Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

981 results found
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Perineal nerve

The perineal nerve, also known as the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve, is the largest terminal branch of the pudendal nerve which is derived from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The perineal nerve gives muscular branches to the superficial and deep perineal muscles as well ...
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Perinephric abscess

A perinephric abscess may result due to rupture of a renal abscess into the perirenal space, but usually it develops directly from acute pyelonephritis. However, any inflammatory process outside the Gerota's fascia may also result in perinephric abscess. Perinephric abscesses are associated with...
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Perinephric bridging septa

Perinephric bridging septa or septa of Kunin are composed of numerous fibrous lamellae which traverse the perinephric fat 1,2 where they suspend the kidneys within the perirenal space. The septa may act as a barrier or conduit for the spread of pus, blood, urine, and neoplasms in the perinephric...
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Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections post renal transplant are common. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection after renal transplantation is often non-specific but may be partially differentiated by how long ago the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period (<4...
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Perinephric myxoid pseudotumor of fat

Perinephric myxoid pseudotumor of fat is a very rare, benign, slowly growing tumor, which can mimic renal cysts, retroperitoneal cystic tumors and liposarcomas alike. Due to its rarity and overlapping imaging appearance the diagnosis is almost always made by histopathological analysis 1,2.  Eti...
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Perinephric stranding

Perinephric stranding refers to the appearance of edema within the fat of the perirenal space on CT or MRI. While a degree of symmetric bilateral perinephric stranding is common, particularly in the elderly, asymmetric or unilateral perinephric stranding is an important sign of renal inflammatio...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond-shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
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Perirenal cobweb

Perirenal cobwebs are the presence of prominent perinephric septa. It is best appreciated on CT images. Pathology The cobweb is considered to be due to engorged venous collaterals or due to edema and fluid extravasation into the perirenal space 1. Perirenal cobwebs may be seen in many benign ...
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Perirenal fascia

The perirenal fascia is a dense, elastic connective tissue sheath that envelops each kidney and adrenal gland together with a layer of surrounding perirenal fat forming the perirenal space. It is a multi-laminated structure which is fused posteromedially with the muscular fasciae of the psoas a...
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Perirenal lymphocele

Perirenal lymphoceles are the most common cause of perinephric fluid collection. They can potentially occur in a post-transplant situation in up to 25% of cases. Clinical presentation Perirenal lymphocele is usually asymptomatic but they can be large enough to cause hydronephrosis or venous ob...
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Perirenal space

The perirenal space is the largest of the three divisions of the retroperitoneum and is the most easily identified. It contains the kidneys, renal vessels, proximal collecting systems, adrenal glands and an adequate amount of fat to allow identification on CT scanning. It also contains the perin...
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Peritesticular lipoma

Peritesticular lipoma is considered the most common benign tumor of the paratesticular tissues and spermatic cord (can comprising around 45% of paratesticular masses). Clinical presentation Often manifests as an incidentally discovered nontender scrotal mass. Can affect patients over a wide ag...
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Peritoneal dialysis catheter

A peritoneal dialysis catheter is a flexible tube designed for peritoneal dialysis, the most well-known and widely-used being the Tenckhoff catheter.  History In 1968 an American nephrologist Henry A Tenckhoff (d.2017) 2 introduced his eponymous peritoneal indwelling catheter 1. The major impr...
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Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
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Perlmann tumor

Perlmann tumor of the kidney (also sometimes known as benign adenomatous multicystic kidney tumor) is often mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. Many now consider it synonymous with the more well-known multilocular cystic nephroma.
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Persistent fetal lobulation of the kidneys

Persistent fetal lobulation is a normal variant seen occasionally in adult kidneys. It occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the developing renal lobules. Embryologically, the kidneys originate as distinct lobules that fuse as they develop and grow. Radiographic features It is often seen o...
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Persistent nephrogram

Persistent nephrograms occur when intravenous contrast media is retained by both kidneys for more than 3 minutes. Terminology Persistent nephrograms are characteristically bilateral and are usually distinguished from delayed nephrograms, which occur unilaterally.  Pathology Etiology hypoten...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Peyronie disease

