Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

936 results found
Article

Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone of...
Article

Wunderlich syndrome

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition in which spontaneous nontraumatic renal hemorrhage occurs into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces. Clinical presentation Wunderlich syndrome is clinically characterized by Lenk's triad: acute flank pain flank mass hypovolemic shock ​Mnemonic F: fl...
Article

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...
Article

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however, the underlying pathogenesis is yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoospermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly r...
Article

Yo-yo reflux

Yo-yo reflux or uretero-ureteral reflux is noted in partial duplication of ureters 1,2. It is the reflux of urine from normal caliber ureter to dilated ureter.  Radiographic features Yo-yo reflux should be suspected when there is asymmetric dilatation of ureters. It can be diagnosed with color...
Article

Zinner syndrome

Zinner syndrome is a triad of mesonephric (Wolffian) duct anomalies comprising unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction 1. Clinical presentation Patients are typically diagnosed during the 3rd or 4th decade of life and often present with per...

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