Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

415 results found
Article

Johansson classification

The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis. type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
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Judet and Letournel classification for acetabular fractures

The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification of acetabular fractures. It is based on three radiographic views (anteroposterior view, obturator oblique view and Iliac oblique view)  and classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which cons...
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Keifhaber-Stern classification of volar plate avulsion injuries of hand

This classification was proposed originally by Hastings and later modified by Keifhaber and Stern in 1998. This classification, along with the Eaton classification, is the most widely accepted classification at the time of writing (August 2016) for the management of volar plate avulsion injuries...
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Knee dislocation

Knee dislocations are rare, but a significant number have serious associated vascular injury. They account for <0.5% of all joint dislocations.  This article discussed tibiofemoral joint dislocation. Please see separate articles for discussion of medial and lateral patellar dislocation.  Patho...
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Large joint dislocation

Large joint dislocation is a not uncommon presentation to emergency rooms. Described in order of comonality: shoulder dislocation elbow dislocation posterior dislocation of the hip knee dislocation
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Laryngeal trauma

Laryngeal trauma is uncommon in the setting of external blunt or penetrating trauma. The larynx may also be injured internally, for example during endotracheal intubation. Clinical presentation Symptoms include hoarseness, laryngeal pain, dyspnoea, and/or dysphagia. Also, stridor, haemoptysis,...
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Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Lateral patellar dislocation

Lateral patellar dislocation refers to lateral displacement followed by dislocation of patella due to disruptive changes to the medial patellar retinaculum. Epidemiology Patellar dislocation accounts for ~3% of all knee injuries and is commonly seen in those individuals who participate in spor...
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Lateral talar process fracture

Lateral talar process fractures or snowboarder fractures are talus fractures that can mimic a lateral ankle sprain. It may be an isolated fracture or occur as a component of more complex ankle fractures. Mechanism The fracture occurs when the foot is dorsiflexed and inverted, as can happen wit...
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Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injury

The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of the ankle injuries based on injury mechanisms which have predictable patterns and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools for describing and classifying ankle injuries. Classif...
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Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
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Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Lightbulb sign (shoulder dislocation)

The lightbulb sign refers to the abnormal AP radiograph appearance of the humeral head in posterior shoulder dislocation. When the humerus dislocates it also internally rotates such that the head contour projects like a lightbulb when viewed from the front 1. See also light bulb sign (hepatic...
Article

Lipohaemarthrosis

Lipohaemarthrosis results from an intra-articular fracture with escape of fat and blood from the bone marrow into the joint, and is most frequently seen in the knee, associated with a tibial plateau fracture or distal femoral fracture; rarely a patellar fracture. They have also been described in...
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Lisfranc injury

Lisfranc injuries, also called Lisfranc fracture-dislocations, are the most common type of dislocation involving the foot and correspond to the dislocation of the articulation of the tarsus with the metatarsal bases. Pathology Anatomy The Lisfranc joint is the articulation of the tarsus with ...
Article

Liver trauma

The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs in blunt trauma, and liver trauma is associated with a significant mortality rate. Epidemiology In blunt abdominal trauma, the liver is injured ~5% (range 1-10%) of the time 1,3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with right uppe...
Article

Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
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Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures are petrous temporal bone fractures that occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientati...
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Longitudinal versus transverse petrous temporal bone fracture

Petrous temporal bone fractures are classically divided into longitudinal, transverse or mixed fracture patterns depending on the direction of fracture plane with respect to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Some features may aid in distinguishing them.                 Longitudinal pe...
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Lover's fracture

Lover's fracture, also known as Don Juan fracture, is a type of calcaneal fracture. They are fractures of the calcaneal body and may be intra- or extra-articular. History and etymology The name "lover's fracture" is derived from the fact that a suitor may jump from great heights while trying t...
Article

Lunate dislocation

Lunate dislocations are an uncommon traumatic wrist injury that require prompt management and surgical repair. The lunate is displaced and rotated volarly. The rest of the carpal bones are in a normal anatomic position in relation to the radius. These should not be confused with perilunate disl...
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Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
Article

Maisonneuve fracture

Maisonneuve fracture is the combination of a spiral fracture of the proximal fibula and unstable ankle injury which could manifest radiographically by widening of the ankle joint due to distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and/or deltoid ligament disruption, or fracture of the medial malleolus. It is...
Article

Mallet finger

Mallet finger describes a type of injury where there is disruption of the extensor mechanism of the finger at the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). It is the most prevalent finger tendon injury in sport. The term includes both bony avulsion injury and tendinous injury without avulsion.  Clini...
Article

Mandibular fracture

Mandibular fractures are relatively common especially among young men. Although traditionally the mandible and base of skull are thought to form a complete bony ring, interrupted only by the TMJs. This should mean that the mandible should fracture in two places (akin to the bony pelvis) making s...
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Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury

The Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury is a CT scan derived metric using only a few features and has been shown to predict outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.  This system was first published in 1992 1 building on findings from a large cohort of head injury cases des...
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Mayfield classification of carpal instability (perilunate instability)

Mayfield classification of carpal instability, also known as perilunate instability classification (carpal dislocations), describes carpal ligament injuries.  Instability has been divided into four stages 1-2: stage I: scapholunate dissociation (rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid) disruptio...
Article

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides them into three types according to the anatomic location of the fracture line: middle (70%) distal (20%) proximal (10%) Fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface and distal tubercle fractures: distal tub...
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McAfee classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment. Classification wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression  stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
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McGrigor-Campbell lines

McGrigor-Campbell lines are imaginary lines traced across the face on an occipitomental (Waters) view skull radiograph to assess for fractures: first line is traced from one zygomaticofrontal suture to another, across the superior edge of the orbits second line traces the zygomatic arch, cross...
Article

Meniscal root tear

A meniscal root tear is a type of meniscal tear in the knee where the tear extends to either the anterior or posterior meniscal root attachment to the central tibial plateau. They often tend to be radial tears extending into the root.  Epidemiology According to one source they are thought to a...
Article

Metacarpal fractures

Metacarpal fractures are common. Fracture of the metacarpal bones accounts for 10% of all fractures and 40% of all hand fractures. The lifetime incidence of a metacarpal fracture is 2.5%. Terminology Specific names are given to fractures of the base of the first metacarpal (see: fractures of t...
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Metaphyseal fracture

Metaphyseal fractures are fractures that involve the metaphysis of tubular bones. They may occur in paediatric or adult patients. Examples of metaphyseal fractures: adults surgical neck of humerus fracture distal radial fracture transtrochanteric fracture children distal radial buckle fra...
Article

Midcarpal dislocation

Midcarpal (central carpal) dislocation describes an injury where there is dislocation of the capitate from the lunate, and subluxation of the lunate from the radius. This term is somewhat confusing because some authors use "midcarpal dislocation" to refer generally to perilunate and lunate dislo...
Article

Middle phalanx fracture

Middle phalanx fractures are the least common of the phalanx fractures. Radiographic features These fractures are generally well visualised on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography can be used in unclear cases. Treatment and prognosis Non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with a...
Article

Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Mixed temporal bone fractures

Mixed temporal bone fractures are a combination of longitudinal and transverse fracture types, and are probably the most common type. They frequently involve the otic capsule, and are associated with both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. ​
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
Article

Monteggia fracture-dislocation

Monteggia fracture-dislocations consist of a fracture of the ulnar shaft with concomitant dislocation of the radial head. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious, whereas the radial head dislocation can be overlooked, with potentially serious functional and medico-legal ramifications.  Mechanism ...
Article

Morel-Lavallée lesion

A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed degloving injury associated with severe trauma which then presents as a haemolymphatic mass. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions...
Article

Musculoskeletal radiology curriculum (student)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists The medical student musculoskeletal radiology curriculum represents a core set of common pathologies and presentations that are key to understand during any orthopaedic attachment in medical school.
Article

Named fractures

Named fractures are usually eponymous or occupational. The simplest way of spiting them up is by body area: spinal fractures facial fractures upper extremity fractures pelvic fractures lower extremity fractures
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Nasal bone fracture

Nasal bone fractures are the most common type of facial fractures, accounting for ~45% of facial fractures, and are often missed when significant facial swelling is present.  Clinical presentation Unsurprisingly, nasal bone fractures occur when the nose impacts against a solid object (e.g. fis...
Article

Nasal septal haematoma

Nasal septal haematomas arise from ruptures in the small blood vessels in the nasal septum and are largely secondary to trauma. The nasal septum has a rich vascular supply which sources from both the internal and external carotid arteries.  Radiographic features CT Septal haematomas appear as...
Article

Naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex fracture

Naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) fractures (also known as orbitoethmoid or nasoethmoidal complex fractures) are fractures which involve the central upper midface. Pathology Naso-orbitoethmoid fractures are caused by a high-impact force applied anteriorly to the nose and transmitted posteriorly through...
Article

Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures

The Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures is probably the most frequently used along with the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures. Even if an exact knowledge of this classification system is beyond the everyday use of many radiologists, the terminology and factors which i...
Article

Nerve injury classification

Nerve injury classification describes the various features of nerve injury on MRI with respect to pathological events. Classification neuropraxia grade I: there is increased T2/STIR signal in the nerve, however the muscle appears normal axonotmesis grade II: increased T2/STIR signal in ne...
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NEXUS Chest

