Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

904 results found
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Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a situation characterized by development of neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid haemodialysis. I...
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Diverticulum

Diverticula are outpouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. Occasionally a diverticulum is used in a more general sense to mean the outpouching of other anatomical structures, e.g. frontal intersinus septal cells are hypothesized to form as diverticula from the frontal sinu...
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Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris

Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris is one of the two terminal branches of the pudendal nerve that arises from nerve whilst in the pudendal canal. The other terminal branch is the perineal nerve.  Gross anatomy Course Entering the urogenital triangle of the perineum, the dorsal nerve of penis o...
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Double contrast cystography

Double contrast cystography (pneumocystography) is an older technique to evaluate the bladder lumen. It has rarely been used (if ever) after the advent of cross-sectional imaging. The exam is performed similarly to a conventional cystogram, but gas is also introduced through the Foley catheter....
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Double retroaortic left renal vein

Double retroaortic left renal vein is a very rare entity that is usually clinically silent and detected incidentally at imaging, surgery, or autopsy. The knowledge of anatomical variations helps the surgeon or interventionist to avoid complications during surgery and interventional procedures 4...
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Drash syndrome

Drash syndrome, also known as the Denys-Drash syndrome, is associated with an abnormal WT1 gene (Wilms tumor gene) and consists of: Wilms tumor male pseudohermaphroditism progressive glomerulonephritis
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Dromedary hump

Dromedary humps are prominent focal bulges on the lateral border of the left kidney. They are normal variants of the renal contour, caused by the splenic impression onto the superolateral left kidney. Dromedary humps are important because they may mimic a renal mass, and as such is considered a...
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Drooping lily sign (ureter)

The drooping lily sign is a urographic sign in some patients with a duplicated collecting system. It refers to the inferolateral displacement of the opacified lower pole moiety due to an obstructed (and unopacified) upper pole moiety. The similarity to a lily is further strengthened by the smal...
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Drug-induced renal calculi

Drug-induced renal calculi are a subtype of renal calculi, whereby the stone formation is related to the patient's medication. Two main types of drug-induced calculi are described: medication-containing metabolically-induced Epidemiology Overall drug-induced urolithiasis accounts for 1-2% o...
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Ductus deferens

The ductus deferens (plural: ductus deferentes) forms part of the male internal genitalia where it transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. In modern anatomic nomenclature, it is no longer referred to as the vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia). Gross anatomy The ductus ...
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Ductus deferens calcification

Calcification of the ductus deferens can result from: diabetes mellitus - most common normal aging chronic infection - more frequently irregular; unlike diabetic calcification, inflammatory calcification tends to be unilateral and segmental 3 tuberculosis syphilis gonorrhea schistosomiasi...
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Ductus deferens cyst

A ductus deferens cyst (also known as a vas deferens cyst) is a type of juxtaprostatic - extraprostatic cyst. They are usually located along the course of the ductus deferens and superior to the prostate. They can arise from congenital abnormalities of the vas deferens or acquired causes such as...
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Duplex collecting system

A duplex collecting system, or duplicated collecting system, is one of the most common congenital renal tract abnormalities. It is characterized by an incomplete fusion of upper and lower pole moieties resulting in a variety of complete or incomplete duplications of the collecting system. While ...
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Dynamic contrast enhancement in prostate cancer

Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI is a component of a multiparametric MRI approach for evaluating the extent of primary and recurrent prostate cancer.  Protocol and equipment Typically 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient-echo MRI sequences are used to repeatedly image a volume of interes...
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Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
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Ectopic kidney

An ectopic kidney, also known as renal ectopia, is a congenital renal anomaly characterized by the abnormal location of one or both of the kidneys. They can occur in several forms: cross fused renal ectopia ectopic thoracic kidney pelvic kidney Epidemiology The estimated incidence of an ec...
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Ectopic testis

Ectopic testes are a rare congenital anomaly, differing from undescended testis (cryptorchidism) in that ectopic testis is a congenitally abnormally located testis, that has descended from the abdominal cavity away from the normal path of descent while undescended testis are congenitally abnorma...
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Ectopic ureter

