Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

904 results found
Article

Renal tuberculosis

Renal tuberculosis, a subset of genitourinary tuberculosis, accounts for 15-20% of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and can result in varied and striking radiographic appearances.  Tuberculosis can involve both the renal parenchyma and the collecting system (calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder a...
Article

Renal tubular acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to defects in the renal tubular transport of hydrogen ions, bicarbonate ions, or both, in the kidneys resulting in a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis.  Epidemiology The exact prevalence of renal tubular acidosis is unknown but the entity is probably u...
Article

Renal tubular ectasia

Renal tubular ectasia is an incidental finding that is seen more commonly on intravenous pyelography (IVP), but which can also occasionally be seen on CT urography (CTU). Terminology Renal tubular ectasia is also known as benign renal tubular ectasia. The term "benign" was used to differentiat...
Article

Renal tumors

Renal tumors (for the purposes of this article taken to broadly mean neoplastic lesions) should be distinguished from renal pseudotumors. Whilst renal tumors can be broadly divided into primary and secondary (metastatic), benign and malignant, or adult and pediatric tumors, they are more formal...
Article

Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognized and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognized as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
Article

Renal vein

The renal veins are asymmetric paired veins that drain the kidneys.  Gross anatomy Course The renal vein is formed by the union of two-to-three renal parenchymal veins in the renal sinus. It emerges from the renal hilum anterior to the renal artery and drains into the inferior vena cava at th...
Article

Renal vein anomalies

There are several variations in renal venous anatomy. Some of these are specific to the left renal vein. Left renal vein anomalies are generally classified into four types 2: type I  the ventral pre-aortic limb of the left renal vein is obliterated, but the dorsal retro-aortic limb persists a...
Article

Renal vein thrombosis

Renal vein thrombosis can be either from "bland" thrombus or tumor thrombus (extension of tumor into the vein). There are numerous etiologies for bland thrombus, but it most commonly occurs in the hypercoagulable nephrotic syndrome. Renal vein thrombus is commoner on the left side, presumably du...
Article

Renal vein varices

Renal vein varices develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic. Clinical presentation Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or hematuria. Pathology Etiology chronic renal vein thrombosis nutcracker syndrome retroaortic le...
Article

Renovascular hypertension

Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a type of secondary hypertension, where high blood pressure develops secondary to renal artery disease.  Epidemiology Approximately 2.5% (range 0.5-5%) of hypertensive patients will have RVH as a cause 2,3.  Pathology Etiology There are a number of conditi...
Article

Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is a normal anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional procedu...
Article

Retrograde pyelography

Retrograde pyelography (also known as retrograde pyeloureterography) is a method of imaging the upper urinary collecting system. After IVU and CTU were developed, it has been rarely performed as a primary study, but it still has a few potential indications as a secondary study. Indications non...
Article

Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), is a condition that has previously been described as chronic periaortitis. It is an uncommon fibrotic reaction in the retroperitoneum that typically presents with ureteric obstruction. The disease is part of a spectrum of entities that have a common pathogenic pr...
Article

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical feature...
Article

Retropubic space

The retropubic space (also known as the prevesical space, cave of Retzius or cavum Retzii) is an extraperitoneal space located posterior to the pubic symphysis and anterior to the urinary bladder. It is separated from the anterior abdominal wall by the transversalis fascia and extends to the lev...
Article

Reverse rim sign (kidney)

The reverse rim sign describes relative hypoenhancement of the renal cortex and normal enhancement of the renal medulla on contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. This enhancement pattern can also be visualized using CEUS 2. It is a typical finding of renal cortical necrosis that may occur in the setting...
Article

Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney

Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of early childhood, closely related to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the brain (see rhabdoid tumors) Epidemiology Rhabdoid tumors occur exclusively in children, with 60% occurring before the age of 1 year of ag...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcoma (genitourinary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract are uncommon tumors occurring in pelvic organs.  It is a disease nearly exclusive to the pediatric population.  For a general discussion of this type of tumor, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology The peak incidence of tum...
Article

Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileoceca...
Article

Rim sign (chronic hydronephrosis)

The rim sign can be seen in association with chronic hydronephrosis.  In patients with chronic hydronephrosis, in all forms of contrast-enhanced imaging of the obstructed kidney, enhancement may occur in the residual, but markedly atrophic, renal parenchyma, surrounding the dilated calyces and ...
Article

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) include: Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1) undescended testis 10-40x increased risk  around 10% of all tumors are associated with undescended testis higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal or...
Article

