Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

436 results found
Article

Peritalar dislocation

Peritalar dislocation, also referred to as subtalar dislocation, involves the combined dislocation of the talocalcaneal/subtalar and talonavicular joints without the involvement of the tibiotalar and calcaneonavicular joints. It is generally associated with high-energy trauma and accounts for a ...
Article

Perthes lesion

Perthes lesion of the shoulder is one of the types of the anterior glenohumeral injury in which the anterior inferior labrum is torn and lifted from the edge of the glenoid 1 but still attached to the intact lifted periosteum from the anterior aspect of the glenoid. Although the labrum may be no...
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Phalanx fracture

Phalanx fractures are common injuries, although less common than metacarpal fractures. They have different prognosis and treatment depending on the location of the fracture. Pathology Phalanx fractures can be intra- or extra-articular and can occur at the base, neck, shaft or head of the phala...
Article

Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganised globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually <20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseous...
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Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Piedmont fracture

Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. The initial report about the s...
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Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
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Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
Article

Pisiform fracture

Pisiform fractures are an uncommon type of fracture involving the carpal bones. Epidemiology They are only thought to account for ~0.2% of all carpal fractures. Approximately 50% occur in association with other carpal fractures. Very rarely the pisiform may be dislocated without fracture and ...
Article

Plaster of Paris

Plaster of Paris (POP) casts are the most commonly used material for immobilising injured limbs.  History Various materials have been used to immobilise limbs since antiquity. Splints have been found by Egyptian archaeologists dating from 2500 BCE. Various mixtures of waxes, resins, gums and f...
Article

Pneumocephalus

Pneumocephalus refers to the presence of intracranial gas, and in the vast majority of cases the gas is air. The term encompasses gas in any of the intracranial compartments, and is most commonly encountered following trauma or surgery. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients depend...
Article

Pneumolipohaemarthrosis

Pneumolipohaemarthrosis is the presence of intra-articular gas in a lipohaemarthrosis. It indicates an open intra-articular fracture. 
Article

Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, oesophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the setting of trauma, if pneumomediastinum is visib...
Article

Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
Article

Posterior apophyseal ring fracture

Posterior ring apophysis fractures occur in the immature skeleton, most commonly in the lumbar spine. Epidemiology Typically, adolescent males practicing sport activities. Clinical presentation​ back pain sciatica muscle weakness related with root innervation association with Scheuermann ...
Article

Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee that represent the most common isolated PCL lesion. This typically involves separation of the posterior tibial insertion of the PCL to variable degrees. Pathology These injuries are commonly seen i...
Article

Posterior dislocation of the hip

Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given the large amount of force required. The most common scenari...
Article

Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. I high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
Article

Posterior talar process fracture

Posterior talar process fractures may involve medial or lateral tubercle of the posterior process of talus. The posterior talofibular ligament attaches on the lateral tubercle and flexor hallucis longus runs between these tubercles. Unfused ossification center of the lateral tubercle forms the o...
Article

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability of the knee. Clinical presentation These injuries are frequ...
Article

Postmortem and forensic curriculum

The postmortem and forensic curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of topics that represent core knowledge pertaining to forensic and postmortem radiology.  Definitions Postmortem radiology: the radiographic examination of the body after death.  Forensic radi...
Article

Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischaemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischaemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are aff...
Article

Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On lateral wrist radiographs, the pronator fat pad normally appears as a thin r...
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Proximal femoral fractures

Proximal femoral fractures are a subset of fractures that occur in the hip region. They tend to occur in older patients, and in those who have osteoporosis. In this group of patients, fracture is usually the result of low-impact trauma although, in younger patients they are usually victims of hi...
Article

Proximal femoral fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surf...
Article

Proximal humeral fracture

Proximal humeral fractures are common upper extremity fractures, particularly in older patients, and can result in significant disability. Epidemiology Proximal humeral fractures represent around 5% of all fractures ?.  They are most common in older populations and especially in those who are ...
Article

Proximal humeral fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal humeral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that include everything from relatively simple transverse fractures of the surgical neck of humerus, to complex, displaced, multi-part fractures of the proxi...
Article

Proximal phalanx fracture

Proximal phalanx fractures can be epiphyseal or shaft fractures and can be articular or extra-articular. Epidemiology Proximal phalanx fractures are the most common paediatric hand fracture 1. Radiographic features The fracture is generally well seen on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography can...
Article

Proximal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal radial fractures are the commonest elbow injury in adult patients and the injury most likely to cause an elbow joint effusion. Radial head and neck fractures are often subtle and may be occult on initial imaging. ...
Article

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
Article

Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.  Epidemiology Pull...
Article

Pulmonary contusion

A pulmonary contusion refers to an interstitial and/or alveolar lung injury without any frank laceration. It usually occurs secondary to non-penetrating trauma.  Epidemiology While contusion can affect anyone, children are considered more susceptible due to greater pliability of the chest wall...
Article

Pulmonary fat embolism

Pulmonary fat embolism is a specific subtype of pulmonary embolism where the embolic particles are composed of fat. Pathology It usually occurs in the context of a long bone fracture and may occur in 1-3% of patients with simple tibial or femoral fractures and up to 20-33% of individuals with ...
Article

Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
Article

Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
Article

Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
Article

Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle / rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical pres...
Article

Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
Article

Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
Article

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for haemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to redu...
Article

Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (more rarely the synonyms retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis) refers to posterior displacement (backward slip) of a vertebral body relative to one below. Causes include trauma, facet joint osteoarthritis or congenital anomalies (e.g. underdevelopment of the pedicl...
Article

