra or extra-articular and can occur at the base, neck, shaft or head of the phalan...
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Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganized globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Epidemiology In general, phthisis bulbi involves elderly patients, usually 65-85 years of age 7. Children and adolescents are only rarely affecte...
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Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Piedmont fracture

Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. The initial report about the s...
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Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of distal tibial fracture involving the tibial plafond. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically high energy injuries and occur as a result of an axial loading which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classif...
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Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture inferior to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture ext...
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Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account for ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Very rarely the pisiform may be dislocated without fracture and ...
Article

Pivot shift test

The pivot shift test forms part of the orthopedic examination of a post-traumatic knee. A positive test shows high specificity for injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. Procedure The pivot shift test is performed on a supine patient.  At the start the subject's knee is permitted to droop ...
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Plantar plate tear

Plantar plate tears are disruptions of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) plantar plate(s). They are essentially a form of metatarsophalangeal joint capsular tear, and most frequently occur at the distal lateral aspect of the plantar plate. Terminology Plantar plate tears can be broadly divi...
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Plaster of Paris

Plaster of Paris (POP) casts are the most commonly used material for immobilizing injured limbs.  History Various materials have been used to immobilize limbs since antiquity. Splints have been found by Egyptian archaeologists dating from 2500 BCE. Various mixtures of waxes, resins, gums and f...
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Pneumocephalus

Pneumocephalus (plural: pneumocephali), also known as pneumocranium, pneumocrania, pneumatocephalus and intracranial pneumatocele, refers to the presence of intracranial gas, and in the vast majority of cases the gas is air. The term encompasses gas in any of the intracranial compartments, and i...
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Pneumolabyrinth

Pneumolabyrinth refers to the presence of gas within the inner ear and is a sign of perilymphatic fistula in a trauma setting. It manifests in HRCT of the temporal bone as gas bubbles in the cochlea, vestibule or semicircular canals. Epidemiology Pneumolabyrinth is not a rare finding following...
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Pneumolipohaemarthrosis

Pneumolipohaemarthrosis is the presence of intra-articular gas in a lipohemarthrosis. It indicates an open intra-articular fracture. 
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Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, esophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the setting of trauma, if pneumomediastinum is visibl...
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Pneumopericardium

Pneumopericardium represents gas (usually air) within the pericardium, thus surrounding the heart.  Pathology Etiology Underlying causes include: positive pressure ventilation thoracic surgery/pericardial fluid drainage penetrating trauma blunt trauma (rare) infectious pericarditis with ...
Article

Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). It is rare. Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Etiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumorrhachis): can occur in ...
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Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax, sometimes abbreviated to PTX, (plural: pneumothoraces) refers to the presence of gas (often air) in the pleural space. When this collection of gas is constantly enlarging with resulting compression of mediastinal structures, it can be life-threatening and is known as a tension pneu...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph as commonly occurs in acute trauma or the critical care setting. Of course, pneumothoraces are common in both these scenarios and even relatively small pneumothoraces may be significant due...
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Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
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Pooping duck sign

Pooping duck sign indicates the presence of a triquetral fracture in a lateral wrist radiograph, where an avulsed fracture fragment from the dorsal cortex of the triquetrum projects along the dorsal aspect of the osseous structures of the wrist. In this sign, the fracture fragment represents th...
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Popeye sign

Popeye sign is a pronounced bulging muscle in the distal aspect of the biceps region of the arm. It is clinically apparent with a complete long head of biceps tendon tear which causes distal migration of the long head of biceps muscle.   Terminology Defined by the distal migration of the long ...
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Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee that represent the most common isolated PCL lesion. This typically involves the separation of the posterior tibial insertion of the PCL to variable degrees. Pathology These injuries are commonly se...
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Posterior dislocation of the hip

Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given a large amount of force required. The most common scenario ...
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Posterior fat pad sign (elbow)

The posterior fat pad sign is the visualization of a lucent crescent of fat located in the olecranon fossa on a true lateral view of an elbow joint with the elbow flexed at a right angle indicating an elbow joint effusion. Normally, the posterior fat pad will not be seen in this view.  In the s...
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Posterior malleolus fracture

Posterior malleolus fractures are fractures of the posterior segment of the tibial plafond and a common occurrence in the setting of bimalleolar or trimalleolar ankle fractures. Epidemiology Posterior malleolar fractures occur in up to 46% of type Weber B or C fracture-dislocations and rarely ...
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Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. A high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
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Posterior talar process fracture

