Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

522 results found
Article

Pulmonary fat embolism

Pulmonary fat embolism is a specific subtype of pulmonary embolism where the embolic particles are composed of fat. Pathology It usually occurs in the context of a long bone fracture and may occur in 1-3% of patients with simple tibial or femoral fractures and up to 20-33% of individuals with ...
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Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) is due to periorbital ecchymosis and is specific for base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are several rare causes described, including metastatic neuroblastoma, Kaposi ...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
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Rectus sheath hematoma

Rectus sheath hematomas, as the term implies, occur when a hematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle/rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath hematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical presentat...
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Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
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Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognized and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognized as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
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Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for hemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to reduc...
Article

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying pigmented choroid. Apposition of the retinal pigmented epithelium to the overlying retina is essential for normal retinal function. Terminology There are numerous subtypes of retinal detachment 5: rhegmatogenous...
Article

Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (more rarely the synonyms retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis) refers to posterior displacement of a vertebral body relative to one below. Pathology Causes include: trauma facet joint osteoarthritis congenital anomalies: e.g. pedicle underdevelopment Radiogra...
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Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical feature...
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Reverse Bankart lesion

Reverse Bankart lesion is defined as the detachment of posteroinferior labrum with avulsion of posterior capsular periosteum. This leads to laxity of posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament with posterior displacement of the humeral head. As is the case with a Bankart lesion, the t...
Article

Reverse Barton fracture

Reverse Barton fractures, also known as volar type Barton fractures, represents an intra-articular distal radial fracture with volar displacement. In fact, the reverse Barton fracture is a type II Smith fracture: oblique distal intra-articular radial fracture 1,2. For a discussion of this frac...
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Reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation

A reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation is a fracture-dislocation of the base of the 5th metacarpal bone. It is pathologically and radiographically analogous to the Bennett fracture of the thumb. It is quite unstable due to unopposed extensor carpi ulnaris pull on the fracture fragment, which cau...
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Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, also called a McLaughlin lesion, is defined as an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of the humeral head following posterior dislocation of the humerus. It is of surgical importance to identify this lesion and correct it to prevent avascular necrosis. Radiograp...
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Reverse Segond fracture

Reverse Segond fracture is one of the avulsion fracture of the knee, which is due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament (also known as the menisciotibial or coronary ligament) involving the medial proximal tibia adjacent to the articular surface. It is the opposite of ...
Article

Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Pathology The 4th-10th ribs are the most commonly fractured 1. Fractures of the 1st-3rd ribs are associated with high-energy trauma 3. When the rib is fractured twice, the term floating rib is used ...
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Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
Article

Roentgenology - the borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram (book)

Roentgenology - The borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram, is a classic radiology text, which was first published in 1910, and has been in continual print ever since. The original writer was Alban Köhler, a pioneering German radiologist, and it was the first book to co...
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Rolando fracture

Rolando fracture is a three-part or comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the thumb (proximal first metacarpal). It can be thought of as a comminuted Bennett fracture. Pathology The mechanism is usually an axial blow to a partially flexed metacarpal, such as a fistfigh...
Article

Rotator cuff tear

Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain mostly in older patients. Clinical presentation Prevalence of tear increases with age. Most significant findings are impingement and "arc of pain" sign (pain during descent of abducted arm) 1. Supraspinatus weakness, night p...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Round belly sign (abdominal compartment syndrome)

Round belly sign is a sign of increased abdominal pressure in abdominal compartment syndrome where the abdomen has a rounded appearance of transverse section on CT, rather than its typical oval shape. The sign is positive when the AP to transverse diameter of the abdomen (abdominal ratio) is > ...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classifica...
Article

Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
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Salivary gland trauma

Salivary gland trauma is infrequent due to their anatomic position. Epidemiology The reported incidence of parotid gland injuries is ∼0.2% of trauma cases. Parotid gland and duct injuries, although rare, is far more common than injuries to submandibular and sublingual glands. This can readily ...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely oriented through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognosis...
Article

Sanders CT classification of calcaneal fracture

The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
Article

Scalp hematoma

A scalp hematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of hematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull peri...
Article

Scaphoid fracture

Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
Article

Scaphoid fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Scaphoid fractures are the second commonest group of fractures that are seen following a fall onto an outstretched hand and result in wrist pain, specifically tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox. They are particularly imp...
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Scaphoid non-union

Scaphoid non-union is one of the complications of scaphoid fracture because of the unique anatomy of the scaphoid and its vascular supply. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures have one of the highest rates non-union of all fractures at ~10% (range 5-15%) 3,4. Pathology Scaphoid non-union occurs m...
Article