NEXUS Chest is a clinical decision rule that supports the appropriate use of thoracic imaging in trauma. There are seven criteria 1,2: >60 years old rapid deceleration defined as fall > 6 metres or motor vehicle crash >64 km/hour chest pain intoxication abnormal alertness or mental status ...
Article

Nightstick fracture

Nightstick fractures are isolated fractures of the ulna, typically transverse and located in the mid-diaphysis and usually resulting from a direct blow. It is a characteristic defensive fracture when the patient tries to ward off an overhead blow from an assailant (or local law enforcement offic...
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Oblique fracture

Oblique fractures are complete fractures that occur at a plane oblique to the long axis of the bone. Like transverse fractures, the term is predominantly used in the context of describing a fracture in a long bone. Oblique fractures are particularly prone to angulation in the plane of the fract...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma and is a specific and localized type of basilar skull fracture. Epidemiology The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3. Clinical...
Article

Occult fracture

Occult fractures are those that are not visible on imaging, most commonly plain radiographs and sometimes CT, either due to lack of displacement or limitations of the imaging study. There may be signs of a fracture without one actually being seen. MRI or nuclear medicine studies are sometimes re...
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O'Donoghue unhappy triad

O'Donoghue unhappy triad or terrible triad often occurs in contact sports, such as basketball, football, or rugby, when there is a lateral force applied to the knee while the foot is fixated on the ground. This produces the "pivot shift" mechanism. The O'Donoghue unhappy triad comprises three t...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
Article

Oesophageal perforation

Oesophageal perforation is a rare but serious medical emergency with a very high mortality rate, especially if the diagnosis is delayed. Epidemiology Most patients are in their 60s with a slight male predominance 5.  Clinical presentation If a perforation is not detected during the procedure...
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Olecranon fracture

Olecranon fractures are clinically and radiographically obvious, and usually require open reduction and internal fixation. Mechanism Olecranon fractures occur as the result of one of four mechanisms 2: direct blow (or fall directly on the elbow) fall on outstretched hand with elbow flexed a...
Article

Open book pelvic injury

Open book pelvic injuries are most often the result of high-energy trauma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular injuries.  Pathology Open book pelvic injuries result from an anteroposterior compression injury to the pelvis and result in a combin...
Article

Open fracture

An open or compound fracture or dislocation refers to a fracture or dislocation associated with soft tissue injury where the fractured bone or dislocated joint is in direct communication with the outside environment. It is of surgical importance due to the high risk of microbial contamination a...
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Orbital blow-in fractures

Orbital blow-in fractures occur when there is displacement of bone fragments towards the orbits. Pathology blow-in fracture effectively reduces the volume of the orbit associated intraorbital injuries include extraocular muscle entrapment and optic nerve injury as an isolated (pure) orbital ...
Article

Orbital blowout fracture

Orbital blowout fractures occur when there is a fracture of one of the walls of orbit but the orbital rim remains intact. Typically, this is caused by a direct blow to the central orbit from a fist or ball. Epidemiology The blow-out fracture is the commonest type of orbital fracture and is usu...
Article

Orbital emphysema

Orbital emphysema is the presence of gas within the orbital soft tissues. It is usually due to orbital fractures communicating with the paranasal sinuses but can be caused by penetrating trauma and infection. It is a common finding also after orbital or ocular surgery.  Location preseptal pos...
Article

Ossicular chain disruption

Ossicular chain disruption (or ossicular discontinuity) is loss of normal alignment between the three middle ear ossicles. The condition is a cause of conductive hearing loss. Epidemiology Exact incidence and prevalence are not known. Hearing loss associated with temporal bone fractures in chi...
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Osteochondral defect

Osteochondral defects are focal areas of articular damage with cartilage damage and injury of the adjacent subchondral bone. It is a term that encompasses osteochondritis dissecans and is used synonymously with osteochondral injury/defect in the paediatric population. Pathology Aetiology oste...
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Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range from subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the vast ...
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Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
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Paranasal sinus fractures

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities surrounding the nasal cavity proper which includes maxillary sinus, sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus and ethmoid sinus. Trauma to the superior and middle thirds of the face can often lead to in paranasal sinus fractures involving one or more paranasal sinus...
Article

Patella fracture

Patella fracture is one of the common knee injuries usually post direct trauma to the patella or sudden forceful contraction of the quadriceps muscles in a context of sports injury. Clinical presentation Patients present with marked swelling and pain over the patella with point tenderness and ...
Article

Patellar sleeve fractures

Patellar sleeve fractures represent chondral or osteochondral avulsion injury at the inferior pole of the patella. Epidemiology Patellar sleeve fractures occur in the paediatric population, typically between 8 and 12 years of age. Clinical presentation Unlike Sinding-Larsen-Johannson disease...
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Pathological fracture

