Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

926 results found
Article

Umbilical-urachal sinus

An umbilical-urachal sinus belongs to the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies and represents a non-communicating dilatation of the urachus at the umbilical end. Clinical presentation Presentation is commoner in children and rare in adult. Radiographic features An umbilical-urachal sinus...
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Umbilicus

The umbilicus is the fibrous remnant of the fetal attachment of the umbilical cord after birth. Gross anatomy All layers of the anterior abdominal wall fuse at the umbilical ring, a small round defect in the linea alba located just inferior to the midpoint between the xiphoid process of the st...
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Unilateral renal enlargement (differential)

Unilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include: duplicated pelvicalyceal system crossed-fused renal ectopia renal arterial infarction renal vein thrombosis anatomic compression of the renal vein compensatory hypertrophy acute bacterial nephritis obstructive ...
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Unilateral testicular lesions

The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.  Neoplastic Common seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies) non-seminomatous germ cell tumors: testicular teratoma testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only) testicular choriocarcinoma t...
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Urachal cyst

Urachal cysts are one of the manifestations of the spectrum of congenital urachal remnant abnormalities.  Epidemiology An infected urachal cyst can occur at any age. Clinical presentation Urachal cysts usually remain asymptomatic until complicated by infection or bleeding. Pathology Uracha...
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Urachus

The urachus (plural: urachuses or urachi ref) is the fibrous vestigial remnant of the embryonic allantois. The lumen of the urachus usually obliterates after birth and it becomes known as the median umbilical ligament, which is covered by a midline linear fibrous fold of parietal peritoneum (ca...
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Ureter

The ureter is a paired fibromuscular tube that conveys urine from the kidneys in the abdomen to the bladder in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ureter is 25-30 cm long and has three parts: abdominal ureter: from the renal pelvis to the pelvic brim pelvic ureter: from the pelvic brim to the bla...
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Ureteral duplication

Ureteral duplication is the most common congenital abnormality associated with the urinary tract, and occurs in ~1% of the population. Gross anatomy Duplication can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, and may be partial or complete: partially duplicated ureters fuse into a single ureter proxim...
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Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis

Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis are acquired false diverticula resulting from herniation of epithelium through the muscularis layer of the ureter and characterized by the presence of multiple outpouchings smaller than 5 mm. It is sometimes bilateral and is often located in the upper two-thirds of ...
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Ureteral tumors

A number of tumors may affect the ureter, by far the most common histology being transitional cell carcinoma. transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter: 95% 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the ureter: 5% adenocarcinoma of the ureter: <1%
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Ureteric bud

The ureteric bud (also known as the metanephrogenic diverticulum) is a protrusion of the mesonephric duct that appears during the embryological development of urogenital organs. It will eventually form the urinary collecting system (i.e. collecting tubes, calyces, renal pelvis, ureter) of the ki...
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Ureteric calculi

Ureteric calculi or stones are those lying within the ureter, at any point from the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) to the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ). They are the classic cause of renal colic-type abdominal pain. They are a subtype of the broader pathology of urolithiasis. Epidemiology The li...
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Ureteric injury

Ureteric injury is a relatively uncommon, but severe event, which may result in serious complications as a diagnosis is often delayed.  Clinical presentation Ureteric injuries unreliably demonstrate macro- or micro-scopic hematuria as it may be absent in up to 25% of patients 5, 6. Classic cli...
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Ureteric jet

Ureteric jets (or ureteral jets) are the visualization of the normal physiological periodic efflux of urine from the distal end of each ureter into the bladder.  Pathology When the urine passing down the ureter reaches the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), it is forced out into the bladder via a ...
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Ureteric rupture

Ureteric rupture is rare but has been described. It may be spontaneous or secondary to another pathology or intervention. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are sudden, severe, persistent lower abdominal pain with severe peritoneal irritation. Abdominal compartment syndrome, respir...
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Ureteric stent