Scapholunate dissociation

Scapholunate dissociation, also known as rotary subluxation of the scaphoid, refers to an abnormal orientation of the scaphoid relative to the lunate, and implies severe injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and other stabilizing ligaments. Carpal dissociation implies carpal instabil...
Article

Scapular fracture

Scapula fractures are uncommon injuries, representing ~3% of all shoulder fractures. Pathology Mechanisms of injury requires high energy trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accidents account for 50% of scapular fractures) direct trauma to the shoulder region indirect trauma through falling on outstr...
Article

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Article

Schenck classification of knee dislocation

The Schenck classification is categorizing knee dislocation based on the pattern of ligament tears. The four major ligamentous stabilizers are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) compl...
Article

Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematoceles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocele normally results from trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocele 4. Radiographic fe...
Article

Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
Article

Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
Article

Second-impact syndrome

Second-impact syndrome is a rare traumatic brain injury occurs in athletes receiving a second head injury while still symptomatic from a prior head injury. Epidemiology Second-impact syndrome is common in young athletes. Clinical presentation The typical second-impact syndrome scenario occur...
Article

Segmental fracture

Segmental fracture is a fracture composed of at least two fracture lines that together isolate a segment of bone, usually a portion of the diaphysis of a long bone. This fracture pattern is frequently associated with high energy mechanism and devascularisation of the segmental fracture fragment(...
Article

Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). On the frontal knee radiograph, it may be referred to as the lateral capsular sign...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. Pathology Several mechanisms are thought to to attribute to this appearance which include sinusoidal s...
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Seymour fracture

The Seymour fracture is a clinically important subtype of mallet finger type injury. The Seymour fracture is comprised of a distal phalanx physeal fracture that has an associated nail bed injury commonly with ungual subluxation. Clinical presentation The skeletally-immature patient presents wi...
Article

Shock thyroid

Shock thyroid is an uncommon part of the hypovolemic shock complex.  It was initially described in 2016 as heterogenous thyroid contrast enhancement and fluid surrounding the thyroid in trauma CT of shocked patients without evidence for direct thyroid injury 2. Only 7 cases have been described ...
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Shoulder dislocation

The shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) involves separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to the...
Article

Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
Article

Shoulder series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A shoulder series (or shoulder x-ray) is most frequently performed following trauma looking for evidence of fracture or dislocation. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more i...
Article

Skull fractures

Skull fractures are common in the setting of both closed traumatic brain injury and penetrating brain injury. Their importance is both as a marker of the severity of trauma and because they are, depending on location, associated with a variety of soft tissue injuries.  This article will focus o...
Article

Skull fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on skull fractures. Summary anatomy...
Article

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE),  is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnor...
Article

Smith fracture

Smith fractures, also known as Goyrand fractures in the French literature 3, are fractures of the distal radius with associated volar angulation of the distal fracture fragment(s). Classically, these fractures are extra-articular transverse fractures and can be thought of as a reverse Colles fra...
Article

Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
Article

Spinal cord transection

Spinal cord transection, as the name implies, refers to a tear within the spinal cord as a result of a significant traumatic injury. It is an important radiological finding that can influence the decision on potential surgery in the setting of spinal trauma. Clinical presentation The presentat...
Article

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
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Spinal hematoma

Spinal hematomas are a rare clinical entity and are often idiopathic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial, lest they cause permanent neurological damage. Identifying the location of the hematoma is important for treatment, as is distinguishing it, to the extent possible, from other entit...
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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition in which a portion of the spinal canal narrows to the point at which it can exert pressure on the nerves that travel through the spine. Spinal stenosis is not to be confused with foraminal stenosis which is the narrowing of the foramina with subsequent compression...
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Spiral fracture

Spiral fractures are complete fractures of long bones that result from a rotational force applied to the bone. Spiral fractures are usually the result of high energy trauma and are likely to be associated with displacement.
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. While there occurrence may b...
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Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7. Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standard deviations abov...
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Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
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Stab wound (overview)

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
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Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localized tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Sternoclavicular joint dislocation

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures.  Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
Article

Stieda fracture

Stieda fractures refer to a bony avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) at the medial femoral condyle. When it failures to unite it is known as a Pellegrini Stieda lesion. It should not be confused with a Stieda process fracture of the talus.
Article

Stove-in chest

A stove-in chest is a rare and complex type of flail chest injury where the flail segment collapses into the chest. It is usually due to severe blunt trauma to the chest wall and is rarely encountered in imaging or emergency medicine due to the high mortality at the scene. It may evolve over day...
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Straight left heart border sign