Peyronie disease is the most common cause of painful penile induration. Fibrous tissue plaques form within the penile tunica albuginea, causing painful deformity and shortening of the penis. Though clinical diagnosis is usually accurate, the role of imaging is to evaluate extension of plaques, w...
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Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumor of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumors are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% are...
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Phantom calyx

A phantom calyx is a solitary calyx which fails to opacify with contrast amidst an otherwise well-opacified pelvicalyceal system. It is due to an intrarenal process which has infiltrated and caused obliteration of the involved collecting system element. It may be seen in: tumor: especially tra...
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Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of a contrast-opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to the presence of a large pelvic hematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
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Pine cone bladder

A pine cone bladder or Christmas tree bladder is a cystographic appearance in which the bladder is elongated and pointed with a thickened, trabeculated wall. It is typically seen in severe neurogenic bladder with increased sphincter tone (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) due to suprasacral lesion...
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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotizing vasculitis that involves small to medium-sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology PAN is more common in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades. 20-30% of patients are hepatitis B antigen positiv...
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Polyorchidism

Polyorchidism (or supernumerary testes) refers to the presence of more than two testes and is a very rare congenital anomaly. The supernumerary testis can be usually located inside the scrotum (75% of the patients) or less commonly in the inguinal canal, the retroperitoneum, or the abdominal cav...
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Posterior pararenal space

The posterior pararenal space is the smallest and most clinically insignificant portion of the retroperitoneum. Gross anatomy It is filled with fat, blood vessels, and lymphatics, but contains no major organs. Boundaries posteriorly: bound by transversalis fascia anteriorly: bound by poster...
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Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
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Post renal transplant fluid collections (mnemonic)

Following renal transplant, different perinephric fluid collections tend to present at different times in the postoperative period. These can be remembered in order using the mnemonic: HEAL Mnemonic H: hematoma (immediate) E: encapsulated urine collections/urinomas (1-2 weeks) A: abscess (3...
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Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It can be a ...
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Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of: pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter f...
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Priapism

Priapism (rarely penile priapism, to differentiate from the very rare clitoral priapism) is a prolonged erection that persists beyond or is not related to sexual stimulation. Imaging, particularly Doppler ultrasound, can help distinguish between ischemic (low-flow) priapism, which is a urologic ...
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Primary cutaneous melanoma

Primary cutaneous melanoma is the most common subtype of malignant melanoma, a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes. Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis but do occur elsewhere in the body. Primary cutaneous melanoma is by far the most common type of pri...
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Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
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Primary pigmented nodular adrenal dysplasia

Primary pigmented nodular adrenal dysplasia (PPNAD) is a rare benign adrenal condition characterized by ACTH-independent autonomous hypersecretion of cortisol, leading to Cushing syndrome.  Epidemiology PPNAD is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, which has yet to be confidently mapped. ...
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Primary prostatic malignant melanoma

Primary melanoma of the prostate is rare, and usually cannot be diagnosed on imaging alone. In many cases, it is believed that in fact, the tumor represents prostatic involvement by melanoma of the urethra. Epidemiology Primary malignant melanoma of the prostate represents both a tiny fraction...
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Primary urethral cancer

Primary urethral cancer, in most cases a urethral carcinoma, is a rare urological malignancy. It can be divided in female urethral cancer and male urethral cancer. Epidemiology It has an incidence of 4.3 per million for males and 1.5 per million for females. It usually manifests in the fifth d...
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Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumor staging (T) Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of sube...
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Primary urethral malignant melanoma

Melanoma of the urethra is a very rare tumor of the male urethra and often presents as an invasive prostatic mass. As such it is usually referred to as primary prostatic malignant melanoma.
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Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and is the largest male accessory gland. It typically weighs between 20-40 grams with an average size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm. The prostate is comprised of 70% glandular tissue and 30% fibromuscular or stromal tissue 1-3 and provides ~30% of the...
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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer ranks as the most common primary malignant tumor in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. ICD-11: 2C82Z Epidemiology It is primarily a...
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Prostate cancer (staging)