Posterior talar process fractures may involve the medial or lateral tubercle of the posterior process of the talus. The posterior talofibular ligament attaches to the lateral tubercle and flexor hallucis longus runs between these two tubercles. The unfused ossification center of the lateral tube...
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Posterolateral corner injury of the knee

Posterolateral corner injury of the knee can occur in isolation or with other internal derangements of the knee, particularly cruciate ligament injuries. The importance of injuries to the posterolateral ligamentous complex lies in the possible long-term joint instability and cruciate graft failu...
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Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated injury on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability (AMRI) of the knee. Clinical presentation These inju...
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Postmortem and forensic curriculum

The postmortem and forensic curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of topics that represent core knowledge pertaining to forensic and postmortem radiology.  Definitions Postmortem radiology: the radiographic examination of the body after death.  Forensic radi...
Article

Priapism

Priapism (rarely penile priapism, to differentiate from the very rare clitoral priapism) is a prolonged erection that persists beyond or is not related to sexual stimulation. Imaging, particularly Doppler ultrasound, can help distinguish between ischemic (low-flow) priapism, which is a urologic ...
Article

Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle. Pathology Displacement, anterior bowing, or obliteration of the fat plane in the setting of trauma may indicate a dista...
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Proximal femoral fractures

Proximal femoral fractures are a subset of fractures that occur in the hip region. They tend to occur in older patients, and in those who have osteoporosis. In this group of patients, fracture is usually the result of low-impact trauma although, in younger patients they are usually victims of hi...
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Proximal femoral fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surf...
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Proximal femoral nail

The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. Similar to the gamma nail the proximal femoral nail (PFN) consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight be...
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Proximal humeral fracture

Proximal humeral fractures are common upper extremity fractures, particularly in older patients, and can result in significant disability. Epidemiology Proximal humeral fractures represent around 5% of all fractures ?.  They are most common in older populations and especially in those who are ...
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Proximal humeral fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal humeral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that include everything from relatively simple transverse fractures of the surgical neck of the humerus, to complex, displaced, multi-part fractures of the p...
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Proximal phalanx fracture

Proximal phalanx fractures can be epiphyseal or shaft fractures and can be intra-articular or extra-articular. They are most often the result of forced rotation, hyperextension or direct trauma 2.  Epidemiology Proximal phalanx fractures are the most common pediatric hand fracture 1. Radiogra...
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Proximal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal radial fractures are the commonest elbow injury in adult patients and the injury most likely to cause an elbow joint effusion. Radial head and neck fractures are often subtle and may be occult on initial imaging. ...
Article

Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
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Psoas sign (abdominal x-ray)

The psoas sign is a classic non-specific finding on the abdominal radiograph, potentially representing retroperitoneal pathology. Normally on an abdominal radiograph, the lateral margins of both the psoas muscles are clearly visible due to adjacent fat. When the lateral edge of one, or both, ps...
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Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.  Epidemiology Pull...
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Pulmonary contusion

A pulmonary contusion refers to an interstitial and/or alveolar lung injury without any frank laceration. It usually occurs secondary to non-penetrating trauma.  Epidemiology While contusion can affect anyone, children are considered more susceptible due to greater pliability of the chest wall...
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Pulmonary fat embolism

Pulmonary fat embolism is a specific subtype of pulmonary embolism where the embolic particles are composed of fat. Pathology It usually occurs in the context of a long bone fracture and may occur in 1-3% of patients with simple tibial or femoral fractures and up to 20-33% of individuals with ...
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Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
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Quadriceps injury

Quadriceps injuries are injuries affecting the quadriceps muscle or quadriceps tendon and comprise a spectrum of strains, tears, avulsion and contusions up to the quadriceps tendon rupture. Epidemiology Quadriceps injuries are common injuries in athletes and the quadriceps muscle is often affe...
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) refers to periorbital ecchymosis with sparing of the tarsal plate 3 and is a physical examination finding indicative of a base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are sever...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
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Rectus femoris muscle injury

Rectus femoris muscle injuries are muscle injuries, which encompass contusions, strains, tears and avulsions of the rectus femoris muscle.  Epidemiology Rectus femoris muscle injuries are a common injury in athletes, especially in football/soccer players 1. The rectus femoris muscle is most fr...
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Rectus sheath hematoma

Rectus sheath hematomas, as the term implies, occur when a hematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle/rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath hematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical presentat...
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Renal transplant scintigraphy