Robson staging system of renal cell carcinoma

Robson staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is simple but has largely been replaced by the TNM system (see renal cell cancer staging article). Robson staging revolves around the relationship to Gerota's fascia, involvement of renal vein and regional nodes. stage I: limited to kidney stage II:...
Article

Sacral nerve stimulator

Sacral nerve stimulators are a form of neuromodulation therapy. They are used for urogenital disorders such as urge urinary incontinence and detrusor hyperactivity, and colorectal disorders such as chronic constipation refractory to conventional medical therapy, and fecal incontinence. There is ...
Article

Salt and pepper sign

The salt and pepper sign is used to refer to a speckled appearance of tissue. It is used in many instances, but most commonly on MRI. Please note that pathologists also use the term. Differential diagnosis Vascular tumors Used to describe some highly vascular tumors which contain foci of hemo...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved. Although less common than pulmonary and mediastinal disease, abdominal sarcoidosis can mimic more common infectious or neoplast...
Article

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (sRCC) may develop when one of the more common histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma degenerates into a sarcoma. On imaging, they are generally large masses, with irregular contours, and malignant-appearing, but do not have specific imaging features. Epi...
Article

Schiller-Duval body (histology)

Schiller-Duval body is a perivascular structure that can be found in 50% of testicular yolk sac tumors also known as endodermal sinus tumors. If present it is considered pathognomonic.  Pathology A central vessel is surrounded by tumor cells, and the cell-vessel complex is contained in a cysti...
Article

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
Article

Schistosomiasis (urinary tract manifestations)

Bladder schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia of the bladder, is a major health problem in developing parts of the world predisposing individuals to squamous cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Afric...
Article

Sciatic hernia

Sciatic hernia is a rare type of pelvic floor hernia, which occurs through either the greater or lesser sciatic foramina. It can contain variable structures. See also curlicue ureter sign
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Scleroderma (renal manifestations)

Renal manifestations of scleroderma are common, affecting up to 25% of patients. Some patients (5-10%) can present with a scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). These patients have an abrupt onset of hypertension and acute renal failure 4.  For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the ...
Article

Scrotal cystocele

Scrotal cystoceles are a type of urinary bladder hernia, where the bladder herniates into the scrotum. Clinical presentation asymptomatic voiding problems scrotal swelling Radiographic features Ultrasound Scrotal sac will contain fluid. Emptying of a scrotal cystocele with voiding is an i...
Article

Scrotal filariasis

Scrotal filariasis is a manifestation of filariasis and refers to scrotal involvement from parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Filarioidea. Epidemiology Known disease of the tropics and subtropics and a cause of morbidity in Asia, Africa and the Western Pacific regions 2. Clinical presenta...
Article

Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematoceles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A haematocele normally results from trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocele 4. Radiographic fe...
Article

Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess
Article

Scrotal pyocele

Scrotal pyoceles are purulent fluid collections in the scrotal sac, that generally occur in conjunction with epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Scrotal pyoceles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis or testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent flui...
Article

Scrotal scintigraphy

Scrotal scintigraphy is a radio-isotope examination of the scrotal contents, primarily in patients presenting with scrotal pain. Indications Although, ultrasound remains the mainstay of scrotal imaging, scintigraphy can be used where the diagnosis is unclear, since ultrasound appearances for s...
Article

Scrotal tunica cyst

Scrotal tunica cysts are paratesticular cystic lesions. They include: tunica vaginalis cysts tunica albuginea cysts Radiographic features Ultrasound  Typically seen as a simple appearing paratesticular cystic lesion not in the region of the epididymis. See also paratesticular lesions
Article

Scrotolith

Scrotoliths, also known as scrotal pearls, are benign incidental extra testicular macro-calcifications within the scrotum. They frequently occupy the potential space of the tunica vaginalis or sinus of the epididymis. They are usually of no clinical significance 1,2. Clinical presentation Most...
Article

Scrotum

The scrotum (plural: scrota or scrotums) is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that contains the testes, epididymides, and spermatic cord. It consists of two chambers separated by a septum. It is an extension of the perineum, and is located between the penis and anus. Gross anatom...
Article

Segmental renal hypoplasia

Segmental renal hypoplasia, also known as the Ask-Upmark kidney, is a type of renal hypoplasia. It is often found in young females with severe hypertension. The etiology is unknown but has been postulated to be congenital or a sequelae of pyelonephritis. It is associated with severe juvenile hyp...
Article