Prostate cancer staging takes into account TNM (primary site, nodal and distant metastases), pretreatment PSA and histological grading. The Gleason score is used to determine the Grade Group.  An old, superseded staging system is the Whitmore-Jewett staging system. Additionally, there is some ...
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Prostate cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Prostate cancer, also called carcinoma of the prostate or prostate carcinoma, is the commonest malignant tumor in men. It is primarily a disease of old age and many men remain asymptomatic.  Reference article This is a su...
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Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy is a common procedure to remove the prostate gland, most often for prostate adenocarcinoma, although occasionally performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia. When performed for tumor, it is only indicated for tumors that are confined to the prostate. There are two main types of pr...
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Prostate cystic disease

Prostate cystic disease encompasses a wide variety of pathologies that all result in cyst formation within the prostate. Epidemiology Prostatic cysts are common, and ~5-8% men will develop one 4,7. However they are much more common in patients being investigated for infertility, with one study...
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Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging–Reporting and Data System) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric prostate MRI in the evaluation of suspected prostate cancer in treatment naive prostate glands. This article reflects version 2.1 (v2.1), published in 2019 and developed by an internationall...
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Prostate MRI (an approach)

Prostate MRI has become an increasingly frequent examination faced in daily radiological practice and is mainly conducted for the detection, active surveillance and staging of prostate cancer. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of a prostate MRI with consideration...
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Prostate MRI protocol

Prostate MRI has become an increasingly frequent examination faced in daily radiological practice and is usually acquired as either multiparametric or biparametric MRI of the prostate. Note: This article aims to outline the concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the prostate. Recomme...
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Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity

Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity is a common finding in pelvic MRIs that needs to be evaluated. A prostate MRI is usually performed with a multiparametric technique (mpMRI) to differentiate prostate cancer from more benign pathologies. mpMRI includes T2 weighted images, dynamic contrast...
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Prostate sarcoma

Prostate sarcomas are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors arising from mesenchymal cells in and around the prostate (as opposed to the more common prostate adenocarcinoma which derives from the glandular tissue).  Pathology In children, the most common tumor type is a prostatic rhabd...
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Prostate-seminal vesicle angle

The prostate-seminal vesicle angle (also known as the prostatoseminal angle 1) refers to the acute angle posterolaterally between the prostate gland and respective seminal vesicle on each side. The angle is visible due to the periprostatic fat lying between the two structures. The angle is appre...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumor marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore ...
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Prostate-specific membrane antigen

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that has become an increasingly prominent imaging biomarker 1. PSMA has emerged as a useful target in PET imaging of prostate cancer, especially in the evaluation of sm...
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Prostatic abscess

Prostatic abscesses are a rare complication of prostatitis.  Epidemiology Prostatic abscesses have become relatively uncommon due to the increased use of antibiotic therapy in patients with prostatitis. It tends to affect diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Most patients affected are aroun...
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Prostatic artery embolization

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure utilized to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic hemorrhage (such as that associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment of lower urina...
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Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcifications are a common finding in the prostate gland, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below age 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Re...
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Prostatic cystadenoma

Prostatic cystadenoma or multilocular cystadenoma of prostate is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the prostate gland. If lesions are considerably large they may also be termed giant multilocular cystadenomas of the prostate. Pathology Lesions are histologically characterized by glands and cy...
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Prostatic infarction

Prostatic infarction refers to necrosis of the prostate gland tissue from a lack of blood supply. Pathology Histology Histology slices on biopsy specimens may show reactive atypia 3. Causes prostatic artery embolization presumed pelvic ischemia after cross-clamping of the aorta for corona...
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Prostatic tuberculosis

Prostatic tuberculosis or tuberculous prostatitis is an uncommon extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Epidemiology Primary tuberculosis of the prostate is rare. Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 5-10% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis in developed...
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Prostatic utricle

Prostatic utricle refers to Mullerian duct remnant in males which often manifests as a sac having a slit like orifice at the apex of verumontanum. This projects upward and backward into the substance of the prostate gland. Related pathology prostatic utricle cyst
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Prostatic utricle cyst

