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Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female, the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone o...

Wunderlich syndrome

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition in which spontaneous non-traumatic renal hemorrhage occurs into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces. Clinical presentation Wunderlich syndrome is clinically characterized by Lenk's triad: acute flank pain flank mass hypovolemic shock ​Mnemonic F: f...

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however, the underlying pathogenesis is yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoospermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly r...

Yo-yo reflux

Yo-yo reflux or uretero-ureteral reflux is noted in partial ureteral duplication 1,2. It is the reflux of urine from the normal caliber ureter to the dilated ureter.  Radiographic features Yo-yo reflux should be suspected when there is asymmetric dilatation of ureters. It can be diagnosed with...

Zinner syndrome

Zinner syndrome is a triad of mesonephric (Wolffian) duct anomalies comprising unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction 1. Clinical presentation Patients are typically diagnosed during the 3rd or 4th decade of life and often present with per...

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