Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

839 results found
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McCune-Albright syndrome

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of: endocrinopathy: precocious puberty polyostotic fibrous dysplasia: more severe than in sporadic cases cutaneous pigmentation: coast of Maine 'cafe au lait' spots Clinical presentation Presentation is va...
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Medial fossa

The medial fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the medial umbilical folds and the lateral umbilical folds. The fossae are contained within the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The right medial fossa typically partially contains the cecum and/or ileum...
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Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments. The paired folds run from pelvis to umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of foetal umbilical art...
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Median umbilical fold

The median umbilical fold is a raised ridge of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the median umbilical ligament. It runs from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. The median umbilical ligament is the anatomical remnant of the foetal urachus. The ...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Medullary cystic disease complex

Medullary cystic disease complex belongs to group of pediatric cystic renal diseases charaterised by progressive tubular atrophy with glomerulosclerosis (chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis) and multiple small medullary cysts.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection Clinical...
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic used to remember the etiology of medullary nephrocalcinosis is: HAM HOP Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism A: (renal tubular) acidosis M: medullary sponge kidney H: hypercalcemia / hypercalciuria O: oxalosis P: papillary necrosis See also renal papillary necrosis mnemoni...
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Medullary sponge kidney

Medullary sponge kidney is a sporadic condition where the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts are dysplastic and dilated and in most cases develop medullary nephrocalcinosis.  Epidemiology The incidence of medullary sponge kidney is estimated at ≈1:5000. Clinical presenta...
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Megacystis megaureter syndrome

Megacystis megaureter syndrome describes the radiologic appearance of a large capacity thin-walled bladder and massive primary vesicoureteral reflux. Pathology The pathophysiology of these massively dilated ureters and the large capacity bladder is the constant recycling of large volumes of r...
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Megapolycalycosis

Megapolycalycosis is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney which is characterized by dilatation and increase in number of the renal calyces without any distal obstruction. Epidemiology Associations  obstructive uropathy vesicoureteric reflux Schinzel- Giedion syndrome Clinical presentati...
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Melioidosis

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (previously known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) and is a multisystem disorder which may affect the lungs, brain, visceral organs, or musculoskeletal system. Epidemiology Melioidosis is a disease of the monsoon season in th...
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Mesoblastic nephroma

Mesoblastic nephroma, also sometimes known as a congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) or fetal renal hamartoma, is, in general, a benign renal tumor that typically occurs in utero or in infancy. Epidemiology It is the commonest neonatal renal tumor. Diagnosis is usually made in the antenatal p...
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Metallic ureteric stent

Metallic ureteric stents are a type of ureteric stent developed to offer improved symptomatic relief of obstruction when compared to polymeric (polyurethane) stents. They are often used in patients with lchronic malignant ureteric obstructions who require placement of long-term ureteral stents t...
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Metanephric adenoma of the kidney

Metanephric adenoma (MA) of the kidney is a type of benign renal neoplasm.  Epidemiology While it can present at any age 6, the peak age of occurrence is thought to be around the 5th to 6th decades 2. There may be a 2:1 female preponderance 2.  Clinical presentation Metanephric adenoma is as...
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Metanephric blastema

Metanephric blastema  (or metanephrogenic blastema) is one of the two embryological structure that give rise to the kidney, the other one being the ureteric bud. Related pathology Persistent metanephric blastema after 36 weeks of gestational age are called nephrogenic rests. They are associate...
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Metastases to testis

Metastases to testis are a rare cause of a testicular mass and may be bilateral in up to 15% of patients.  Epidemiology Metastases to the testes are apparent in ~0.04% of autopsy studies in patients with known malignancy. The average age is 57 years, much older than the primary age for primary...
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Microlithiasis

Microlithiasis merely means very small stones and may refer to: testicular microlithiasis alveolar microlithiasis calyceal microlithiasis
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Middle adrenal artery

The middle adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. Gross Anatomy Origin The middle suprarenal arteries arise from the aorta on each side between the inferior phrenic artery and the renal artery. They run laterally across the diaphragmati...
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Milk-alkali syndrome

Milk-alkali syndrome is the combination of: hypercalcemia renal failure metabolic alkalosis It is due to the large amounts of calcium and alkali being ingested (e.g. milk and antacids for peptic ulcer disease treatment or calcium carbonate for osteoporosis). It is a cause of medullary nephro...
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Milk of calcium (disambiguation)

The term milk of calcium (MOC) is given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast: milk of calcium in breast cyst ...
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Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a type of gonadal dysgenesis characterized by gonadal asymmetry, and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism, as well as retained Müllerian ducts. Pathology Depending on the chromosomal composition, patients may have testes and/or streak gonads. Genetics affected indiv...
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Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney

Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor (MEST) of the kidney is an uncommon and recently recognised distinct neoplasm that should be distinguished from other renal neoplasms.  Epidemiology There is a female preponderance 10:1 1 with tumors occurring predominantly in middle-aged peri-menopausal wome...
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Molar tooth sign (abdomen)

Abdominal molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of contrast media spilled out of the urinary bladder on CT cystography after extraperitoneal bladder rupture. Contrast flows out of the ruptured bladder, occupying preperitoneal cavum Retzii and surrounds the bladder in the shape of a molar to...
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Mons pubis

The mons pubis (plural: montes pubis) refers to the rounded protuberant skin-covered soft tissue overlying the symphysis pubis (in both sexes). It is most prominent in adult females. In females it forms the most superior part of the vulva and it is also called the mons Veneris (plural: montes V...
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Moth eaten calyces

Moth eaten calyx refers to the ragged, feathery calyceal outline due to irregular erosions of the calyx. It is one of the earliest excretory urographic appearance of genitourinary tuberculosis.  Pathology This appearance is due to necrotizing papillitis, which may further progress to form medu...
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MR defecating proctography

MR defaecography is a dynamic study for evaluation of the pelvic floor and pelvic organ prolapse. Phases There are four phases of evaluation: rest squeeze strain (Valsalva) defecation/evacuation Method of evaluation Many variations in the techniques described below exist. Patient prepar...
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MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer

MR spectroscopy is a promising development in the radiological evaluation of possible prostate malignancy.  The MR spectroscopic evaluation is mainly based on the choline peak elevation and choline-creatinine ratios. Choline/creatine to citrate ratios: > 0.5: suspicious > 0.8: very suspiciou...
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Mulberry stone

A mulberry stone is one of the types of urinary tract stones. It is formed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. It can be considered as a subset of a jackstone calculus which has a spiked appearance. When the stone has less well-developed spikes, it may appear to have a mamillated appearance, hence it ...
Article

Müllerian duct cyst

A Müllerian duct cyst is a cyst that arises from remnants of the Müllerian duct and is one of the midline cystic masses in the male pelvis.  Epidemiology Müllerian duct cysts usually occur in the 3rd and 4th decades of life (whereas utricle cysts are most often detected in the 1st and 2nd deca...
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Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable pediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slightl...
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Multicystic mesothelioma

Multicystic mesotheliomas are a rare benign subtype of mesothelioma commonly seen in young women.  Epidemiology They are most common in young females.  Risk factors previous abdominal surgery previous pelvic inflammatory disease no recognised association with asbestos exposure 5 Clinical ...
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Multilocular cystic renal tumor

Multilocular cystic renal tumors (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partially...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterized by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumors. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) MEN2 (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN2a (Sipple syndrome) ...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN2) is also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome or multiple endocrine adenomatosis. It is a collection of syndromes characterized by the presence of multiple endocrine tumors.  They are autosomal dominant in inheritance, and share medullary thyroid carcinom...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
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Multiple filling defects of the ureter (differential)

Multiple filling defects within a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU, have a relatively small differential including: spreading or multifocal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) vascular indentations multiple ureteral stones (steinstrasse) blood clots ureteritis cystica Stevens-Jo...
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N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) if often used as a prophylaxis against contrast-induced nephropathy. Protocols for administration vary widely from institution to institution and the true efficacy is still controversial. A typical protocol is [1-2]: 600 mg acetylcysteine twice daily on the day of the ex...
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Neonatal hydronephrosis

Neonatal hydronephrosis is most commonly diagnosed antenatally as fetal pylectasis, and in the majority of cases is due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.   Pathology Etiology pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction (50% of cases 1,6) vesicoureteric reflux (~20% of cases 5) pos...
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Nephroblastomatosis

Nephroblastomatosis refers to diffuse or multifocal involvement of the kidneys with nephrogenic rests (persistent metanephric blastema). Epidemiology Nephrogenic rest are found incidentally in 1% of infants. Pathology Nephrogenic rests are foci of metanephric blastema that persist beyond 36 ...
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Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis, previous known as Anderson-Carr kidney or Albright's calcinosis, refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the parenchyma of the kidney. It is divided into several types, with differing etiologies, based on the distribution: medullary nephrocalcinosis: 95% cortical nephroc...
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Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis, also known as floating/wandering kidney or ren mobilis, refers to the descent of the kidney more than 5 cm or two vertebral bodies when the patient moves from a supine to upright position during IVU 1,2. Displacement can also occur medially across the midline, so-called medial nep...
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Nephrostomy

Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...
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Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome results from loss of plasma proteins in the urine and characterized by hypoalbuminemia, hyperalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. It may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Clinical presentation Patients present with marked...
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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumors of neuroblastic origin. Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. They represent the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancy and are the third commonest childhood tumor after leukemia and b...
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Neuroblastoma (staging)

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
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Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumor

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structur...
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Neurocristopathy syndromes

Neurocristopathy syndromes encompasses a group of conditions united by abnormal migration, differentiation, division or survival of neural crest cells 1. Examples include: Waardenburg-Shah syndrome Haddad syndrome MEN IIa neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) Sturge-Weber syndrome Bamforth-Lazar...
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Neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a dysfunctional urinary bladder that results from an injury to the central or peripheral nerves that control and regulate urination. Injury to the brain, brainstem, spinal cord or peripheral nerves from various causes including infection, trauma, malignanc...
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Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) is one of the main groups of germ cell tumors (the other being seminoma). Although they are made up of distinct histological entities, in general, they have similar radiographic appearances. They can, however, be found widely in the body, with variable i...
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Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the genitourinary tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 Intravenous Urogram (IVU) / Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound:...
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Normal kidney size in children

The normal size of kidneys in children will naturally depend on the age and size of the child. Based on the children's ages normal average renal length on ultrasound are as follows: 0 to 2 months: 5 cm (approximately 2 inches) 2 months to 6 months: 5.7 cm 6 months to 1 year: 6.2 cm (2.5 inche...
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Normal kidneys size in adults

Normal kidneys size in adults varies depending on the height of the individual. Also, in general, it decreases with age and increases with body mass index (BMI). The size of the kidneys is measured mainly sonographically, although both CT and MRI scans also can be used to estimate kidneys size....
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Nutcracker syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder and refers to the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walled veins into the collecting system with resultant hema...
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Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia

Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, or Potter type IV cystic renal disease, is a potential complication that can occur from prolonged obstruction of the bladder outlet or urethra during gestation.  Pathology Ureteric obstruction during active nephrogenesis results in cystic renal dysplasia; th...
Article

Obstructive uropathy

An obstructive uropathy is a catch-all term encompassing any cause of complete or partial, congenital or acquired and permanent or intermittent obstruction to the urinary tract. Depending on the severity of obstruction and extent, it may result in permanent change in both the collecting system p...
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Oncocalyx

An oncocalyx is a dilated tumor filled renal calyx, typically seen in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis.
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Orchitis

Orchitis is an infection of the testicle, which is rarely isolated, and when in conjunction with the epididymis is called epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Usually, bacteria retrogradely seed into the testis from the bladder or prostate. Can also be secondary to viral infection (e.g. mumps, Coxsac...
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Ossifying renal tumor of infancy

Ossifying renal tumor of infancy (ORTI) is a rare renal tumor. Epidemiology extremely rare, <<1% of pediatric renal neoplasms (17 cases reported) 6 days - 3 months male predominant Pathology Histology reveals spindle cells and osteoblastic cells in a calcified osteoid matrix. It is thought...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
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Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
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Pediatric cystic renal diseases

The pediatric cystic renal diseases comprises a group of conditions that are all either autosomal recessive or non-hereditary: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): hyperechoic and enlarged kidney multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK): absence of functional parenchyma, ureter...
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Pediatric kidney size

The pediatric kidneys follow a growth curve. The measurements below are of the longest maximal dimension. Measurements in parentheses are one standard deviation. 0 months 1:  female: 4.15 cm (0.35); male: 4.22 cm (0.32) 2 months: 5.28 cm (0.66) 6 months: 6.15 cm (0.67) 10 months: 6.23 cm (0....
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Pediatric renal tumors and masses

Pediatric renal tumors and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumor: common in older children 1-8 years old nephroblastomatosis: ...
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Pediatric urinary tract infection

Pediatric urinary tract infections are common and are a source of significant imaging in young children. Epidemiology Pediatric urinary tract infections affect up to 2.8% of all children every year, with approximately 2% of boys and 8% or more of girls developing a urinary tract infection at s...
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Pediatric urinary tract infection (NICE guideline)

The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published the “Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management” in 2007 as a guideline for pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) management, including imaging, prophylaxis and follow-up 1.  This article intend...
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Page kidney

Page kidney, or Page phenomenon, refers to systemic hypertension secondary to extrinsic compression of the kidney by a subcapsular collection, e.g. hematoma, seroma, or urinoma. Clinical presentation Patients present with hypertension, which may be recognized acutely after an inciting event or...
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Paintbrush appearance

A paintbrush appearance describes the streaky appearances of dilated contrast filled tubules within the renal medulla on IVP or CT-IVU. This appearance is characteristic for medullary sponge kidneys. A similar appearance is also seen in the renal tubular ectasia; though less pronounced. See al...
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Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus (plural: plexuses) is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testis and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular (internal sperma...
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Pancake adrenal gland

The pancake adrenal gland or "lying down" adrenal sign refers to the flattened disk-like appearance of the adrenal gland in the renal fossa when the ipsilateral kidney is absent. When a pancake adrenal gland is present careful examination should be performed to exclude renal agenesis or renal ec...
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Pancake kidney