Ureteric stents, also known as double J stents or retrograde ureteric stents, is a urological catheter that has two "J-shaped" (curled) ends, where one is anchored in the renal pelvis and the other inside the bladder. Stents are used for the free passage of urine from the kidney to the bladder,...
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Ureteritis

Ureteritis refers to inflammation of the ureter, it is rare and is often associated with cystitis or pyelonephritis 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with symptoms of cystitis or pyelonephritis with suprapubic/flank pain, dysuria, hematuria and/or fever. White cell count may also ...
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Ureteritis cystica

Ureteritis cystica or pyeloureteritis cystica is a benign condition of the ureters representing multiple small submucosal cysts.  Epidemiology Typically, this condition is seen in diabetics with recurrent urinary tract infections. As such, it is most frequently seen in older patients and is mo...
Article

Ureterocele

Ureteroceles represent abnormal congenital dilatation of the distal-most portion of the ureter. The dilated portion of the ureter may herniate into the bladder secondary to the abnormal structure of vesicoureteric junction (VUJ). Epidemiology A ureterocele occurs in about 1 in 5000 to 1 in 120...
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Ureterovaginal fistula

Ureterovaginal fistulae refer to abnormal communications between the lumina of the ureter(s) and the vagina.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with urinary incontinence through the vagina which may be accompanied by fever and chills 1. Symptoms usually begin within 2-4 weeks foll...
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Urethra

The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately: female urethra male urethra NB: At present (2020) there is no standardized universal terminology for the post-operative ur...
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Urethral agenesis

Urethral agenesis (or urethral atresia) refers to a situation where there is a congenital absence of the urethra.  It can be a cause of fetal obstructive uropathy. Pathology Associations prune belly syndrome 5 bladder agenesis 2 Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show a dilate...
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Urethral calculus

Urethral calculi are an uncommon type of urolithiasis, accounting for ~1% of all urinary tract stones. Epidemiology They almost all occur in males 2 with two peak incidences - one in childhood and the other at 40 years 3. Clinical presentation Most commonly acute lower urinary tract symptoms...
Article

Urethral caruncle

Urethral caruncles are the most common urethral lesion in postmenopausal women. Epidemiology The lesion accounts for >90% of urethral masses in postmenopausal women 2. Clinical presentation Most women are asymptomatic, but caruncles can cause pain or bleeding. On physical examination, there ...
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Urethral clamps

Various radiological and surgical instruments, including urethral clamps, have been developed to try to improve retrograde/ascending urethrogram (RUG/ASU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) technique in males. These are very rarely (if ever) used anymore. Brodny clamp This device has a metall...
Article

Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
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Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma

Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence in a urethral diverticulum. Epidemiology Urethral diverticulum seen in ~0.6-6% of women. In small series, only 3-6% of resected urethral diverticula show adenocarcinoma 3-4. Clinical features Urinary frequency, urgency, burning mictur...
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Urethral duplication

Urethral duplication is a rare condition in which either a part or the entire urethra is duplicated. It usually occurs in the sagittal plane and the more dorsal copy is usually the duplication. Pathology A urethral duplication may occur due to a variety of developmental miscues. In a woman, it...
Article

Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
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Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the etiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pre...
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Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males. Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as: retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
Article

Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extraperitoneal structure located in the true pelvis. Its primary function is as a reservoir for urine.  Gross anatomy The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anteri...
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Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
Article

Urinary bladder diverticulum

A urinary bladder diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is an outpouching from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. It may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size. Epidemiology There are two peaks; one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 ...
Article

Urinary bladder hernia

Herniation of the urinary bladder is a relatively uncommon but not a rare condition. It occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal. Herniations through ischiorectal, obturator, or abdominal wall openings have also been described. Bla...
Article

Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Etiology Bladder rupture can be categorized into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture: Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since i...
Article

Urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification (differential)