Prostatic utricle cyst (or utricular cyst) (PUC) is an area of focal dilatation that occurs within the prostatic utricle. They are midline cystic masses in the male pelvis and can be very difficult or impossible to distinguish from a Mullerian duct cyst. Epidemiology Utricle cysts are most of...
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Prostatic venous plexus

The prostatic venous plexus (also known as Santorini's plexus) is a network of veins around the anterolateral aspect of the prostate and anterior to the bladder. Tributaries include: deep dorsal vein of the penis anterior vesical rami prostatic rami The receipt of blood from the vesical and ...
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Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. Prostatitis is a clinical diagnosis and imaging is useful to evaluate abscess formation.  Pathology The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have classifie...
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Prostatomegaly

Prostatomegaly is a term used to generally describe enlargement of the prostate gland from whatever cause. Usually, the prostate is considered enlarged on imaging when its volume measures beyond 30 cc (mL).  Terminology The term prostatomegaly is often used interchangeably with benign prostati...
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Prune belly syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as Eagle Barrett syndrome 3 or triad syndrome, is a rare anomaly comprising a specific constellation of features. It consists of three major findings: gross pelvicalyceal and ureteric dilatation with renal dysplasia 7 anterior abdominal wall underdevelopment (r...
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PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (ng/mL) divided by the volume of the prostate gland (mL)1. Prostate volume is calculated from TRUS measurements 2,3.  Alternatively, PSA density may be calculated using MRI mea...
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PSA velocity

The PSA velocity (PSAV) is a statistically-derived measure of how the prostate specific antigen (PSA) changes over time, and has been used as a marker of how prostate malignancy progresses or regresses.  Any cancer grows over time and relative changes of tumor markers, such as PSA, would seem t...
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Pseudobladder

Pseudobladder refers to a pelvic cystic mass that simulates the urinary bladder. The location of the lesion should allow differentiation from the bladder but if doubt exists and clinical necessity arises, a delayed phase CT/MRI with excreted contrast or Foley catheter-administered retrograde co...
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Pseudoenhancement

Pseudoenhancement is an artifact encountered with contrast-enhanced CT, whereby the calculated density of a lesion is inaccurately increased. This phenomenon is most often problematic during evaluation of renal cysts by CT. On CT, it can be challenging to distinguish cystic versus solid renal l...
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Pseudohydronephrosis

Pseudohydronephrosis (plural: pseudohydronephroses) refers to normal anatomy or non-significant pathologies that may mimic hydronephrosis. There is usually fluid-density material within a dilated part of the urinary tract, but without other signs of obstruction such as retroperitoneal fat strand...
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Pseudoureterocoele

Pseudoureterocoeles are acquired dilatations of the submucosal portion of the distal ureter that mimic simple ureteroceles. The appearance of the radiolucent wall surrounding the dilated distal ureteral segment (cobra head sign) is an important differentiating point.  The distinction is importa...
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Psoas hitch

A psoas hitch is a method of ureteric re-implantation following distal ureteric resection or injury. The reconstruction is indicated when the distal ureter is injured or resected for cancer or stricture disease, and the remaining portion of ureter cannot reach the bladder for a ureteroneocystot...
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Pubococcygeal line

The pubococcygeal line (PCL) is a reference line for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and helps detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse in defecography studies. It is defined as a line that joins the inferior border of the symphysis pubis to the final coccygeal joint and it is drawn in a midli...
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Pulmonary-renal syndromes

Pulmonary-renal syndromes refer to a group of conditions that can affect the lung and kidneys. These conditions are typically characterized by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.  Diseases that can result in a pulmonary-renal syndrome includes: certain pulmonary vasculitides c...
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Putty kidney

A putty kidney refers to a pattern of renal calcification associated with renal tuberculosis conventionally described on plain radiography. The calcification is characteristically very homogeneous and ground glass-like, representing calcified caseous tissue 3,4. Premkumar et al. labeled calcific...
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Pyelography

