Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

981 results found
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Infertility

Infertility is common, affecting 15-20% of couples, and is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular unprotected intercourse 3,4. Subfertility is a synonym 4. It can be due to a variety of both female and male factors, and these are discussed in separate articles: female in...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behavior.  Terminology These tumors were previously referred to as inflammatory pseudotumor.   Epidemiology They can occur at any age and there is cu...
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Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
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Inguinal lymph nodes

The inguinal lymph nodes (often shortened to the inguinal nodes) are a major group of lymph nodes in the lymphatic system. They are the major drainage pathway of the lower limbs, genitals, dorsal perineum and the inferior most aspect of the anterior abdominal wall. Inguinal lymph nodes larger th...
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Internal iliac lymph nodes

The internal iliac lymph nodes (often shortened to internal iliac nodes) are the lymph nodes found adjacent to the internal iliac artery and its branches and drain the regions supplied by these vessels. This encompasses a large area from the genitalia anteriorly, the psoas muscle posteriorly and...
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Internal pudendal vein

The internal pudendal veins are the set of accompanying veins to the internal pudendal artery draining the perineal region to empty into the internal iliac vein. Gross Anatomy Tributaries inferior rectal veins males penile bulb and scrotum vein females clitoris and posterior labial vein ...
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International prostate symptom score

The international prostate symptom score (IPSS) is an 8 question (7 symptom questions + 1 quality of life question) screening tool used in screening, diagnosis, symptom tracking, and aiding management of the symptoms associated with bladder emptying and is useful in those with benign prostatic h...
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International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia

The International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia is a now-outdated classification of renal tumors published in 2013. It formed the basis for the most recent revision of the WHO classification of tumors of the kidney, published in 2016. For reference, ...
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Interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis (or painful bladder syndrome) refers to an inflammatory condition affecting the bladder. It is usually defined as urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than six months' duration. It usually represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Traditionally, it has been defin...
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Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Etiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary ...
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Intramural fat of the urinary bladder

Intramural fat of the urinary bladder is an occasional benign finding on CT/MRI.  Epidemiology Incidence of this finding on histopathological studies is up to 4%. Published radiological and pathological cohorts both report a male predominance. Clinical presentation Incidental asymptomatic fi...
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Intrapelvic cup migration

Intrapelvic cup migration is a serious complication after total hip arthroplasty, in which the prosthetic acetabular cup migrates or drifts into the pelvic inlet. Epidemiology Fortunately, this complication is very rare. There seems to be a female predisposition 1-3. Risk factors Factors inc...
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Intrarenal reflux

Intrarenal reflux (IRR) involves intrarenal extension of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) into the tubular system of the kidney. IRR occurs in 3-10% of cases and can lead to renal injury, which may eventually result in renal scarring. The condition can be diagnosed by micturating cystourethrography ...
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Intratesticular hematoma

Intratesticular hematomas typically result from testicular trauma. Radiographic features isoechoic/hyperechoic region in the traumatised testicle, becoming more hypoechoic as it resolves lack of color Doppler flow Differential diagnosis segmental testicular infarct testicular neoplasm gra...
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Intratesticular varicocele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
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Intrathoracic kidney

An intrathoracic kidney is a very rare form of ectopic kidney. There has been no reported increased incidence of stones or infections as can be seen with other forms of ectopic kidneys. The adrenal glands are usually normal in location. Epidemiology Thoracic ectopic kidney is rare with male pr...
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Intravenous urography

Intravenous urography (IVU), also referred to as intravenous pyelography (IVP) or excretory urography (EU), is a radiographic study of the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters and the urinary bladder. This exam has been largely replaced by CT urography.  Terminology Some prefer the ...
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Intravesical prostatic protrusion

Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a anatomical feature that may be present in some patients with BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia), being characterized by the enlargement of the prostate towards the floor of the bladder 1,2. Clinical Presentation IPP has a correlation with difficulty...
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Inverted papilloma of the urinary tract