Causes of urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification include: Common bladder calculus schistosomiasis of the urinary tract tuberculosis Uncommon neuroblastoma; pheochromocytoma radiation reaction alkaptonuria (ochronosis) amyloidosis calculus in a urachal cyst or in a bladder divertic...
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Urinary diversion

Urinary diversion is created after the removal of the urinary bladder (radical cystectomy or cystoprostatectomy, usually done to treat invasive bladder cancer). There are three main varieties: neobladder formed from a segment of ileum (i.e. ileal conduit, also known as a "Bricker conduit") th...
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Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is the same in both males and females.  It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system. The urinary ...
Article

Urinary tract dilatation classification

Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification was a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from 8 societies (The American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Institute of Ultrasound ...
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Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Clinical presentation painful urination strangury bloody, dark, cloudy urine urinary frequen...
Article

Urine

Urine represents the biofluid end-product of the renal filtration process. Normally it is a transparent, sterile, pale-yellow liquid (although clearly color varies with the person's hydration status).  Urine is one of the most easily-accessible biofluids in the human body and has been intensive...
Article

Urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal tract leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.  Terminology As there is no definitive distincti...
Article

Urinothorax

Urinothorax (plural: urinothoraces), also known as urothorax, is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space. Clinical presentation Patients present with varying degrees of respiratory distress depending on the amount of fluid that has accumulated...
Article

Urogenital curriculum

The urogenital curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core genitourinary knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra), adrenal glands, prostate penis, scrotal content (testes, ...
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Urogenital triangle

The urogenital triangle forms the anterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's corners are defined by the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterolateral borders are the ischiopubic rami and the posterior border is the transverse perinea...
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Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, and renal/kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.  See main a...
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Urothelial cell carcinoma (urethra)

Urothelial cell carcinoma of the urethra (formerly transitional cell carcinoma) is rare and is almost always limited to the proximal urethra in men (membranous and prostatic). The vast majority of urethral malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas. See also squamous cell carcinoma of the uret...
Article

US abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Ultrasound abdomen is one of the tests that is commonly used in the assessment of patients with abdominal pain. It is particularly useful for the assessment of solid organs and fluid-filled structures. Reference article T...
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Utricle (disambiguation)

The utricle may refer to: utricle of the inner ear utricle of the prostatic urethra
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Vaginal artery

The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males. Summary origin: anterior div...
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Vaginal opening

The vaginal opening, is also known as the introitus (plural: introituses), vaginal orifice, or ostium vaginae (plural: ostia vaginarum) (TA) . Gross anatomy The entrance to the vagina lies in the vestibule of the vulva in the median plane. It has an anteroposterior orientation and is partially...
Article

Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly us...
Article

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of the general male population and ~40% of subferti...
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Varicocele embolization

Varicocele embolization is a minimally invasive method of treating varicoceles by embolizing the testicular vein (internal spermatic veins). Indications symptomatic varicocele infertility/subfertility failed surgical ligation Contraindications Relative contraindications include: intraveno...
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Varicocele grading on color Doppler

Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
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Vasitis

Vasitis (plural: vasitides), also known as deferentitis (plural: deferentitides) 7, is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of the vas deferens and spermatic cord. It is classified as either the generally asymptomatic vasitis nodosa (seen after vasectomy) or acutely painful infectious vasitis. This...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Verumontanum

The verumontanum or seminal colliculus is the rounded eminence of the urethral crest within the posterior wall of the mid prostatic urethra. The prostatic utricle opens into it in the midline and the two ejaculatory ducts open just distal to the utricle. On either side of it lie the prostatic si...
Article

Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS)

The Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric bladder MRI in the evaluation of suspected bladder cancer. A systematic approach to bladder lesion based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was proposed by the European Association of Urology...
Article

Vesico-urachal diverticulum

Vesico-urachal diverticulum is one of the congenital urachal remnant abnormalities. Gross anatomy It is the proximal equivalent of a urachal umbilical sinus, representing a result of the failure of the urachus to close at the urinary bladder, forming an out-pouching of variable length from the...
Article