An ectopic ureter is a congenital renal anomaly that occurs as a result of abnormal caudal migration of the ureteral bud during its insertion to the urinary bladder. Normally the ureter drains via the internal ureteral orifice at the trigone of the urinary bladder.  In females, the most common ...
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Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid. Gross anatomy Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens, and is approximately 2 cm long. The ducts course...
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Ejaculatory duct cyst

Ejaculatory duct cysts are a rare type of cyst of the prostate gland. Pathology They occur due to obstruction of the ejaculatory duct which in turn can either be congenital or secondary (e.g. inflammation). They are usually intraprostatic when small but may extend cephalad when large. Radiog...
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules of the testes E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Emphysematous cystitis

Emphysematous cystitis (EC) refers to a gas-forming infection of the bladder wall. Epidemiology The condition is rare and usually confined to certain patient subgroups. Median age affected is 66 years. More common in women, 2:1 F:M 9. Risk factors Risk factors include: diabetes mellitus co...
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Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is a rarely reported entity with only a handful of case reports. It is reported as a rare cause of acute scrotum encountered in poorly controlled diabetics. The pathology of this condition is unknown with few possible hypotheses postulated. The diagnosis is usual...
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Emphysematous prostatitis

Emphysematous prostatitis refers to gas-forming infection of the prostate, nearly always occurring concurrently with prostatic abscess. Epidemiology The condition is rare, most commonly presenting in males aged 50-70 years and usually confined to certain patient subgroups 1,2. Risk factors R...
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Emphysematous pyelitis

Emphysematous pyelitis is isolated gas production inside the excretory system, secondary to acute bacterial infection. It is a relatively benign entity and needs accurate differentiation from the far more serious emphysematous pyelonephritis, which is gas production from an infection in the rena...
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a morbid infection with particular gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and, therefore, carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with fevers and flank pain. I...
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Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
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Endometrial carcinoma (staging)

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.  Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low speci...
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End-stage kidney disease

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), also referred as end-stage renal failure, corresponds to the last stage of chronic kidney disease (stage 5), when the kidneys' function is no longer sufficient to sustain life (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73m2) and kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or transplant) is requ...
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Eosinophilic ureteritis

Eosinophilic ureteritis (and eosinophilic pyelouerteritis) is a rare cause of ureteral inflammation. The clinical presentation and imaging features are non-specific. Clinical presentation Patients are usually atopic or hypereosinophilic with peripheral eosinophilia. Associated with eosinophil...
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Epidermoid cyst

Epidermoid cysts are nonneoplastic inclusion cysts derived from ectoderm that are lined solely by squamous epithelium. These are discussed separately by anatomic location: epidermal inclusion cyst intracranial epidermoid cyst splenic epidermoid cyst spinal epidermoid cyst testicular epiderm...
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Epididymal abscess

An epididymal abscess is an uncommon complication of epididymitis. Pathology Causative organisms are the same that cause epididymitis: older individuals Escherichia coli Proteus mirabills younger individuals  Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Other rare etiological agents St...
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Epididymal appendix

Epididymal appendices, also known as appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis, are an testicular appendage found at the head of the epididymis 1. They represent a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct). In 78% of the cases, it has a stalk configuration and is thus...
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Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci within the epididymal head. If the calcifications are large enough, then they may demonstrate acoustic shadowing. Differential diagnosis chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  traum...
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Epididymal cyst

Epididymal cysts are the most common epididymal mass. Epidemiology Epididymal cysts have been reported in ~30% (range 20-40%) of asymptomatic individuals 5. Pathology They are usually of lymphatic origin 2. The cysts contain clear serous fluid, lymphocytes, spermatozoa and debris. Clinical ...
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Epididymal masses

Epididymal masses are most commonly encountered on ultrasonography. Most epididymal masses are benign; malignant lesions are rare. Differential diagnosis Benign solid adenomatoid tumor of the scrotum (most common epididymal mass 4) epididymal leiomyoma sperm granulomas / post vasectomy gran...
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Epididymis