Renal transplant scintigraphy is a non-invasive diagnostic modality, using radioactive isotopes, to assess renal transplant related complications. Renal scintigraphy images are acquired with a dynamic planar procedure using a radioactive isotope visualized on a gamma camera. The final result is ...
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Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating, and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflect that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
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Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognized and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognized as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
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Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for hemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to reduc...
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Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying pigmented choroid. Apposition of the retinal pigmented epithelium to the overlying retina is essential for normal retinal function. Terminology There are numerous subtypes of retinal detachment 5: rhegmatogenous...
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Retrobulbar hemorrhage

Retrobulbar hemorrhage is the presence of a post septal orbital hematoma and is usually due to craniofacial trauma causing an extraconal hematoma. It may cause orbital compartment syndrome which is an ophthalmologic emergency. Clinical features If small, there may be no orbital or ocular sympt...
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Retroclival hematoma

A retroclival hematoma is a collection of blood located along the dorsum sellae and clivus which may reach the dens. It has been classified into either an epidural or subdural retroclival hematoma depending on the anatomical location of the blood accumulation.  Epidemiology It is an uncommon f...
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Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (less commonly known as retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis, or reverse vertebral slip) refers to posterior displacement of a vertebral body relative to the caudal vertebral body. Pathology Causes include: trauma facet joint osteoarthritis congenital anomalies...
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Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Terminology Some articles conflate and/or confuse retroperitoneal hemorrhage and Wunderlich syndrome 5. However Wunderlich syndrome refers primarily to bleeding around the kidney, not the retroperitoneum in genera...
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Reverse Bankart lesion

Reverse Bankart lesion is defined as the detachment of posteroinferior labrum with avulsion of posterior capsular periosteum. This leads to laxity of posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament with posterior displacement of the humeral head. As is the case with a Bankart lesion, the t...
Article

Reverse Barton fracture

Reverse Barton fractures, also known as volar type Barton fractures, represent an intra-articular distal radial fracture with volar displacement. In fact, the reverse Barton fracture is a type II Smith fracture: oblique distal intra-articular radial fracture 1,2. For a discussion of this fract...
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Reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation

A reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation is a fracture-dislocation of the base of the 5th metacarpal bone. It is pathologically and radiographically analogous to the Bennett fracture of the thumb. It is quite unstable due to unopposed extensor carpi ulnaris pull on the fracture fragment, which cau...
Article

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, also called a McLaughlin lesion, is defined as an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of the humeral head following posterior dislocation of the humerus. It is of surgical importance to identify this lesion and correct it to prevent avascular necrosis. Radiograp...
Article

Reverse Segond fracture

Reverse Segond fracture is one of the avulsion fracture of the knee, which is due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament (also known as the menisciotibial or coronary ligament) involving the medial proximal tibia adjacent to the articular surface. It is the opposite of ...
Article

Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Epidemiology Associations Rib fractures are often associated with other injuries and the greater the number of rib fractures the more likely are associated injuries 1,3: brachial plexus or subclavi...
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Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
Article

Roentgenology - the borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram (book)

Roentgenology - The borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram, is a classic radiology text, which was first published in 1910, and has been in continual print ever since. The original writer was Alban Köhler, a pioneering German radiologist, and it was the first book to co...
Article

Rolando fracture

Rolando fracture is a three-part or comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the thumb (proximal first metacarpal). It can be thought of as a comminuted Bennett fracture. Epidemiology The vast majority of cases occur in men, with a male to female predominance of 10:1. It ...
Article

Rotator cuff tear

Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain mostly in older patients. Clinical presentation Prevalence of tear increases with age. Most significant findings are impingement and "arc of pain" sign (pain while lowering the abducted arm) 1. Supraspinatus weakness, night ...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Round belly sign (abdominal compartment syndrome)

Round belly sign is a sign of increased abdominal pressure of greater than 20 mmHg in abdominal compartment syndrome where the abdomen has a rounded appearance of transverse section on CT, rather than its typical oval shape. The sign is positive when the AP to transverse diameter of the abdomen...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classifica...
Article

Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph, also known as the anterior fat pad sign, describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually conceale...
Article

Salivary gland trauma

Salivary gland trauma is infrequent due to their anatomic position. Epidemiology The reported incidence of parotid gland injuries is ∼0.2% of trauma cases. Parotid gland and duct injuries, although rare, is far more common than injuries to submandibular and sublingual glands. This can readily ...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely oriented through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognosis...

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