Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

867 results found
Article

Varicocele grading on color Doppler

Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
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Vas deferens cyst

A vas deferens cyst is a type of juxtaprostatic - extraprostatic cyst. They are usually located along the course of the vas deferens and superior to the prostate. They can arise from congenital abnormalities of the vas deferens or acquired causes such as infection, obstruction or neoplasia. See...
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Vasitis

Vasitis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of the vas deferens and spermatic cord. It is classified as either the generally asymptomatic vasitis nodosa (seen after vasectomy) or acutely painful infectious vasitis. This article refers to the acute infective form as imaging is usually not undert...
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Verumontanum

The verumontanum or seminal colliculus is the rounded eminence of the urethral crest within the posterior wall of the mid prostatic urethra. The prostatic utricle opens into it in the midline and the two ejaculatory ducts open just distal to the utricle. On either side of it lie the prostatic si...
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Vesico-urachal diverticulum

Vesico-urachal diverticulum is one of the congenital urachal remnant abnormalities. Gross anatomy It is the proximal equivalent of a urachal umbilical sinus, representing a result of the failure of the urachus to close at the urinary bladder, forming an out-pouching of variable length from the...
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Vesicoureteric junction

The vesicoureteric junction (VUJ) is the most distal portion of a ureter, at the point where it connects to the urinary bladder.  Terminology VUJ is synonymous with "ureterovesicular junction" (UVJ). It is nearly synonymous with "ureteral orifice" (UO), although depending on the context, the V...
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Vesicoureteric reflux

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically encountered in young children.  For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric reflux grading. Epidemiology The incidence of urinary tract in...
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Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
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Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
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Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
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Vicarious contrast material excretion

Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal excretion.  The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...
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Voiding cystourethrography

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), also known as a micturating cystourethrography (MCU),  is a fluoroscopic study of the lower urinary tract in which contrast is introduced into the bladder via a catheter. The purpose of the examination is to assess the bladder, urethra, postoperative anatomy an...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Article

Vulva

The vulva (or pudendum) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular bulbs vestibule of the vulva vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features Individual component st...
Article

WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome stands for: Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk) aniridia genital anomalies mental retardation Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
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Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (also known as purpura fulminans 9 or hemorrhagic adrenalitis 10) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency that results from atraumatic adrenal hemorrhage in consequence of septicemia.  Pathology Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is due to septicemia and common...
Article

Watermelon skin sign

The watermelon skin sign refers to diffuse, radiating, streaky areas of low signal intensity in prostate on T2WI in patients with prostatic tuberculosis 1.  
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Weigert-Meyer law

The Weigert-Meyer law describes the relationship of the upper and lower renal moieties in duplicated collecting systems to their drainage inferiorly. Weigert-Meyer law With duplex kidney and complete ureteral duplication, the upper renal and lower renal moiety is drained by separate ureters, e...
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White pyramid sign (kidney)

The white pyramid sign, also known as dense renal medulla sign (DRM) or hyperdense renal pyramids sign, refers to the CT appearance of the medullary pyramids of the kidney which can be seen normally on unenhanced CT scans as high-attenuation triangular structures.  Etiology incidental normal f...
Article

Whitmore-Jewett staging system

Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system. A: subclinic...
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WHO classification of tumors of the kidney

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the kidney is the most commonly used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2016 as part of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urin...
Article

WHO histological classification of benign renal neoplasms

Benign renal tumors were histologically classified according to the World Health Organization 1. This is the subset of entities in the 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors that are associated with an International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) behavior code of 0, indicating ...
Article

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor. Epidemiology Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Article

Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
Article

Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone of...
Article

Wunderlich syndrome

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition, in which spontaneous nontraumatic renal hemorrhage occurs into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces 2. Clinical presentation Wunderlich syndrome is clinically characterized by Lenk's triad: acute flank pain flank mass hypovolemic shock Pathology Et...
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Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...
Article

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however the underlying pathogenesis yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoopsermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly refer...
Article

Zinner syndrome

Zinner syndrome is a triad of mesonephric (Wolffian) duct anomalies comprising unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction 1. Clinical presentation Patients are typically diagnosed during the 3rd or 4th decade of life and often present with per...

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