Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

415 results found
Article

Scapholunate dissociation

Scapholunate dissociation, also known as rotary subluxation of the scaphoid, refers to an abnormal orientation of the scaphoid relative to the lunate, and implies severe injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and other stabilizing ligaments. Carpal dissociation implies carpal instabil...
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Bowel and mesenteric trauma

Bowel and mesenteric trauma can result from blunt force, penetrating and iatrogenic trauma. Epidemiology The bowel and mesentery are injured in ~2.5% (range 0.3-5%) of blunt force abdominal trauma 1,3,5,8. However not surprisingly, bowel and mesenteric injuries are more frequent after penetrat...
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Pellegrini-Stieda lesion

Pellegrini-Stieda lesions are ossified post-traumatic lesions at (or near) the medial femoral collateral ligament adjacent to the margin of the medial femoral condyle. One presumed mechanism of injury is a Stieda fracture (avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament at the medial femoral c...
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Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
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Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
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Stress fractures

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Fractures can either be: fatigue fracture: abnormal stresses on normal bone insufficiency fracture: normal stresses on abnormal bone As they are often i...
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Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
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AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only ...
Article

Bankart lesion

Bankart lesions are a common complication of anterior shoulder dislocation and are frequently seen in association with a Hill-Sachs lesion. Pathology They result from detachment of the anterior inferior labrum from the underlying glenoid as a direct result of the anteriorly dislocated humeral ...
Article

Open book pelvic injury

Open book pelvic injuries are most often the result of high-energy trauma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular injuries.  Pathology Open book pelvic injuries result from an anteroposterior compression injury to the pelvis and result in a combin...
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Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
Article

Posterior dislocation of the hip

Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given the large amount of force required. The most common scenari...
Article

Tooth-knuckle injury

Tooth-knuckle injuries are sustained when the clenched fist of a patient strikes the teeth of an opponent. Terminology Tooth-knuckle injuries are also referred to as clenched fist injuries, closed fist injuries and fight bite injuries. Epidemiology These injuries are most commonly found in y...
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Arthrofibrosis

Arthrofibrosis is a complication of injury or trauma to a joint. It can also be iatrogenic e.g. post knee surgeries. It consists of excessive scar tissue formation within the joint capsule, resulting in pain, stiffness, and swelling, that are greater than expected in the given clinical scenario....
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Tracheobronchial injury

Tracheobronchial injury is a serious but uncommon manifestation of chest trauma. It is usually a fatal injury with only a small percentage of patients making it to hospital. Given the magnitude of force required to injure the major airways, there are often multiple chest injuries and other body ...
Article

Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
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Gustilo Anderson classification

The Gustilo Anderson classification, sometimes referred to as the Gustilo classification is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher ris...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured organ after blunt trauma. Clinical presentation Patients may present with left upper quadrant/left chest pain, left shoulder tip pain (re...
Article

Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Some can be occult on plain...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

There are several thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems: AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (Denis classification) Magerl classification McAfee classification thoracolumbar injury classification and severity scor...
Article

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common and come with a large cost to both society and the individual. Imaging, particularly CT, plays a key role in accurate diagnosis, classification and follow-up.  They can be broadly divided into closed and penetrating head injuries 4: closed head injury ...
Article

Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothoraces occur when intrapleural air accumulates progressively in such a way as to exert positive pressure on mediastinal and intrathoracic structures. It is a life-threatening occurrence requiring rapid recognition and treatment is required if a cardiorespiratory arrest is to be a...
Article

Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural haematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat i...
Article

Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Aetiology Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathophy...
Article

Scaphoid fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Scaphoid fractures are the second commonest group of fractures that are seen following a fall onto an outstretched hand and result in wrist pain, specifically tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox. They are particularly imp...
Article

Distal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal radial fractures are a relatively common group of injuries that usually occur following a fall. The commonest of these fractures is a transverse extra-articular fracture and where there is associated dorsal angulatio...
Article

Forearm fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Forearm fractures are a group of fractures that occur in the forearm following trauma. The radius and ulna are bound together at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints and act as a ring. Like elsewhere in the body, it is...
Article

Proximal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal radial fractures are the commonest elbow injury in adult patients and the injury most likely to cause an elbow joint effusion. Radial head and neck fractures are often subtle and may be occult on initial imaging. ...
Article

Humeral shaft fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Humeral shaft fractures are readily diagnosed and do not usually require internal fixation.  Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-depth reference article: humeral shaft...
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Proximal humeral fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal humeral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that include everything from relatively simple transverse fractures of the surgical neck of humerus, to complex, displaced, multi-part fractures of the proxi...
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Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip

Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip are relatively common among physically active adolescents and young adults. Epidemiology Pelvic and hip apophyseal injuries typically occur in the 14 to 25 year age range. Mechanism Kicking sports, such as soccer, and gymnastics are frequen...
Article

