Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

415 results found
Article

Pneumocephalus

Pneumocephalus refers to the presence of intracranial gas, and in the vast majority of cases the gas is air. The term encompasses gas in any of the intracranial compartments, and is most commonly encountered following trauma or surgery. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients depend...
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Pneumolipohaemarthrosis

Pneumolipohaemarthrosis is the presence of intra-articular gas in a lipohaemarthrosis. It indicates an open intra-articular fracture. 
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Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, oesophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the setting of trauma, if pneumomediastinum is visib...
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Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
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Posterior apophyseal ring fracture

Posterior ring apophysis fractures occur in the immature skeleton, most commonly in the lumbar spine. Epidemiology Typically, adolescent males practicing sport activities. Clinical presentation​ back pain sciatica muscle weakness related with root innervation association with Scheuermann ...
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Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee that represent the most common isolated PCL lesion. This typically involves separation of the posterior tibial insertion of the PCL to variable degrees. Pathology These injuries are commonly seen i...
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Posterior dislocation of the hip

Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given the large amount of force required. The most common scenari...
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Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. I high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
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Posterior talar process fracture

Posterior talar process fractures may involve medial or lateral tubercle of the posterior process of talus. The posterior talofibular ligament attaches on the lateral tubercle and flexor hallucis longus runs between these tubercles. Unfused ossification center of the lateral tubercle forms the o...
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Posteromedial corner injury of the knee

Posteromedial corner injury of the knee is a readily identifiable but frequently underappreciated on imaging. Importantly, it can result in increased stress on the cruciate ligaments and can result in anteromedial rotatory instability of the knee. Clinical presentation These injuries are frequ...
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Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischaemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischaemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are aff...
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Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle. Radiographic appearance Plain radiograph On lateral wrist radiographs, the pronator fat pad normally appears a thin ra...
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Proximal femoral fractures

Proximal femoral fractures are a subset of fractures that occur in the hip region. They tend to occur in older patients, and in those who have osteoporosis. In this group of patients, fracture is usually the result of low-impact trauma although, in younger patients they are usually victims of hi...
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Proximal femoral fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surf...
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Proximal humeral fracture

Proximal humeral fractures are common upper extremity fractures, particularly in older patients, and can result in significant disability. Epidemiology Proximal humeral fractures represent around 5% of all fractures ?.  They are most common in older populations and especially in those who are ...
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Proximal humeral fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal humeral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that include everything from relatively simple transverse fractures of the surgical neck of humerus, to complex, displaced, multi-part fractures of the proxi...
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Proximal phalanx fracture

Proximal phalanx fractures can be epiphyseal or shaft fractures and can be articular or extra-articular. Epidemiology Proximal phalanx fractures are the most common paediatric hand fracture 1. Radiographic features The fracture is generally well seen on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography can...
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Proximal radial fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal radial fractures are the commonest elbow injury in adult patients and the injury most likely to cause an elbow joint effusion. Radial head and neck fractures are often subtle and may be occult on initial imaging. ...
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Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine

Pseudosubluxation of the cervical spine is the physiological anterior displacement of C2 on C3 in children. It is common in children <7 years, and less often present in older children. Less often it is seen at C3 on C4. It is more pronounced in flexion and is of clinical significance as it can b...
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Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.  Epidemiology Pull...
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Pulmonary contusion

A pulmonary contusion refers to an interstitial and/or alveolar lung injury without any frank laceration. It usually occurs secondary to non-penetrating trauma.  Epidemiology While contusion can affect anyone, children are considered more susceptible due to greater pliability of the chest wall...
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Pulmonary fat embolism

Pulmonary fat embolism is a specific subtype of pulmonary embolism where the embolic particles are composed of fat. Pathology It usually occurs in the context of a long bone fracture and may occur in 1-3% of patients with simple tibial or femoral fractures and up to 20-33% of individuals with ...
Article

Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
Article

Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle / rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical pres...
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Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
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Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
Article

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
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Reverse Bankart lesion

Reverse Bankart lesion is defined as the detachment of posteroinferior labrum with avulsion of posterior capsular periosteum. This leads to laxity of posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament with posterior displacement of the humeral head. As is the case with a Bankart lesion, the t...
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Reverse Barton fracture

Reverse Barton fractures, also known as volar type Barton fractures, represents an intra-articular distal radial fracture with volar displacement. In fact, the reverse Barton fracture is a type II Smith fracture: oblique distal intra-articular radial fracture 1,2. For a discussion of this frac...
Article

Reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation

A reverse Bennett fracture-dislocation is a fracture-dislocation of the base of the 5th metacarpal bone. It is pathologically and radiographically analogous to the Bennett fracture of the thumb. It is quite unstable due to unopposed extensor carpi ulnaris pull on the fracture fragment, which cau...
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Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion

Reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, also called a McLaughlin lesion, is defined as an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of the humeral head following posterior dislocation of the humerus. It is of surgical importance to identify this lesion and correct it to prevent avascular necrosis. Radiograp...
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Reverse Segond fracture

Reverse Segond fracture is one of the avulsion fracture of the knee, which is due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament (also known as the menisciotibial or coronary ligament) involving the medial proximal tibia adjacent to the articular surface. It is the opposite of ...
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Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Pathology The 4th-10th ribs are the most commonly fractured 1. Fractures of the 1st-3rd ribs are associated with high-energy trauma 3. When the rib is fractured twice, the term floating rib is used ...
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Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
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Rolando fracture

Rolando fracture is a three-part or comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the thumb (proximal first metacarpal). It can be thought of as a comminuted Bennett fracture. Pathology The mechanism is usually an axial blow to a partially flexed metacarpal, such as a fistfigh...
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Rotator cuff tear

Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain mostly in older patients. Clinical presentation Prevalence of tear increases with age. Most significant findings are impingement and "arc of pain" sign (pain during descent of abducted arm) 1. Supraspinatus weakness, night p...
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Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
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Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
Article

Sanders CT classification of calcaneal fracture

The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
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Scaphoid fracture

Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
Article

Scaphoid fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Scaphoid fractures are the second commonest group of fractures that are seen following a fall onto an outstretched hand and result in wrist pain, specifically tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox. They are particularly imp...
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Scaphoid non union

Scaphoid non-union is one of the complications of scaphoid fracture because of the unique anatomy of the scaphoid and its vascular supply. There are four types of non-union: fibrous (delayed union): stable with no deformity or collapse cystic: unstable and early collapse patterns sclerotic: ...
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Scapholunate dissociation

Scapholunate dissociation, also known as rotary subluxation of the scaphoid, refers to an abnormal orientation of the scaphoid relative to the lunate, and implies severe injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and other stabilizing ligaments. Carpal dissociation implies carpal instabil...
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Scapular fracture

Scapula fractures are uncommon injuries, representing ~3% of all shoulder fractures. Pathology Mechanisms of injury requires high energy trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accidents account for 50% of scapular fractures) direct trauma to the shoulder region indirect trauma through falling on outstr...
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Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
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Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocoele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocoele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
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Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
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Segmental fracture

Segmental fracture is a fracture composed of at least two fracture lines that together isolate a segment of bone, usually a portion of the diaphysis of a long bone. This fracture pattern is frequently associated with high energy mechanism and devascularisation of the segmental fracture fragment(...
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Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Clinical presentation Contrary to the more common causes of an ACL tear, wh...
Article

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion

Semimembranosus tendon avulsion is a specific type of avulsion injury that can occur in the knee.  Pathology Mechanism of injury External rotation and abduction of the flexed knee or valgus force applied to the tibia. Associated injuries include anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and po...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
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Shock thyroid