Inverted papillomas of the urinary tract are rare, benign tumors that most commonly occur at the bladder neck or trigone and are characterized by an inverted growth pattern on histology 1.
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Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is a common cause of anemia and a common precipitant to radiological investigation. Epidemiology Amongst men and postmenopausal women, the incidence in the developed world is around 2%. Among premenopausal women, the incidence is greater and in most cases, investigation ...
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Ischiocavernosus muscle

The ischiocavernosus muscles are one of the three main muscles found in the superficial perineal pouch along with the bulbospongiosus and superficial transverse perineal muscles.  Summary origin: ischial tuberosity and ramus insertion: males: corpus cavernosum females: clitoris blood suppl...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Jackstone calculus

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearance of a subset of urinary calculi. Pathology Jackstone calculi are almost always composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. They are nearly always created, and thus, located, in the bladder rather than the upper urinary tract. They are compos...
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Junctional parenchymal defect of kidney

Junctional parenchymal defects in renal imaging are a normal variant, which results from the incomplete embryonic fusion of renunculi. Radiographic features Ultrasound It can be seen as a triangular echogenic cortical defect, frequently seen in upper lobe parenchyma. The defect is the extensi...
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Juxtaglomerular cell tumor

Juxtaglomerular cell tumors, also known as reninomas, are uncommon renal tumor of the juxtaglomerular cells. The tumor cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalemia. Epidemiology Juxtaglomerular cell tumor affect all age groups, but are most common in adolescents and ...
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Kerr kink

The Kerr kink is a sign of renal tuberculosis. Scarring in the adjacent tissues due to chronic inflammation leads to a sharp kink at the pelviureteric junction (PUJ). History and etymology William "Bill" K Kerr, a Canadian urologist, described his eponymous sign in 1967 3.
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Ketamine bladder

Ketamine bladder or ketamine bladder syndrome refers to lower urinary tract symptoms associated with long-term ketamine use. Epidemiology The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms in long-term ketamine users has been identified to be as high as 90% in some studies 1. Clinical presentation ...
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Keyhole sign (disambiguation)

The keyhole sign may refer to: keyhole sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture) keyhole sign (posterior urethral valves) keyhole sign (neural exit foramina)
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Keyhole sign (posterior urethral valves)

The keyhole sign is an ultrasonographic sign seen in boys with posterior urethral valves. It refers to the appearance of the proximal urethra (which is dilated) and an associated thick-walled distended bladder which on ultrasound may resemble a keyhole.
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Kidneys

The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. Gross anatomy Location The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall, with one on either side of the vertebral column, in the perirenal space. The long axis of the kidney is parall...
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Kidney sweat sign

The kidney sweat sign refers to the presence of thin, hypoechoic, extracapsular fluid collections around kidneys in renal failure patients. This fluid is thought to represent perirenal edema. It can be appreciated on ultrasound, CT and MRI.  Differential diagnosis perirenal hematoma perirenal...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) form the anteroinferior most part of the vulva, they are continuous with the mons pubis anteriorly and the perineum posteriorly. The labia are apposed in the midline forming the, externally-visible, pudendal cleft.  Gross anatomy The labia majora have ...
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Labia minora

The labia minora (singular: labium minus) are small glabrous cutaneous folds lying between and just superior to the labia majora. At their posterior margin the labia may be conjoined by a thin cutaneous fold of skin, the frenulum of the labia (also known as the fourchette or posterior commissure...
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Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is a key enzyme in most cells, catalyzing the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate. Its contemporaneous main clinical uses are limited primarily to the investigation of hemolysis, serous collections and as a tumor marker. Physiology L-lactate dehydro...
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Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna, also known as the sinus of Guérin, is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology A...
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Lamellated

The term lamellated (or laminated which means the same thing) is a radiopathological term used to describe the layered appearance of many calculi, including those of the renal tract, the salivary glands, and the biliary tree. The internal structure of these calculi has been likened to that of an...
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Lateral fossa

The lateral fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space that lie between the lateral umbilical folds and the lateral parietal peritoneum. The lateral fossae are the smallest of the anterior paravesical fossae, and typically partially contain the cecum and/or sigmoid col...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
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Lateroconal fascia