The epididymis (plural: epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testis within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens. Gross anatomy The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to the testis. It can be su...
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Epididymitis

Epididymitis refers to inflammation of the epididymis, and may be associated with inflammation extending to the testis itself, in which case the term epididymo-orchitis is used. This should be distinguished from isolated orchitis, which is by comparison much less common.  Epidemiology There ar...
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Epispadias

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly that is almost always associated with bladder exstrophy.  Epidemiology It occurs in 1 in 30,000 births, with a male: female ratio of 3:1. Clinical presentation The roof of the urethra is absent and the urethra opens anywhere between the base and the gl...
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Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of kidney

Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (EAML) are rare variants of the more common renal angiomyolipoma. They have malignant potential. Pathology Like more common renal angiomyolipomas, EAMLs are considered perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas). EAMLs were regarded as a separate renal mass entit...
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Erased charcoal sign (prostate cancer)

The erased charcoal sign describes the typical appearance of focal prostate cancer in the transition zone characterized as homogeneous hypointensity on T2WI with ill-defined borders, akin to a charcoal pencil drawing smudged with an eraser, often with a lenticular or waterdrop-like shape.
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate

The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is widely used as a surrogate marker of renal function and is mathematically-derived from the patient's serum creatinine, using their age, sex and ethnicity.  Calculation The eGFR is calculated using a four variables Modification of Diet in Renal...
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External iliac lymph nodes

The external iliac lymph nodes can be found surrounding the external iliac artery and act as the draining nodes for several regions of the pelvis and lower limb.  Gross anatomy The external iliac lymph nodes lie anterior to the internal iliac lymph nodes and usually form three separate subgrou...
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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis. It is less successful in obese patients and with stones >2 cm. Complications steinstrasse: incomplete fragmentation that results in a pile-up of stone fragments that obstruct the ureter renal hem...
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Extramammary Paget disease

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is the rarer non-breast form of Paget disease of the nipple. It is considered a form of adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glandular tissue. In men the penis and scrotum are most frequently involved, and in women the vulva. Nodal and distant organ metastatic disease...
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Extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer

Extraprostatic (extracapsular) extension of prostate cancer refers to local tumor growth beyond the fibromuscular band surrounding the prostate gland. It is a pathological finding important to prostate cancer staging. Radiographic features Though imperfect, MRI is superior to transrectal ultra...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum; it is a normal anatomic variant. Epidemiology It is found in ~10% of the population 2.  Radiographic features Ultrasound An extrarenal pelvis usually appears dilated, erroneously suggesting...
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Extratesticular cystic lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for extratesticular cystic lesions includes: hydrocele epididymal cyst spermatocele hematoma haematocele loop of bowel from an inguinal hernia abscess pyocele post-vasectomy varicocele Very rarely, a scrotal mesothelioma may present as a cystic mass.
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Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
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Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Falling snow sign (spermatocele)

The falling snow sign describes the appearance of movement of internal echoes in spermatoceles away from the transducer, resulting in an appearance similar to falling snow when color Doppler is applied. The sign can be used to aid in the diagnosis of a spermatocele.
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Fanconi syndrome

Fanconi syndrome describes generalized proximal renal tubule dysfunction causing impaired reabsorption of many urinary solutes.  Clinical presentation Clinical features include poor growth, fatigue, dehydration, polyuria, muscle weakness, and bone pain. Features on a basic blood panel include ...
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Fat containing renal lesions

There are numerous fat-containing renal lesions, including: renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumor renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma/liposarcoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat: renal junction line fat in a renal scar renal sinus lipomatosis x...
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
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Female pseudohermaphroditism

Female pseudohermaphroditism (FPH) is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with female pseudohermaphroditism have female internal genitalia and female karyotype (46 XX) with various degree of external genitalia virilization. Causes  congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CA...
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Female urethra

The female urethra is a simple short tube, that transports urine out of the body, extending from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.  Gross anatomy The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embedded...
Article