Straight left heart border sign is a recently described finding on chest radiograph. It is a fairly specific (84%) sign of hemopericardium after a penetrating chest trauma, although sensitivity at 40% is relatively poor. Positive predictive value (PPV) was found to be 89% 1. It is different to ...
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Stress fractures

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Fractures can either be: fatigue fracture: abnormal stresses on normal bone insufficiency fracture: normal stresses on abnormal bone Radiographs have li...
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Subaxial cervical spine injury classification

The subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system is a severity score for cervical spine trauma that helps in determining treatment and prognosis. Classification Injury morphology no abnormality: 0 points simple compression fracture: 1 point burst fracture: 2 points distracti...
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Subcapital fracture

Subcapital fracture is the most common type of intracapsular neck of femur fracture. The fracture line extends through the junction of the head and neck of femur. Classification Although many classifications are proposed Garden classification and Pauwel classification are generally followed fr...
Article

Subcapsular perirenal hematoma

A subcapsular perirenal hematoma is a form of perirenal hematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) 5,...
Article

Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema (or less correctly surgical emphysema), strictly speaking, refers to gas in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the gas often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature al...
Article

Subdural hemorrhage

Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) (also commonly called a subdural hematoma) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans ...
Article

Subdural hygroma

Subdural hygromas refer to the accumulation of fluid in the subdural space. In many cases, it is considered an epiphenomenon of head injury when it is called a traumatic subdural hygroma.  Epidemiology Subdural hygromas are encountered in all age-groups but are overall most common in the elder...
Article

Subgaleal hematoma

Subgaleal hematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10,000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and f...
Article

Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
Article

Subtalar dislocation

Subtalar dislocations is the simultaneous dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcaneal joints, without tibiotalar or talar neck fractures 1, and comprises 1-2% of all dislocations, Pathology Mechanism Subtalar dislocations are often associated with high energy trauma, usually, motor veh...
Article

Superior labral anterior posterior tear

Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are injuries of the glenoid labrum, and can often be confused with a sublabral sulcus on MRI.  Pathology SLAP tears involve the superior glenoid labrum, where the long head of biceps tendon inserts. Unlike Bankart lesions and ALPSA lesions, they ...
Article

Superior orbital fissure syndrome

Superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) (also known as Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome) is a rare complication of craniofacial trauma with an orbital fracture that extends to the superior orbital fissure that results in injury to the cranial nerves III, IV, V (ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ner...
Article

Supermicrosurgery

Supermicrosurgery is the specialized surgical technique employed to anastomose blood vessels and nerves measuring 0.3 to 0.8 mm in caliber (so-called microneurovascular anastomosis) 1. The instruments developed for these demanding procedures are very fine microsurgical devices. Microsurgery as a...
Article

Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic pediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% ar...
Article

Systemic hypotension

Systemic hypotension - or often just - hypotension - is the presence of an abnormally low blood pressure. This may be relative, so that a poorly-controlled hypertensive patient who runs a normal blood pressure at 160/100, may be severely hypotensive at 80/60. Hypotension is usually defined with...
Article

Tadpole sign

The tadpole sign, also known as the lollipop sign, refers to a characteristic morphology of post-traumatic bridging vein thrombosis with a rounded "head" and a tapering "tail". The finding demonstrates a high specificity for abusive head trauma, a sub-type of non-accidental injury, and should wa...
Article

Talar dislocation

There are many types of talar dislocation given its multiple articulations: tibiotalar dislocation subtalar dislocation total talar dislocation talonavicular dislocation ​Chopart fracture-dislocation
Article

Talar fractures

Talar fractures are an uncommon injury, accounting for <5% of all foot fractures. Recognition of the unique talar anatomy is important for correct diagnosis. Pathology Location talar head fractures talar neck fractures talar body fractures talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior talar...
Article

Talar head fracture

Talar head fractures most commonly result from a compressive force with a plantar flexed foot. Pathology Talar head fractures almost always involve the talonavicular joint, and associated dislocation/subluxation is common. Two types of talar fractures are described 3: compression fracture, o...
Article

Talonavicular dislocation

Talonavicular dislocations are a rare injury, and is caused by forced extreme abduction or adduction of the forefoot. They are often associated with calcaneocuboid dislocation (often transient) and calcaneal fractures (and are then called transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocations). See also ta...
Article

Tarsal fracture

Tarsal fractures are fractures of the tarsal bones of the foot, which are further divided by anatomic site: calcaneal fracture (most common) calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture lover's fracture talar fractures talar head fracture talar neck fracture aviator fracture lateral talar (sno...

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