Pathological fractures are fractures that occur in abnormal bone. Although the term can be used in the setting of a generalized metabolic bone disease, it is usually reserved for fractures through a focal abnormality. The abnormality may be malignant or non-malignant in nature. Pathological fra...
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Pathological fracture risk (Harrington criteria)

Harrington criteria can be used to predict which skeletal metastases are at high risk of pathological fracture and should undergo prophylactic internal fixation. It preceded the Mirel classification for impending pathological fracture but has not been validated and its use is debated. Classific...
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Pathological fracture risk (Mirel classification)

Mirel classification is a system used to predict the highest risk of pathological fracture among bones affected by metastases. Classification 1 point upper limb involving <1/3 of bone diameter blastic/sclerotic lesion mild pain 2 points lower limb involving 1/3-2/3 of bone diameter mix...
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PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm

The PECARN (Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1. This validated paediatric algorithm predicts likelihood of the a...
Article

Pellegrini-Stieda lesion

Pellegrini-Stieda lesions are ossified post-traumatic lesions at (or near) the medial femoral collateral ligament adjacent to the margin of the medial femoral condyle. One presumed mechanism of injury is a Stieda fracture (avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament at the medial femoral c...
Article

Pelvic bucket handle fracture

Bucket handle fractures of the pelvis are a result of anteroposterior compression energy vectors. It is described as a vertically-orientated fracture through ipsilateral superior and inferior pubic rami with contralateral sacroiliac joint disruption/dislocation 1, 2. See also pelvic fractures ...
Article

Pelvic fractures

Pelvic fractures can be simple or complex and can involve any part of the bony pelvis. Pelvic fractures can be fatal, and an unstable pelvis requires immediate management. Epidemiology Pelvic fractures can be seen in any group of patients. Like much trauma, there is a bimodal distribution with...
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Pelvic fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pelvic fractures are a heterogeneous group of injuries that can occur secondary to a variety of mechanisms that range from an innocuous simple fall to severe high-energy trauma in a road traffic collision. Reference articl...
Article

Penetrating thoracic trauma

Penetrating thoracic trauma, namely gunshot and stab injuries, vary widely in incidence globally but nevertheless result in high mortality and serious morbidity. CT is the modality of choice in imaging these patients and can reduce the need for surgical exploration.  Pathology Penetrating thor...
Article

Penetrating traumatic neck injury

Penetrating traumatic neck injury can be a potentially devastating injury due to the high density of crucial anatomical structures within the neck.  Epidemiology Young males are highly represented in patients with a traumatic neck injury. In one study, 11:1 ratio of males to females were ident...
Article

Penile fracture

Penile fracture is a rare event, however requires emergency diagnosis and intervention. It is a rupture of corpora cavernosa and penile sheath (tunica albuginea) caused by trauma to an erect penis, most commonly during sexual intercourse. What a urologist needs to known in such an emergency, is...
Article

Perched facet joint

Perched facet joint is a vertebral facet joint whose inferior articular process appears to sit 'perched' on the ipsilateral superior articular process of the vertebra below. Any further anterior subluxation will result in dislocation, with one facet "jumping" over the other and becoming locked ...
Article

Perilunate dislocation

Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture dislocations are potentially devastating closed wrist injuries that are often missed on initial imaging.  These injuries involve dislocation of the carpus relative to the lunate which remains in normal alignment with the distal radius. They should...
Article

Periprosthetic fracture

Periprosthetic fractures can occur around any joint replacement and commonly occur around knee and hip arthroplasties. Epidemiology Periprosthetic fractures complicate around 1% of total hip arthroplasties and ~1.5% of total knee arthroplasties 1,2. Radiographic features They can be difficul...
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Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
Article

Peritalar dislocation

Peritalar dislocation, also referred to as subtalar dislocation, involves the combined dislocation of the talocalcaneal/subtalar and talonavicular joints without the involvement of the tibiotalar and calcaneonavicular joints. It is generally associated with high-energy trauma and accounts for a ...
Article

Perthes lesion

Perthes lesion of the shoulder is one of the types of the anterior glenohumeral injury in which the anterior inferior labrum is torn and lifted from the edge of the glenoid 1 but still attached to the intact lifted periosteum from the anterior aspect of the glenoid. Although the labrum may be no...
Article

Phalanx fracture

Phalanx fractures are common injuries, although less common than metacarpal fractures. They have different prognosis and treatment depending on the location of the fracture. Pathology Phalanx fractures can be intra- or extra-articular and can occur at the base, neck, shaft or head of the phala...
Article

Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganised globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually <20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseous...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
Article

Piedmont fracture

Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. The initial report about the s...
Article

Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
Article

Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
Article

Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Some can be occult on plain...

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