Shock thyroid is an uncommon part of the hypovolemic shock complex.  It was initially described in 2016 as heterogenous thyroid contrast enhancement and fluid surrounding the thyroid in trauma CT of shocked patients without evidence for direct thyroid injury 2. Only 7 cases have been described ...
Article

Shoulder dislocation

In a shoulder dislocation, there is separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to the following articles: anterior shoulder dislocation (95%...
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Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
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Shoulder series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A shoulder series (or shoulder x-ray) is most frequently performed following trauma looking for evidence of fracture or dislocation. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more i...
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Skull fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on skull fractures. Summary anatomy...
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Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE),  is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnor...
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Smith fracture

Smith fractures, also known as Goyrand fractures in the French literature 3, are fractures of the distal radius with associated volar angulation of the distal fracture fragment(s). Classically, these fractures are extra-articular transverse fractures and can be thought of as a reverse Colles fra...
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Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
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Spiral fracture

Spiral fractures are complete fractures of long bones that result from a rotational force applied to the bone. Spiral fractures are usually the result of high energy trauma and are likely to be associated with displacement.
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Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
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Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured organ after blunt trauma. Clinical presentation Patients may present with left upper quadrant/left chest pain, left shoulder tip pain (re...
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Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localised tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Sternoclavicular joint dislocation

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures.  Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
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Stieda fracture

Stieda fractures refer to a bony avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) at the medial femoral condyle. See also Pellegrini Stieda lesion Stieda process fracture
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Stress fractures

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Fractures can either be: fatigue fracture: abnormal stresses on normal bone insufficiency fracture: normal stresses on abnormal bone As they are often i...
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Subcapital fracture

Subcapital fracture is the commonest type of intracapsular fracture of the proximal femur. The fracture line extends through the junction of the head and neck of femur. Classification Although many classifications are proposed Garden classification and Pauwel classification are generally follo...
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Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...
Article

Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous or surgical emphysema, strictly speaking, refers to air in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the air often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature along fascial planes. Clinic...
Article

Subdural haemorrhage

Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age-group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnos...
Article

Subdural hygroma

Subdural hygromas refer to the accumulation of fluid in the subdural space. In many cases it is considered an epiphenomenon of head injury when it is called a traumatic subdural hygroma.  Epidemiology Subdural hygromas are encountered in all age-groups but are overall most common in the elderl...
Article

Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted delivery, but may also be seen following head trauma. In patients with intracranial haemorrhage or skull fractures, the incidence o...
Article

Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
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Subtalar dislocation

Subtalar dislocations is the simultaneous dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcaneal joints, without tibiotalar or talar neck fractures 1, and comprises 1-2% of all dislocations, Pathology Mechanism Subtalar dislocations are often associated with high energy trauma, usually, motor veh...
Article

Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
Article

Talar dislocation

There are many types of talar dislocation given its multiple articulations: tibiotalar dislocation subtalar dislocation total talar dislocation talonavicular dislocation ​Chopart fracture-dislocation
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Talar fractures

Talar fractures are an uncommon injury, accounting for <5% of all foot fractures. Recognition of the unique talar anatomy is important for correct diagnosis. Pathology Location talar head fractures talar neck fractures talar body fractures talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior talar...
Article

Talar head fracture

Talar head fractures most commonly result from a compressive force with a plantar flexed foot. Pathology Talar head fractures almost always involve the talonavicular joint, and associated dislocation/subluxation is common. Two types of talar fractures are described 3: compression fracture, o...
Article

Talonavicular dislocation

Talonavicular dislocations are a rare injury, and is caused by forced extreme abduction or adduction of the forefoot. They are often associated with calcaneocuboid dislocation (often transient) and calcaneal fractures (and are then called transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocations). See also ta...
Article

Temporal bone fracture

Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of te...
Article

Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
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Temporomandibular joint trauma

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be affected by trauma in a number of ways: condylar process fractures temporomandibular joint dislocation fracture of the mandibular fossa
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Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...

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