The lateroconal fascia is the peritoneal thickening which extends anterolaterally from the adjoining merging lateral borders of the anterior and posterior perirenal fasciae. Gross anatomy It increases progressively in length as it ranges distally. It traverses laterally in a transverse plane a...
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea
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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning or plumbism is a multisystem condition due to the way in which lead interferes with the function of virtually every organ system. Plumbism most severely manifests due to its devastating effects on the CNS, but it also has important deleterious consequences on the skeletal, renal, ...
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Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the bladder. The most common presenting complaints are urinary voiding symptoms such as obstruction and irritation.  These leiomyomas exhibit imaging characteristics on ultrasound, CT and MRI similar to those of uterine leio...
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Leiomyosarcoma of the prostate

Leiomyosarcoma of the prostate is a rare mesenchymal smooth muscle malignancy of the prostate gland. Epidemiology It is a rare tumor with less than 200 cases reported in the literature accounting for approximately 25% of all sarcomas of the prostate gland and less than 0.1% of primary prostate...
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Lentiform fork sign (basal ganglia)

The lentiform fork sign has been described on MRI and is seen as bilateral symmetrical hyperintensities in the basal ganglia surrounded by a hyperintense rim delineating the lentiform nucleus. It has been postulated to result from metabolic acidosis due to any cause 1, e.g. end stage renal dise...
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Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis results from infection by the zoonotic Leptospira spp. The condition can have multiorgan manifestations. Commonly affected organs include: lung: pulmonary leptospirosis liver: hepatic leptospirosis central nervous system: CNS leptospirosis skeletal muscle: muscular leptospirosi...
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Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Epidemiology Affects 1 per 380,000 individuals, which are nearly all male given the X-linked inheritance 1. Clinical presentation hyperuricemia-...
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Leukemia (testicular manifestations)

Leukemia testicular manifestations, or testicular leukemia, can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukemic cells. typically presents with painless testi...
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Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinization).  Clinical presentation Clinically the condition presents with hematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinized e...
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Levator ani muscle

The levator ani muscle, also known as the muscular pelvic diaphragm, is the musculotendinous sheet that forms the majority of the pelvic floor, supports the pelvic viscera, and aids in urinary and fecal evacuation as well as maintaining continence. Gross anatomy The levator ani has three main ...
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Leydig cell tumor of the testis

A Leydig cell tumor of the testis is an uncommon testicular neoplasm. Its imaging appearance on ultrasound and MRI is nonspecific, but clinically it is associated with serum hormonal imbalance. Epidemiology 1-3% of all testicular tumors, but the most common sex-cord stromal tumor. Tend to be b...
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Lichen planus

Lichen planus refers to a dermatological condition that typically affects the skin, nails, oral cavity, genitals or perineum. Skin lesions are characterized by violaceous scaly pruritic plaque eruption while oral lesions are characterized by erosions and lace-like reticular plaques. It is a chr...
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Liddle syndrome

Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition which inhibits the normal degradation of the ENaC sodium channel, resulting in findings that mimic Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism); hypernatremia, hypokalemia and elevated serum bicarbonate. Typically patients are asymptomatic other than ...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Lithium induced renal disease

Lithium induced renal disease is characterized by a progressive decline in renal function, evidenced by increasing serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. The lithium salt causes direct injury to the renal tubules. The duration of lithium therapy increases the risk of progression to...
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Lobar nephronia

Lobar nephronia, also known as acute focal nephritis, refers to an intermediate stage between acute pyelonephritis and renal abscess, and is a focal region of interstitial nephritis.  It appears as a wedge of poorly perfused renal parenchyma, without a cortical rim sign. The condition is discu...
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Lobster claw sign (kidney)

Lobster claw sign refers to a urographic pattern of papillary excavation that may be seen with renal papillary necrosis. The lobster claw sign occurs when there is excavation around the edge of the papilla and the contrast material that extends into this excavated region looks like the "claws" ...
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Localized cystic renal disease

Localized cystic renal disease (LCRD), also known as localized cystic kidney disease, is an uncommon, non-familial, non-progressive disease characterized by clusters of cysts within the normal renal parenchyma. It can be confused with unilateral autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPK...
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Loin pain hematuria syndrome

Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disorder in which patients suffer episodes of severe unilateral or bilateral flank pain with microscopic or gross hematuria in the absence of renal pathology. Epidemiology Approximately 70% of patients are young females with a peak incidence in the third ...
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Loopogram

A loopogram is a fluoroscopic study of an ileal conduit, which is a type of urinary diversion. Terminology This procedure is also known is an ileal conduitogram, ileal loopography or ileostoureterography.  Procedure It is a retrograde study in which contrast is injected via the anterior abdo...
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Loop-to-loop colon

The loop-to-loop colon describes an abnormal colonic course associated with the absence of the left kidney from the renal fossa.  The transverse colon extends to the lateral margin of the abdominal wall and the descending colon courses medially to fill the renal fossa, resulting in a "looped" c...
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Lower urinary tract symptoms

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a constellation of symptoms including 1: poor stream despite straining hesitancy, frequency, and incomplete emptying of the bladder terminal dribbling (at the end of the urinary stream) nocturia Although they are most frequently encountered in men wit...
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Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome, also known as the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, is a multisystem disorder characterized by anomalies primarily affecting the eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Epidemiology It is an extremely rare, pan-ethnic disease, with an estimated prevalence in the general population ...
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Low signal intensity renal parenchyma

There are relatively few causes of low signal intensity renal parenchyma. Causes include: hemolysis paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria mechanical: malfunctioning prosthetic cardiac valve sickle cell disease infection hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) vascular disease acute re...
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Lumbar hernia

Lumbar hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a rare form of posterior abdominal hernia.  Epidemiology Most common in patients aged between 50 and 70 years with a male predominance 1.  Clinical presentation Patients with lumbar hernias can present with a variety of symptoms, including a p...
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Lying down adrenal sign

The lying down adrenal sign is a cross-sectional imaging sign of renal agenesis or ectopia in which the ipsilateral adrenal gland appears to be 'lying down' on the psoas muscle posteriorly. Due to the linear as opposed to Y-shaped configuration of the gland in such situations, it is also describ...
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multi-system disorder that can occur either sporadically or in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is often considered a forme fruste of TSC.​ Epidemiology It almost exclusively affects women of childbearing age 7. The estimated in...
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Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia refers to a morphological type of adrenal hyperplasia in which there is adrenal enlargement in the form of large distinct nodules. It can be congenital or acquired. A specific subtype under this entity is adrenocorticotropin independent macronodular adrenocortic...
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Maiden waist deformity

A maiden waist deformity is a name given to the appearance when there is medial deviation of both ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial indrawing of the ureters due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum at the level of the...
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Mainzer-Saldino syndrome

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (also known as conorenal syndrome (CRS)) is a rare condition and is one of the ciliopathies. It is due to mutations in the IFT140 gene, whose protein product is one of the six parts of the intraflagellar transport complex A. The syndrome's key characteristics are: phal...
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Malacoplakia

Malacoplakia is an uncommon chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease that can affect essentially any part of the body but most frequently involves the bladder wall.  Epidemiology Malacoplakia has a peak incidence in middle age and has a reported female-to-male ratio of 4:1 1. Other risk fact...
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Male pseudohermaphroditism

Male pseudohermaphroditism (MPH) is a variation of gender development.  Pathology Patients with male pseudohermaphroditism have 46 XY karyotype and may manifest as a female phenotype with various degrees of undervirilization secondary to partial androgen insensitivity.  Causes androgen insen...
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Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system (or tract) includes: penis testes epididymides ductus deferentia ejaculatory ducts seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands It can be imaged using almost the entire range of imaging modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most often used (in part because...
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Male urethra

The male urethra is a fibromuscular tube that drains urine from the bladder. It has a longer, more complicated, course than the female urethra and is also more prone to pathology. Gross anatomy The male urethra measures, on average, 18-20 cm in length. It commences at the internal urethral ori...
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Male urethral segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the 4 segments of the male urethra from proximal to distal is: Pet My Beautiful Pig Mnemonic P: prostatic M: membranous B: bulbous P: penile Posterior urethra equates to the prostatic and membranous urethras.  Anterior urethra equates to the bulbous and peni...
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Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses: American College of Radiology white paper

The Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses revised in 2017 by the Adrenal Subcommittee of the Incidental Findings Committee of the American College of Radiology is an algorithm for the management of patients who are: adults (i.e. 18-year-old or over) asymptomatic for adrenal pathology referr...
Article

Manta ray sign (bladder)

The manta ray sign is a radiographic appearance in bladder exstrophy. It describes wide midline separation of the pubic bones simulating the appearance of a manta ray swimming towards you 1. The sacrum and iliac wings recall the manta ray’s head and body, with the widely spaced pubic rami formin...
Article

Mature metastasizing teratoma

A mature metastasizing teratoma is an uncommon complication of mature testicular teratomas, whereby distant metastatic deposits of histologically mature cells are encountered.  
Article

McCune-Albright syndrome

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) (also known as McCune-Albright-Sternberg syndrome) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of: endocrinopathy: precocious puberty polyostotic fibrous dysplasia: more severe than in sporadic cases cutaneous pigmentation: coast of Maine 'café au lai...
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McDonald and McClellan's classification of crossed renal ectopias

McDonald and McClellan classified crossed renal ectopia into four types 1: bilateral crossed renal ectopia without fusion unilateral crossed renal ectopia bilaterally crossed renal ectopia: represents 90% of all crossed ectopias and includes crossed fused renal ectopia   crossed unfused rena...
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Medial fossa

The medial fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the medial umbilical folds and the lateral umbilical folds. The fossae are contained within the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The right medial fossa typically partially contains the cecum and/or ileum...
Article

Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments running from the pelvis to the umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of the obliterated ...
Article

Median umbilical fold

The median umbilical fold is a raised ridge of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the median umbilical ligament (urachal remnant). It is seen to lie between the transversalis fascia and peritoneum. It is one of five umbilical folds and should not be c...
Article

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognized, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
Article

Medullary cystic disease complex

Medullary cystic disease complex belongs to group of pediatric cystic renal diseases charaterised by progressive tubular atrophy with glomerulosclerosis (chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis) and multiple small medullary cysts.  Epidemiology There is no recognized gender predilection Clinical...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic used to remember the etiology of medullary nephrocalcinosis is: HAM HOP Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism A: (renal tubular) acidosis M: medullary sponge kidney H: hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria O: oxalosis P: papillary necrosis See also renal papillary necrosis mnemonic ...
Article

Medullary sponge kidney

Medullary sponge kidney is a sporadic condition where the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts are dysplastic and dilated and in most cases develop medullary nephrocalcinosis.  Epidemiology The incidence of medullary sponge kidney is estimated at ≈1:5000. Clinical presenta...
Article

Megacystis megaureter syndrome

Megacystis megaureter syndrome describes the radiologic appearance of a large capacity thin-walled bladder and massive primary vesicoureteral reflux. Pathology The pathophysiology of these massively dilated ureters and the large capacity bladder is the constant recycling of large volumes of r...
Article

Melioidosis

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (previously known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) and is a multisystem disorder which may affect the lungs, brain, visceral organs, or musculoskeletal system. Epidemiology Melioidosis is a disease of the monsoo...
Article

Mesoblastic nephroma

Mesoblastic nephroma, also sometimes known as a congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) or fetal renal hamartoma, is, in general, a benign renal tumor that typically occurs in utero or in infancy. Epidemiology It is the commonest neonatal renal tumor. Diagnosis is usually made in the antenatal p...
Article

Metallic ureteric stent

Metallic ureteric stents are a type of ureteric stent developed to offer improved symptomatic relief of obstruction when compared to polymeric (polyurethane) stents. They are often used in patients with chronic malignant ureteric obstructions who require placement of long-term ureteral stents to...
Article

Metanephric adenoma of the kidney

Metanephric adenoma (MA) of the kidney is a type of benign renal neoplasm.  Epidemiology While it can present at any age 6, the peak age of occurrence is thought to be around the 5th to 6th decades 2. There may be a 2:1 female preponderance 2.  Clinical presentation Metanephric adenoma is as...

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