Pancake kidney (also known as discoid kidney, disk kidney, lump kidney, fused pelvic kidney or cake kidney) is a rare renal fusion anomaly of the kidneys of the crossed fused variety. Clinical presentation Pancake kidney may be an incidental finding. However, they can present clinically becaus...
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Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis

Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are the second most common benign tumors of the epididymis after adenomatoid tumors and are common in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). Clinical presentation Papillary cystadenomas are usually asymptomatic. Epidemiology They are more comm...
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Papillary renal cell carcinoma

Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are the second most common histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology This subtype may account 13-20% of all renal cell cancer 1. There is slightly increased male predilection. Clinical presentation As with other types of renal cell canc...
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Pararectal space

The pararectal spaces are paired, triangular-shaped spaces in the posterior pelvis.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: cardinal ligament medial: rectal pillars lateral: levator ani muscle, internal iliac arteries posterior: sacrum Contents fat connective tissue Relations separated fr...
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Parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves

The pelvic splanchnic nerves also known as nervi erigentes are preganglionic (presynaptic) parasympathetic nerve fibers that arise from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. These nerves form the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system in the pelvis.   Gross anatomy O...
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Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a long list of differential diagnoses: epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) adenomatoid tumor (most common epididymal tumor) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst hydrocele scrotal haematocele varicocele scrotolith (scrotal...
Article

Paratesticular tumors

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testicle within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorized as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Etiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common par...
Article

Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus.  Related pathology paraurethral duct cyst paraurethral duct abscess
Article

Paraurethral duct cyst

Paraurethral duct cysts are retention cysts that form secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the paraurethral (Skene) ducts in females. Pathology The cysts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium due to their origin from the urogenital sinus. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic....
Article

Paraurethral glands

Paraurethral glands (or Skene glands) lie within the wall of the distal female urethra and secrete mucus during sexual activity. Each gland is drained by a single paraurethral duct. They are homologous to the male prostate gland. If the paraurethral duct becomes obstructed (inflammation, inspis...
Article

Paravesical space

The paravesical spaces are paired avascular spaces of the pelvis. The paravesical spaces generally contain fat, but can become filled with ascites, blood, or other substances during pathological processes. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: lateral umbilical folds inferior: pubocervical fasc...
Article

Patent urachus

A patent urachus is one of the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies. It has occasionally been termed "urachal fistula". Clinical presentation A patent urachus is often diagnosed in neonates when urine is noted leaking from the umbilicus. The umbilicus may also have an abnormal appearance o...
Article

Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or teardrop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Etiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder inc...
Article

Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a walled-off collection of pus in the pelvis. Pathology  Etiology Some of the causes include: pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) iatrogenic e.g. post surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical pre...
Article

Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome (some prefer pelvic venous insufficiency 9) is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is a commonly missed and potentially-treatable cause of chronic abdominopelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common ...
Article

Pelvic kidney

Pelvic kidney (sometimes known as sacral kidney) is a kidney that is fixed in the bony pelvis or across the spine 1. Epidemiology Pelvic ectopia is seen in 1 in 2100-3000 autopsies. It is considered the most common form of renal ectopia 4. Clinical presentation These patients are asymptomati...
Article

Pelvic lipomatosis

Pelvic lipomatosis or pelvic fibrolipomatosis represents excessive deposition of fat in pelvis due to overgrowth of adipose cells leading to compression of pelvic organs. Epidemiology The condition usually presents in patients 20-50 years of age. The condition is predominantly (2/3 of cases) s...
Article

Pelvic peritoneal space

The pelvic peritoneal space is the inferior reflection of the peritoneum over the fundus of the urinary bladder and the front of the rectum at the junction of its middle and lower thirds. In females, the reflection is also over the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus and the upper poste...
Article

Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
Article

Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction

Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction or papaverine-induced color duplex Doppler, is a highly accurate means of assessing patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Pathology Penile erection is a result of a complex interaction between the nervous, arterial, venous and sinusoidal systems. Any d...
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Penile fracture

Penile fracture is a rare event, however requires emergency diagnosis and intervention. It is a rupture of corpora cavernosa and penile sheath (tunica albuginea) caused by trauma to an erect penis, most commonly during sexual intercourse. What a urologist needs to known in such an emergency, is...
Article

Penile implant

Penile implants are a surgically placed device to assist with erectile dysfunction. The device has inflatable components inserted in the penile shaft with a reservoir typically placed in the pelvis. See also erectile dysfunction Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction medical devices in the a...
Article

Penis

The penis is the external midline urinary and reproductive structure of the male urogenital system. Gross anatomy The gross anatomy of the penis can be divided into five sections:  Skin loosely connected to the tunica albuginea distally folded to form the prepuce (foreskin) at the corona of...

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