Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

436 results found
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome and a common form of spinal cord injury, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma ...
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Traumatic spinal cord injury

Traumatic spinal cord injury can manifest as a wide variety of clinical syndromes resulting from damage to the spinal cord or its surrounding structures. It can result from minor injury if the spine is weakened from disease such as ankylosing spondylitis or if there is pre-existing spinal stenos...
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Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10 000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Clay-shoveler fracture

Clay-shoveler fractures are fractures of the spinous process of a lower cervical vertebra. Clinical presentation Often these injuries are unrecognised at the time and only found incidentally years later when the cervical spine is imaged for other reasons. Acutely they tend to be associated wi...
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Ulnar styloid fracture

Ulnar styloid fractures occur in association with ~60% of distal radius fractures. Most of these are small avulsion fractures involving the tip of the ulnar styloid. Pathology Usually, this kind of fracture occurs as the result of a fall on an outstretched arm and is often associated with a di...
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Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
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Forearm fracture

Forearm fractures are a group of fractures that occur in the forearm following trauma. The radius and ulna are bound together at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints and act as a ring. Like elsewhere in the body, it is difficult only to fracture one bone if there is a bony ring. If the radi...
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Greenstick fracture

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures. Pathology Mechanism Greenstick fractures ...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
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Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On lateral wrist radiographs, the pronator fat pad normally appears as a thin r...
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Anterolisthesis

The term anterolisthesis refers to anterior displacement (forward slip) of a vertebral body relative to the one below. Its severity can be graded by the Meyerding classification and its aetiology classified according to the Wiltse type.
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Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (more rarely the synonyms retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis) refers to posterior displacement (backward slip) of a vertebral body relative to one below. Causes include trauma, facet joint osteoarthritis or congenital anomalies (e.g. underdevelopment of the pedicl...
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Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
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Torus fracture

Torus fractures, also known as buckle fractures, are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterised by bulging of the cortex. They result from trabecular compression from an axial loading force along the long axis of the bone. They are usually seen in children, frequently...
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Boxer fracture

Boxer fractures are minimally comminuted, transverse fractures of the 5th metacarpal and are the most common type of metacarpal fracture. They typically occur (as the name suggests) when punching and are a common sight in all emergency departments on Friday nights. They should not be confused w...
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Distal radioulnar joint dislocation

Isolated distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocations are rare and are more commonly part of complex forearm fracture-dislocations.  Clinical presentation Wrist pain, swelling and deformity following FOOSH or direct trauma. The patient will be unable to supinate/pronate the forearm 1,2.  Patho...
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Hill-Sachs lesion

Hill-Sachs lesions are a posterolateral humeral head compression fracture, typically secondary to recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations, as the humeral head comes to rest against the anteroinferior part of the glenoid. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Pathology I...
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Triquetral fracture

Triquetral fractures are carpal bone fractures generally occuring on the dorsal surface of the triquetrum. The triquetral may be fractured by means of impingement from the ulnar styloid, shear forces, or avulsion from strong ligamentous attachments. They are the second commonest carpal bone frac...
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Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event.  Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
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Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema (or less correctly surgical emphysema), strictly speaking, refers to gas in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the gas often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature al...
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Bone contusion

Bone (marrow) contusion (also known as bone bruising) is an osseous injury which may result from compression of bone structures. Pathology Bone contusions represent microfractures with haemorrhage and can progress to osteochondritis dissecans 2. They typically appear within 48 hours of injury ...
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Anterior cruciate ligament tear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology and orthopaedic practice. Pathology The ACL is the most commonly disrupted ligament of the knee, especially in athletes who participate in sports that involve rapid starting, stopping, and ...
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Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in the adult population.  Terminology A dislocation with no fracture is simple whereas an accompanying fracture makes the dislocation complex. The most common fracture is a radial head fracture, although coronoid process fract...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
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Orbital blowout fracture

Orbital blowout fractures occur when there is a fracture of one of the walls of orbit but the orbital rim remains intact. This is typically caused by a direct blow to the central orbit from a fist or ball. Epidemiology The blowout fracture is the most common type of orbital fracture and is usu...
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Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
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Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Clinical presentation Contrary to the more common causes of an ACL tear, wh...
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Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage

Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) is a common injury, and trauma is the most common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).  Epidemiology Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage occurs in ~35% (range 11-60%) of traumatic brain injuries 1.  Pathology Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is ...
Article

Coraco-clavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with presence of an...
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Hanging and strangulation (trauma)

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Flexion teardrop fracture

Flexion teardrop fractures represent a fracture pattern occurring in severe axial/flexion injury of the cervical spine. They are important to recognize because they indicate extensive underlying ligamentous injury and spinal instability. Associated spinal cord injury is common, especially anteri...
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Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocele normally results from trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocele 4. Radiographic f...
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Adrenal gland trauma