Vesicoureteric junction

The vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), also known as the ureterovesicular junction (UVJ) is the most distal portion of the ureter, at the point where it connects to the urinary bladder.  Terminology Traditionally it is called the vesicoureteric junction, however some anatomists, radiologists and o...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically encountered in young children. For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric reflux grading. Epidemiology The incidence of urinary tract...
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Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
Article

Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
Article

Vicarious contrast material excretion

Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal excretion. The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder. ...
Article

Voiding cystourethrography

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), also known as a micturating cystourethrography (MCU),  is a fluoroscopic study of the lower urinary tract in which contrast is introduced into the bladder via a catheter. The purpose of the examination is to assess the bladder, urethra, postoperative anatomy an...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
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Vulva

The vulva (or pudendum) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris bulbs of the vestibule vestibule of the vulva vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features CT Individual co...
Article

WAGR syndrome

The WAGR syndrome stands for: Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk) aniridia genital anomalies intellectual retardation (disability) Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
Article

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (also known as purpura fulminans 9 or hemorrhagic adrenalitis 10) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency that results from atraumatic adrenal hemorrhage in consequence of septicemia.  Pathology Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is due to septicemia and common...
Article

Watering-can perineum

Watering-can perineum is the result of multiple fistulae extending from the urethra to open within the perineum. In these patients, urine can exit through these perineal openings 1,2. The fistulae can be detected with voiding cystourethrography, however, the definite cause can be determined with...
Article

Watermelon skin sign

The watermelon skin sign refers to diffuse, radiating, streaky areas of low signal intensity in prostate on T2WI in patients with prostatic tuberculosis 1.  
Article

Weigert-Meyer law

The Weigert-Meyer law describes the relationship of the upper and lower renal moieties in duplicated collecting systems to their drainage inferiorly. Weigert-Meyer law With duplex kidney and complete ureteral duplication, the upper renal and lower renal moiety is drained by separate ureters, e...
Article

Whirlpool sign (testicular torsion)

The whirlpool sign of the spermatic cord is a direct sign of testicular torsion, both complete and incomplete (i.e. <360°). It is considered to be the most specific and sensitive sign for testicular torsion. Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (dis...
Article

White pyramid sign (kidney)

The white pyramid sign, also known as dense renal medulla sign (DRM) or hyperdense renal pyramids sign, refers to the CT appearance of the medullary pyramids of the kidney which can be seen normally on unenhanced CT scans as high-attenuation triangular structures. Etiology incidental normal fi...
Article

Whitmore-Jewett staging system

Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system. A: subclinic...
Article

WHO classification of tumors of the kidney

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the kidney is the most commonly used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2016 as part of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urin...
Article

WHO histological classification of benign renal neoplasms

Benign renal tumors were histologically classified according to the World Health Organization 1. This is the subset of entities in the 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors that are associated with an International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) behavior code of 0, indicating ...
Article

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor. Epidemiology Wilms tumors are the most common pediatric renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
Article

Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
Article

Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone of...
Article

Wunderlich syndrome

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition, in which spontaneous nontraumatic renal hemorrhage occurs into the subcapsular, and perirenal spaces 2. Clinical presentation Wunderlich syndrome is clinically characterized by Lenk's triad: acute flank pain flank mass hypovolemic shock ​Mnemonic F...
Article

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...
Article

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however, the underlying pathogenesis is yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoospermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly r...
Article

Yo-yo reflux

Yo-yo reflux or uretero-ureteral reflux is noted in partial duplication of ureters 1,2. It is the reflux of urine from normal caliber ureter to dilated ureter.  Radiographic features Yo-yo reflux should be suspected when there is asymmetric dilatation of ureters. It can be diagnosed with color...
Article

Zinner syndrome

Zinner syndrome is a triad of mesonephric (Wolffian) duct anomalies comprising unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction 1. Clinical presentation Patients are typically diagnosed during the 3rd or 4th decade of life and often present with per...

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