Fetal cystic renal disease

Fetal cystic renal disease can be in included in three of the four types classified according the system by Osathanondh and Potter 1: Potter type I: infantile polycystic kidney disease Potter type II: multicystic dysplastic kidneys Potter type III: adult polycystic kidney disease Potter type...
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Fetal hydrocele

A fetal hydrocele refers to a hydrocele present in utero. Epidemiology They may be sonographically identified in ~15% of male fetuses in the third trimester 6. Pathology Often result from a patent processus vaginalis. They are more frequently unilateral.  Associations hydrops fetalis meco...
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Fetal hydronephrosis

Fetal hydronephrosis represents the abnormal dilatation of the fetal renal collecting system, with pelviureteric junction obstruction the most commonly encountered cause.  Please, refer to the article on fetal pyelectasis for a dedicated discussion on this relatively common and usually benign f...
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Fetal megacystis

Fetal megacystis refers to the presence of an unusually large bladder in a fetus.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence of antenatal imaging is at ~1:1500 pregnancies. Pathology It can result from a number of causes but the main underlying mechanism is either distal stenosis or reflux. Asso...
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Fetal pyelectasis

Fetal pyelectasis refers to a prominence of the renal pelvis in utero that is a relatively common finding, which in the majority of cases resolves spontaneously.  Please refer to the article on fetal hydronephrosis for a continued discussion on this matter.  Terminology  Although there is an ...
Article

Fetal urachal cyst

A fetal urachal cyst refers to a urachal cyst occuring in utero. It may or may not communicate with the vertex of the fetal bladder. It may also arise within the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord urachal cysts originate from an extra-abdominal urachal system.  See also fetal intra-abdominal cysts...
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Fetal urinary ascites

Fetal urinary ascites is one of the causes of fetal ascites and can arise from a number of pathologies: in utero bladder perforation fetal megacystis transudation from the fetal bladder persistent urogenital sinus Radiographic features Ultrasound The presence of fetal ascites without fe...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
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Fibrous pseudotumor of the scrotum

Fibrous pseudotumor of the scrotum is a relatively rare, non-neoplastic extratesticular non-epididymal lesion. Epidemiology It affects any age. Although rare, it is considered the third most common extra testicular mass after a scrotal lipoma and an epididymal adenomatoid tumor.  Pathology I...
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Filarial dance sign

The filarial dance sign refers to a twirling motion of microfilariae (e.g. W. bancrofti)  in dilated lymphatic channels. It is identified as a characteristic sign of scrotal filariasis. The dilated channels are identified with the absence of color flow on color Doppler study and the microfilari...
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Filariasis

Filariasis refers to infection with nematodes (roundworms) of the family Filarioidea. There are three species of these thread-like filarial worms: Wuchereria bancrofti: responsible for 90% of cases Brugia malayi: causes most of the remainder of cases Brugia timori: an uncommon cause It can a...
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Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome

The Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome is a sub type of congenital nephrotic syndrome. A large placenta and proteinuria from birth are considered hallmarks of the disease 2. The proteinuria is often of intra-uterine onset. Although it is named the Finnish type, it can occur outside Finla...
Article

Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter  in type 1 or low loop variety. As the right ur...
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Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
Article

Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride

Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride (also known as 18F-NaF or sodium fluoride) is a PET radiotracer used primarily for skeletal imaging. Structure Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride is an ionic compound comprised of a single sodium atom bound to a positron-emitting isotope of fluorine.  Dist...
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Foley catheter

The Foley catheter is a urinary catheter with a balloon at its distal tip, which is inflated post-insertion to ensure that the catheter remains in the bladder. Originally inflation of the balloon required the instillation of fluid or air via a separate port, next to the external end of the cathe...
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Fornix (disambiguation)

The term fornix (plural: fornices) is used for anatomical structures in multiple organ systems that all share an arch-like morphology: fornix (brain) fornix (eye) fornix (lacrimal) fornix (pharynx) fornix (renal) fornix (stomach) fornix (vagina) History and etymology Fornix is Latin for...
Article