Adrenal gland trauma most commonly results from blunt force trauma. Epidemiology Adrenal gland trauma is present on 1-2% of CT imaging in blunt trauma although the occurrence is thought to be much higher as injury has been demonstrated at 28% in one autopsy series 1-4.  The right adrenal glan...
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Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range from subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the vast ...
Article

Morel-Lavallée lesion

Morel-Lavallée lesions are closed degloving injuries associated with severe trauma which then present as haemolymphatic masses. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions,...
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Stress fractures

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Fractures can either be: fatigue fracture: abnormal stresses on normal bone insufficiency fracture: normal stresses on abnormal bone Radiographs have a ...
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Haematoma

Haematomas are the name given to localised collections of blood and they can form virtually anywhere in the body. They often form secondary to trauma or surgery but spontaneous formation is also not uncommon, especially in those with coagulation disorders or on anticoagulant therapy. Haematomas...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
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Postmortem and forensic curriculum

The postmortem and forensic curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of topics that represent core knowledge pertaining to forensic and postmortem radiology.  Definitions Postmortem radiology: the radiographic examination of the body after death.  Forensic radi...
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Macklin effect (pulmonary interstitial emphysema and pneumomediastinum)

The Macklin effect describes one of the pathophysiological processes of pneumomediastinum in blunt chest trauma. The Macklin effect accounts for ~40% of severe blunt traumatic pneumomediastinum. Exclusion of tracheobronchial and oesophageal causes of pneumomediastinum is mandatory to exclude con...
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Epibasal fracture of the thumb

Epibasal fractures of the thumb (also called pseudo-Bennett fracture) are two-piece fractures of the proximal first metacarpal bone. They are usually stable, depending on the degree of displacement, and often do not require surgery. It is important to distinguish them from intra-articular fractu...
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Coracoid process fracture

Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or scapular fracture, as well as humeral head dislocation. In general, the coracoid process tends to fracture at its base and be minimal...
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Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Patella fracture

Patella fracture is one of the common knee injuries usually post direct trauma to the patella or sudden forceful contraction of the quadriceps muscles in the context of a sports injury. Clinical presentation Patients present with marked swelling and pain over the patella with point tenderness ...
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Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localised tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Pathology The 4th-10th ribs are the most commonly fractured 1. Fractures of the 1st-3rd ribs are associated with high-energy trauma 3. When the rib is fractured twice, the term floating rib is used ...
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Glass foreign bodies

Glass foreign bodies may be present if they are ingested, inserted or as a result of an injury.  Epidemiology The prevalence of glass foreign bodies in wounds from injury has been recorded at a rate of 1.5% in superficial (subcutaneous) wounds and 7.5% of deeper wounds 1.  Radiographic featur...
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Burst fracture

Burst fractures are a type of compression fracture related to high-energy axial loading spinal trauma that results in disruption of the posterior vertebral body cortex with retropulsion into the spinal canal.  Clinical presentation They usually present as back pain and or lower limbs neurologi...
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Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid

Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid, also known as a pseudo-Jones fracture or a dancer fracture, is one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and accounts for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Despite what should be a simple entity, controversy exists, as ...
Article

Atlanto-axial subluxation

Atlanto-axial subluxation is a disorder of C1-C2 causing impairment in rotation of the neck. The anterior facet of C1 is fixed on the facet of C2. It may be associated with dislocation of the lateral mass of C1 on C2. Pathology Aetiology congenital os odontoideum Down syndrome (20%) Morqui...
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Rolando fracture

Rolando fracture is a three-part or comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the thumb (proximal first metacarpal). It can be thought of as a comminuted Bennett fracture. Pathology The mechanism is usually an axial blow to a partially flexed metacarpal, such as a fistfigh...
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Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma at moderate or high levels of force. Such injuries may be sustained during a fall, physical assault, motor vehicle collision, or gunshot wound. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. ...
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Mayfield classification of carpal instability (perilunate instability)

Mayfield classification of carpal instability, also known as perilunate instability classification (carpal dislocations), describes carpal ligament injuries.  Instability has been divided into four stages 1-2: stage I: scapholunate dissociation (rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid) disruptio...
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Volar intercalated segmental instability

Volar intercalated segmental instability (VISI) is a type of instability involving the wrist. It is less often encountered than dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI). Clinical presentation It presents in most cases with nonspecific wrist pain and a "clunking" on the ulnar deviation ...
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Osteochondral defect

Osteochondral defects are focal areas of articular damage with cartilage damage and injury of the adjacent subchondral bone. It is a term that encompasses osteochondritis dissecans and is used synonymously with osteochondral injury/defect in the paediatric population. Pathology Aetiology oste...
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Mellado-Bencardino classification of Morel-Lavallée lesions

The Mellado-Bencardino classification of Morel-Lavallée lesions is based on shape, signal and enhancement characteristics, and the presence or absence of a capsule 1:  type I: laminar shaped and seroma-like with increased T2 signal type II: oval-shape that resembles a subacute hematoma with in...
Article

Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganised globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually <20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseous...
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Hook of hamate fracture