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
Article

Reverse Bankart lesion

Reverse Bankart lesion is defined as the detachment of posteroinferior labrum with avulsion of posterior capsular periosteum. This leads to laxity of posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament with posterior displacement of the humeral head. As is the case with a Bankart lesion, the t...
Article

Reverse Barton fracture

Reverse Barton fractures, also known as volar type Barton fractures, represents an intra-articular distal radial fracture with volar displacement. In fact, the reverse Barton fracture is a type II Smith fracture: oblique distal intra-articular radial fracture 1,2. For a discussion of this frac...
Article

Reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation

A reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation is a fracture-dislocation of the base of the 5th metacarpal bone. It is pathologically and radiographically analogous to the Bennett fracture of the thumb. It is quite unstable due to unopposed extensor carpi ulnaris pull on the fracture fragment, which cau...
Article

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, also called a McLaughlin lesion, is defined as an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of the humeral head following posterior dislocation of the humerus. It is of surgical importance to identify this lesion and correct it to prevent avascular necrosis. Radiograp...
Article

Reverse Segond fracture

Reverse Segond fracture is one of the avulsion fracture of the knee, which is due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament (also known as the menisciotibial or coronary ligament) involving the medial proximal tibia adjacent to the articular surface. It is the opposite of ...
Article

Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Pathology The 4th-10th ribs are the most commonly fractured 1. Fractures of the 1st-3rd ribs are associated with high-energy trauma 3. When the rib is fractured twice, the term floating rib is used ...
Article

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
Article

Rolando fracture

Rolando fracture is a three-part or comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the thumb (proximal first metacarpal). It can be thought of as a comminuted Bennett fracture. Pathology The mechanism is usually an axial blow to a partially flexed metacarpal, such as a fistfigh...
Article

Rotator cuff tear

Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain mostly in older patients. Clinical presentation Prevalence of tear increases with age. Most significant findings are impingement and "arc of pain" sign (pain during descent of abducted arm) 1. Supraspinatus weakness, night p...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
Article

Sanders CT classification of calcaneal fracture

The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
Article

Scalp haematoma

A scalp haematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of haematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull pe...
Article

Scaphoid fracture

Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
Article

Scaphoid fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Scaphoid fractures are the second commonest group of fractures that are seen following a fall onto an outstretched hand and result in wrist pain, specifically tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox. They are particularly imp...
Article

Scaphoid non union

Scaphoid non-union is one of the complications of scaphoid fracture because of the unique anatomy of the scaphoid and its vascular supply. There are four types of non-union: fibrous (delayed union): stable with no deformity or collapse cystic: unstable and early collapse patterns sclerotic: ...
Article

Scapholunate dissociation

Scapholunate dissociation, also known as rotary subluxation of the scaphoid, refers to an abnormal orientation of the scaphoid relative to the lunate, and implies severe injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and other stabilizing ligaments. Carpal dissociation implies carpal instabil...
Article

Scapular fracture

Scapula fractures are uncommon injuries, representing ~3% of all shoulder fractures. Pathology Mechanisms of injury requires high energy trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accidents account for 50% of scapular fractures) direct trauma to the shoulder region indirect trauma through falling on outstr...
Article

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Article

Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocele normally results from trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocele 4. Radiographic f...
Article

Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
Article

Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
Article

Segmental fracture

Segmental fracture is a fracture composed of at least two fracture lines that together isolate a segment of bone, usually a portion of the diaphysis of a long bone. This fracture pattern is frequently associated with high energy mechanism and devascularisation of the segmental fracture fragment(...
Article

Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Clinical presentation Contrary to the more common causes of an ACL tear, wh...
Article

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion is a specific type of avulsion injury that can occur in the knee.  Pathology Mechanism of injury External rotation and abduction of the flexed knee or valgus force applied to the tibia. Associated injuries include anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and po...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
Article

Shock thyroid

Shock thyroid is an uncommon part of the hypovolemic shock complex.  It was initially described in 2016 as heterogenous thyroid contrast enhancement and fluid surrounding the thyroid in trauma CT of shocked patients without evidence for direct thyroid injury 2. Only 7 cases have been described ...
Article

Shoulder dislocation

In a shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) there is separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to th...
Article

Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
Article

Shoulder series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A shoulder series (or shoulder x-ray) is most frequently performed following trauma looking for evidence of fracture or dislocation. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more i...
Article

Skull fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on skull fractures. Summary anatomy...
Article

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE),  is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnor...
Article

Smith fracture

Smith fractures, also known as Goyrand fractures in the French literature 3, are fractures of the distal radius with associated volar angulation of the distal fracture fragment(s). Classically, these fractures are extra-articular transverse fractures and can be thought of as a reverse Colles fra...
Article

Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
Article

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
Article

Spiral fracture

Spiral fractures are complete fractures of long bones that result from a rotational force applied to the bone. Spiral fractures are usually the result of high energy trauma and are likely to be associated with displacement.
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
Article

Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
Article

Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localised tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint dislocation

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures.  Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
Article

Stieda fracture

Stieda fractures refer to a bony avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) at the medial femoral condyle. See also Pellegrini Stieda lesion Stieda process fracture
Article

Stress fractures

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Fractures can either be: fatigue fracture: abnormal stresses on normal bone insufficiency fracture: normal stresses on abnormal bone Radiographs have a ...

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