Fracture complications (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Assessment of fracture complications is key to accurate assessment of a fracture. It is vital to assess for these when describing a fracture. Reference article This is a summary article. There is no accompanying reference...
Article

Elbow series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists An elbow series is the standard series of radiographs that are performed when looking for evidence of fracture, dislocation or elbow joint effusion following trauma. Reference article This is a summary article. For more i...
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Shoulder series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A shoulder series (or shoulder x-ray) is most frequently performed following trauma looking for evidence of fracture or dislocation. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more i...
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Musculoskeletal radiology curriculum (student)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists The medical student musculoskeletal radiology curriculum represents a core set of common pathologies and presentations that are key to understand during any orthopaedic attachment in medical school.
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Investigating fall onto an outstretched hand (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a very common presentation across all ages. It occurs following sporting injuries, or simply after a fall.  Summary assessment history bimodal age and sex presentation young pa...
Article

Investigating shoulder injury (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Shoulder injury is a relatively uncommon, but important cause for presentation to the Emergency Department. Pain may be the result of acute or chronic injury.  Summary assessment history history of trauma? previous inj...
Article

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE),  is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnor...
Article

Proximal femoral fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surf...
Article

Pelvic fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pelvic fractures are a heterogeneous group of injuries that can occur secondary to a variety of mechanisms that range from an innocuous simple fall to severe high-energy trauma in a road traffic collision. Reference articl...
Article

CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
Article

Trauma films (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Trauma films are ubiquitous in an orthopaedic attachment and also in the Emergency Department. In most cases, a trauma film will come with two views. It is important that you review both films because in some cases a fract...
Article

Fracture displacement (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Describing fracture displacement is really important when assessing a fracture. The type and degree of displacement will have a significant effect on the management plan and prognosis. Reference article This is a summary ...
Article

Fracture location (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Determining fracture location is important when describing a fracture and determining plans for management. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-depth reference article...
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Fracture description (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fracture description allows an individual to accurately determine fracture type and communicate important information to colleagues without the use of the radiograph. Practicing fracture description is important and using a...
Article

Investigating head injury (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating head injury is frequently required because head injury is common: in the US there are 1.3 million traumatic brain injuries per year 1. Causes include falls (children and the elderly), motor vehicle accidents (...
Article

Skull fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on skull fractures. Summary anatomy...
Article

Pulmonary fat embolism

Pulmonary fat embolism is a specific subtype of pulmonary embolism where the embolic particles are composed of fat. Pathology It usually occurs in the context of a long bone fracture and may occur in 1-3% of patients with simple tibial or femoral fractures and up to 20-33% of individuals with ...
Article

Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...
Article

Inferior shoulder dislocation

An inferior shoulder dislocation is the least common form of shoulder dislocation. The condition is also called luxatio erecta because the arm appears to be permanently held upward, in fixed abduction. The patient will often present with their hand placed on the head or near it. Pathology It i...
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Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations comprise of a comminuted fracture of the radial head accompanied by dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. The force of trauma is transmitted down the forearm through the interosseous membrane causing disruption. The distal radioulnar joint injury may be...
Article

Orbital blowout fracture

Orbital blowout fractures occur when there is a fracture of one of the walls of orbit but the orbital rim remains intact. Typically, this is caused by a direct blow to the central orbit from a fist or ball. Epidemiology The blow-out fracture is the commonest type of orbital fracture and is usu...
Article

Costal hook sign (flail chest)

The costal hook sign is a chest x-ray feature seen in some cases of flail chest. It represents the rotation of a fractured rib along its long axis, something that is only possible if a second fracture is present along its length, even if the second fracture is not visible 1. 
Article

Flail chest

Flail chest or flail thoracic segment occurs when three or more contiguous ribs are fractured in two or more places. Clinically, a segment of only one or two ribs can act as a flail segment, hence there is some controversy between the clinical and radiological definitions. Clinical presentation...
Article

Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganised globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually <20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseous...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 1,6 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Article

Hook of hamate fracture

Hook of hamate fractures are rare. They occur from the hamate fracturing after blunt trauma, falls, and in sports player (e.g. golf, baseball, racquet sports) from a direct blow while swinging. Stress fractures have also been reported.  It may result in Guyon's canal syndrome. Differential dia...
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Nasal septal haematoma

Nasal septal haematomas arise from ruptures in the small blood vessels in the nasal septum and are largely secondary to trauma. The nasal septum has a rich vascular supply which sources from both the internal and external carotid arteries.  Radiographic features CT Septal haematomas appear as...
Article

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability of the knee. Clinical presentation These injuries are frequ...
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Finger pulley injury