Pyelography (or "pyelogram") refers to imaging of the urinary collecting system. The term is most often encountered in 'intravenous pyelography' (or "IVP"). For some, this is a misnomer and a test that images intravenous contrast as it travels through the kidney parenchyma into the urinary coll...
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Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis (plural: pyelonephritides) refers to an upper urinary (renal) tract infection with associated renal pelvis, renal calyceal and renal parenchymal inflammation, and comprises a heterogeneous group of conditions. bacterial pyelonephritis chronic pyelonephritis renal tuberculosis ...
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Pyelostomy

Pyelostomy is a rarely performed procedure in which an externalized catheter drains the renal pelvis. It is different from a nephrostomy in that the catheter in a pyelostomy enters the renal pelvis directly without passing though the renal parenchyma. It is much more prone to complication than a...
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Pyonephrosis

Pyonephrosis is a term given to an infection of the kidney with pus in the upper collecting system which can progress to obstruction. Pyonephrosis may be suspected when the clinical symptoms of fever and flank pain are combined with the radiologic evidence of urinary tract obstruction 1. Debris...
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Radiation and chemotherapy induced cystitis

Both radiation and chemotherapy can result in severe hemorrhagic cystitis, the appearances of which vary with time from the therapy. It can be divided into acute and chronic.  Acute In the acute phase of radiation and chemotherapy cystitis, there is hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to denudation...
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Radiolucent stones (mnemonic)

Lucent stones in the urinary tract can be remembered using this  mnemonic : ICU Mnemonic I: indinavir stones C: cystine stones U: uric acid stones
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Randall's plaques

Randall's plaques are described as subepithelial calcification of the renal papilla 1 which are <2 mm in their greatest dimension. They act as an anchor for calcium oxalate crystals and are considered to be a predisposing factor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation Usually asympto...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Rectouterine pouch

The rectouterine pouch, also known as the rectovaginal pouch, cul-de-sac or pouch of Douglas, is an extension of peritoneum between the posterior wall of uterus and the rectum in females. It is the most dependent part of the peritoneal cavity and is analogous to the rectovesical pouch in males. ...
Article

Rectovesical pouch

Rectovesical pouch is the forward reflection of the peritoneum from the middle third of the rectum to the upper part of the bladder in males. Gross anatomy The rectovesical pouch is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity and usually contains loops of small bowel or sigmoid colon. It is 7.5 c...
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Renal abscess

Renal abscess, is a collection of infective fluid in the kidney. It is usually a sequela of acute pyelonephritis, where severe vasospasm and inflammation may occasionally result in liquefactive necrosis and abscess formation. Epidemiology It can affect all ages and has no recognized gender pre...
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Renal adenoma

A renal adenoma is type of benign renal neoplasm.  Pathology  It is traditionally classified into three distinct types 1 renal papillary adenoma renal tubular adenoma alveolar renal adenoma
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Renal agenesis

Renal agenesis refers to a congenital absence of one or both kidneys. If bilateral (traditionally known as the classic Potter syndrome) the condition is fatal, whereas if unilateral, patients can have a normal life expectancy.  Epidemiology Unilateral renal agenesis affects approximately 1 in ...
Article

Renal allograft compartment syndrome

Renal allograft compartment syndrome is an uncommon and potentially underdiagnosed condition of early renal transplant dysfunction. It occurs mostly in transplants placed in the extraperitoneal space.  Pathology The most common placement for a renal transplant has been in the extraperitoneal/r...
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Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis.  Epidemiology Renal involvement is estimated to affect a large proportion of the patients with systemic amyloidosis, with about half of them dying of renal failure complications 8.  Clinical prese...
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Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasms encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumors with perivascular epithelioid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascu...
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Renal antibioma

Renal antibiomas are postinflammatory cystic fluid collections during or after antibiotic treatment for acute pyelonephritis. Radiographic features These are usually <3 cm sized, with no or minimal post contrast wall enhancement or thickening. Differential diagnosis renal abscess perinephri...
Article

Renal arterial cut-off sign

Renal arterial cut-off sign, as the name suggests, is an abrupt termination of the contrast-opacified lumen of the renal artery. It may or may not be associated with contrast extravasation. It is seen in a vascular injury, e.g. segmental or main renal artery thrombosis or occlusion.

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