Hook of hamate fractures are rare. They occur from the hamate fracturing after blunt trauma, falls, and in sports player (e.g. golf, baseball, racquet sports) from a direct blow while swinging. Stress fractures have also been reported.  It may result in Guyon's canal syndrome. Differential dia...
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Extension teardrop fracture

Extension teardrop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extension ...
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Bilateral facet dislocation

A bilateral facet dislocation is an unstable flexion distraction type of dislocation of the cervical spine, often a result of buckling force. Occasionally, the bilateral facet dislocation has been named a 'doubly-locked' vertebral injury giving the impression of stability. However, due to comple...
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Diffuse axonal injury (grading)

Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome 1-3. The classification was first proposed by Adams in 1989 4 and divides diffuse axonal injury (DAI) into three grades: grade I: involves grey-whit...
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Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries

Atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations. Pathology The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results in inst...
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Uncal herniation

Uncal herniation is a subtype of transtentorial downward brain herniation, usually related to cerebral mass effect increasing the intracranial pressure. Clinical presentation pupils and globe clinical features 3 initially, an ipsilateral dilated pupil that is unresponsive to light, signifying...
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Avulsion injuries

Avulsion injuries or fractures occur where a portion of cortical bone is ripped from the rest of the bone by the attached tendon, are common among those who participate in sports, and there are numerous sites at which these occur. Being familiar with them is important as chronic injuries can app...
Article

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
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Die-punch fracture

Die-punch fractures result from an axial loading force on the distal radius. It is an intra-articular fracture of the lunate fossa of the distal radius 1. It is by definition depressed or impacted and is named after the machining technique of shearing a shape, depression or hole in a material wi...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, oesophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the setting of trauma, if pneumomediastinum is visib...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
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CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
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Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Aetiology Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
Article

Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account for ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Very rarely the pisiform may be dislocated without fracture and ...
Article

Amputation

The term amputation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body. Specifically amputation is defined as removal of the structure through a bone. This is in contrast to disarticulation, which is removal of the structure through a joint. When due to trauma, traumatic amputat...
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Isolated greater trochanteric fracture

Greater trochanteric fractures generally result from forceful muscle contraction of a fixed limb, which usually occurs in those who are young and physically active. It can also be caused by direct trauma. Epidemiology Generally, isolated trochanteric fractures are seen more so in young, active...
Article

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
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Liver trauma

The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs in blunt trauma, and liver trauma is associated with a significant mortality rate. Epidemiology In blunt abdominal trauma, the liver is injured ~5% (range 1-10%) of the time 1,3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with right uppe...
Article

Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Trimalleolar fracture

Trimalleolar fractures refer to a three-part fracture of the ankle. The fractures involve the medial malleolus, the posterior aspect of the tibial plafond (referred to as the posterior malleolus) and the lateral malleolus. Having three parts, this is a more unstable fracture and may be associate...
Article

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability of the knee. Clinical presentation These injuries are frequ...
Article

Perilunate dislocation

Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture dislocations are potentially devastating closed wrist injuries that are often missed on initial imaging.  These injuries involve dislocation of the carpus relative to the lunate which remains in normal alignment with the distal radius. They should...
Article

Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

Penetrating thoracic trauma

Penetrating thoracic trauma, namely gunshot and stab injuries, vary widely in incidence globally but nevertheless result in high mortality and serious morbidity. CT is the modality of choice in imaging these patients and can reduce the need for surgical exploration.  Pathology Penetrating thor...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
Article

Mallet finger

Mallet finger describes a type of injury where there is disruption of the extensor mechanism of the finger at the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). It is the most prevalent finger tendon injury in sport. The term includes both bony avulsion injury and tendinous injury without avulsion.  Clini...
Article

Scapholunate dissociation

Scapholunate dissociation, also known as rotary subluxation of the scaphoid, refers to an abnormal orientation of the scaphoid relative to the lunate, and implies severe injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and other stabilizing ligaments. Carpal dissociation implies carpal instabil...
Article

Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
Article

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for haemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to redu...
Article

Periprosthetic fracture

Periprosthetic fractures can occur around any joint replacement and commonly occur around knee and hip arthroplasties. Epidemiology Periprosthetic fractures complicate around 1% of total hip arthroplasties and ~1.5% of total knee arthroplasties 1,2. Radiographic features They can be difficul...
Article

Vancouver classification

The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock. type A: fractures involve the t...
Article

Testicular fracture

Testicular fracture refers to a break in the parenchyma of the testicle as a result of blunt trauma.  Radiographic features Ultrasound A fracture line can be seen as a hypoechoic and avascular area within the testis but is only seen in 17% of cases 1. A tunica albuginea rupture may also be pr...
Article

Testicular dislocation

Testicular dislocation is a rare condition in which a testicle is dislocated from its normal position within the scrotum to another location, most commonly the superficial inguinal pouch. Epidemiology The condition mainly occurs in younger men with a mean age of 25 years 2. Clinical presentat...

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