Fossa navicularis

The fossa navicularis refers to a normal mild dilatation of the urethra. It occurs at the most distal/downstream portion of the urethra. It is more evident in males, where it occurs in the penile/pendulous urethra, near the urethral meatus. There is also a fossa navicularis in women: the more f...
Article

Fountain sign (acute idiopathic scrotal edema)

The fountain sign is sonographic sign described in acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE). It refers to the appearance of the pattern of vascularity seen during transverse color Doppler sonography of the scrotum with both testes together 1. In these transverse views in patients with AISE, marked...
Article

Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately, the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 years, rarely in women. Other predisposing factors in...
Article

Fraley syndrome

Fraley syndrome is the eponymous term for a dilated calyx (hydrocalyx) due to compression of a calyceal infundibulum from an adjacent artery or vein. It is rare, but it occurs more often in an upper pole calyx. The hydrocalyx may be painful.
Article

Free/total PSA ratio

The free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA) is an additional new parameter used in assessing PSA levels. Some authors 1,2 recommend that men with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10 ng/mL who are not suspected of having prostate cancer by whatever means should undergo %fPSA measurement and then be carefully monitored ...
Article

Frenulum (disambiguation)

Frenulum (plural: frenula) is an anatomical term and refers to a small fold of soft tissue that checks the movement of an anatomical part. frenulum (clitoris) frenulum (ileocecal valve) frenulum (labia minora) frenulum (penis) frenulum (tongue) History and etymology Frenulum derives from ...
Article

Frozen pelvis

Frozen pelvis refers to a condition in which pelvic organs are distorted and tethered to each other as a consequence of adhesive processes. It is commonly seen in endometriosis. Other causes include tumors, infections including pelvic inflammatory disease, post-surgical adhesions and post-treat...
Article

Fungal ball of the urinary tract

Fungal balls of the urinary tract, also known as fungal bezoars or mycetomas of the urinary tract, are a rare manifestation of funguria, usually candiduria. Epidemiology While candiduria may be seen in approximately 20% of hospitalized patients 1, development of fungal balls is considered very...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumors that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they ar...
Article

Gas in the urinary bladder

There are numerous causes of gas in the urinary bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include 1: iatrogenic indwelling urinary catheter is by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc. emphysematous cys...
Article

Genitourinary tuberculosis

Genitourinary tuberculosis is the second most common site of infection in humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, second only to pulmonary tuberculosis.  It can most easily be divided anatomically into: renal tuberculosis (renal parenchyma, calyces and renal pelvis) bladder and ureteric tubercu...
Article

Germ cell tumor (classification)

Germ cell tumors are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tumor...
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Germ cell tumors

Germ cell tumors are found widely throughout the body, and encompass a wide range of individual tumors. This article does not deal with any specific body locations. For detailed discussion please refer the articles listed at the end of this page.  Pathology Germ cell tumors arise from ectopic...
Article

Germ cell tumors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the differential diagnosis for germ cell tumors is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor)
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Germinoma

Germinoma is a term that if unqualified, usually refers to a tumor of the brain but can also refer to similar tumors of other regions particularly the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma: see WHO classification of CNS tumors All these tumors share...
Article

Gleason score

The histological grading of prostate cancer has undergone many revisions, and for many years the primary system was the Gleason score, itself derived from the Gleason grade. In 2014, the Grade Group was introduced, and care must be taken to not confuse this with the Gleason grade. The Gleason g...
Article

Global testicular infarction

Global testicular infarction is fortunately rare, and is most commonly seen in the context of testicular torsion. However rarely it can occur secondary to other causes.  Pathology Etiology testicular torsion epididymo-orchitis 1-4 iatrogenic surgery, e.g. inguinal hernia repair 7 post-EVA...
Article

Glomerulocystic disease

Glomerulocystic disease (GCK) is a rare cystic kidney disease.  Pathology Microscopic appearance Histopathology typically shows normal-sized glomeruli with the enlarged Bowman’s space and tubular cystic changes. A proposed mechanism of glomerular cyst development is stenosis at the glomerulot...

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