Finger pulley injuries can occur at any one of the five flexor tendon pulleys of the fingers, but most commonly affects the A2 pulley.  Clinical presentation These are overwhelmingly the result of a discrete trauma occurring with the hand in a finger grip position. They are most frequently see...
Article

Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
Article

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion is a specific type of avulsion injury that can occur in the knee.  Pathology Mechanism of injury External rotation and abduction of the flexed knee or valgus force applied to the tibia. Associated injuries include anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and po...
Article

Reverse Segond fracture

Reverse Segond fracture is one of the avulsion fracture of the knee, which is due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament (also known as the menisciotibial or coronary ligament) involving the medial proximal tibia adjacent to the articular surface. It is the opposite of ...
Article

Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Clinical presentation Contrary to the more common causes of an ACL tear, wh...
Article

Bennett fracture

A Bennett fracture is a fracture of the base of the thumb resulting from forced abduction of the first metacarpal. It is defined as an intra-articular two-part fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone. Radiographic features Plain radiograph two piece fracture of the base of the thumb...
Article

Bipartite scaphoid

A bipartite scaphoid is a rare example of a divided carpus. There is controversy whether this condition is congenital (i.e. normal variant) or post-traumatic. Bipartite scaphoids may be unilateral or bilateral. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed 3: no history of traumatic injury normal ap...
Article

Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range from subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the vast ...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
Article

Extracranial brain herniation

Extracranial brain herniation refers to herniation of brain tissue external to the calvaria through a skull bone defect, which may be post-traumatic or post-surgical. Unlike encephaloceles, brain herniation is not surrounded by the meninges.  The herniated brain tissue requires surgical reducti...
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CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
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CT polytrauma (approach)

Below is an approach used for the "primary survey" of a CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT or whole body CT), often performed at the CT console with the patient still on the CT table. It allows rapid communication of significant findings to the trauma team as well as the decision ...
Article

Acetabular fracture

Acetabular fractures are a pelvic fracture, which may also involve the ilium, ischium, and/or pubis depending on fracture configuration. Epidemiology Acetabular fractures are uncommon. The reported incidence is approximately 3 per 100,000 per year. This study reported a 63% to 37% male to fema...
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Pelvic fractures

Pelvic fractures can be simple or complex and can involve any part of the bony pelvis. Pelvic fractures can be fatal, and an unstable pelvis requires immediate management. Epidemiology Pelvic fractures can be seen in any group of patients. Like much trauma, there is a bimodal distribution with...
Article

Brachial plexus injuries

Brachial plexus injuries are a spectrum of upper limb neurological deficits secondary to partial or complete injury to the brachial plexus, which provides the nerve supply of upper limb muscles.  Clinical presentation Trauma, usually by motor vehicle accidents, involves severe traction on the ...
Article

Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee that represent the most common isolated PCL lesion. This typically involves separation of the posterior tibial insertion of the PCL to variable degrees. Pathology These injuries are commonly seen i...
Article

Acromioclavicular injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries are common and range from a mild sprain to complete disruption of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and injury to surrounding structures.  Clinical presentation Acromioclavicular joint injuries usually occur from a direct blow or following a fall onto the shoul...
Article

Anterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is by far the commonest type of dislocation and usually results from forced abduction, external rotation and extension 1.  Epidemiology Broadly speaking, anterior shoulder dislocations occur in a bimodal age distribution. The first, and by far the more prevalent a...
Article

Penetrating traumatic neck injury

Penetrating traumatic neck injury can be a potentially devastating injury due to the high density of crucial anatomical structures within the neck.  Epidemiology Young males are highly represented in patients with a traumatic neck injury. In one study, 11:1 ratio of males to females were ident...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is mor...
Article

Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries, ...
Article

Temporal bone fracture

Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of te...
Article

Depressed skull fracture

Depressed skull fractures result in the bone of the skull vault being folded (depressed) inward into the cerebral parenchyma. It is usually the result of a high energy impact to the skull. Pathology These mostly (~75%) occur in the frontoparietal region 3. Associations There are number of as...
Article

Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous or surgical emphysema, strictly speaking, refers to air in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the air often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature along fascial planes. Clinic...
Article

Subdural hygroma

Subdural hygromas refer to the accumulation of fluid in the subdural space. In many cases it is considered an epiphenomenon of head injury when it is called a traumatic subdural hygroma.  Epidemiology Subdural hygromas are encountered in all age-groups but are overall most common in the elderl...
Article

Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocoele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocoele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
Article

Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
Article

Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
Article

Segmental fracture

Segmental fracture is a fracture composed of at least two fracture lines that together isolate a segment of bone, usually a portion of the diaphysis of a long bone. This fracture pattern is frequently associated with high energy mechanism and devascularisation of the segmental fracture fragment(...
Article

Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischaemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischaemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are aff...

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