Segmental testicular infarction

Segmental testicular infarctions are uncommon testicular lesions that usually result from arterial embolization or thrombosis (as opposed to testicular infarction from torsion, which may originate from venous occlusion). Pathology The causes of a segmental testicular infarct include: orchitis...
Article

Selenium toxicity

Selenium toxicity (rarely: hyperselenemia) is caused by excessive intake of the non-metallic element selenium (Se) in the diet. Epidemiology It is less common than selenium deficiency. It is most frequently seen in some parts of India, in which there are naturally high levels of selenium in th...
Article

Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles are paired accessory sex glands of the male reproductive system. The seminal vesicle produces over two-thirds of the ejaculate and is very high in fructose.  Gross anatomy The seminal vesicle is actually a 10-15 cm long tubular structure but is coiled tightly so it only me...
Article

Seminal vesicle abscess

Seminal vesical abscesses are a complication of seminal vesiculitis.  Clinical presentation The associated symptoms can be non-specific and are those typically associated with urinary tract infections: dysuria fever perineal or abdominal pain urinary retention ejaculation of purulent mate...
Article

Seminal vesicle cyst

Seminal vesicle cysts can be congenital or acquired. Epidemiology Age of presentation of congenital cysts is during the period of greatest reproductive activity i.e in second and third decades of life, while acquired cysts are most often seen in the elderly age group. Clinical presentation S...
Article

Seminal vesiculitis

Seminal vesiculitis is an uncommon entity characterized by inflammation of the seminal vesicles. It is most commonly infective in etiology and often associated with concurrent infection elsewhere in the male genital tract, forming part of the spectrum of male accessory gland inflammation 4. It i...
Article

Septate uterus

A septate uterus is a common type of congenital uterine anomaly, and it may lead to an increased rate of pregnancy loss. The main imaging differential diagnoses are arcuate uterus and bicornuate uterus. Epidemiology It is considered the commonest uterine anomaly (accounts for ~55% of such anom...
Article

Sertoli cell tumor of the testis

Sertoli cell tumors of the testis are uncommon sex cord stromal tumors. They are less common than Leydig cell tumors of the testis.  Epidemiology May present in both pediatric and adult males, depending on the histologic subtype. Clinical presentation Testicular mass or firmness. May occasio...
Article

Sex cord stromal tumors of the testis

Sex cord stromal tumors of the testis are uncommon testicular neoplasms. Although ~90% of these tumors are benign, they cannot be differentiated from testicular malignancies on imaging, and are therefore usually discovered after orchiectomy. Leydig cell tumor of the testis (most common, ~30% ho...
Article

Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation refers to the embryological development of male and female phenotypes. Unlike sexual genotype which is determined at the time of fertilisation, the male and female phenotypes do not begin to differentiate substantially until the seventh week of gestation.  Males  Y chrom...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) (historically known as drepanocytosis) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin (a hemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischemia and infarction, as well as hemolytic anemia.  Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) dis...
Article

Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...
Article

Sigmoid kidney

A sigmoid kidney is an uncommon variant of the horseshoe kidney. Whereas the typical horseshoe kidney is fused only at the lower poles, in a sigmoid kidney both the upper and the lower poles are fused 1.
Article

Sildenafil citrate-induced penile Doppler

In the past 15 years sildenafil citrate-induced penile Doppler has emerged as a technique for evaluating erectile dysfunction. It has greater patient acceptability than the usual papaverine-induced color Doppler and is safer. Sildenafil citrate is a popular vasodilator drug used in treatment of...
Article

Small cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Small cell carcinomas of the bladder are rare bladder cancers with a poor prognosis. Its appearance overlaps other bladder cancers, in particular, urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma. Epidemiology A very rare tumor, it has been estimated at <0.0001% of bladder cancers. It is thought to have...
Article

Soft tissue rim sign

The soft-tissue rim sign is used to distinguish a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith. The former appears as a calcific density with a surrounding rim of soft tissue which represents the edematous ureteric wall. Phleboliths on the other hand usually have imperceptible walls (although up to 8% ma...
Article

Solitary filling defect of the ureter (differential)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has some differentials, including: within the lumen calculus sloughed papilla blood clot benign polyp within the wall transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tuberculosis  metastasis endometriosis When multiple fi...
Article

SpaceOAR

SpaceOAR is a technique in which a physical space is created between the prostate gland and rectum for electron beam radiotherapy targeted to the prostate gland in cases of prostate cancer.  OAR stands for "organ at risk", and in cases of prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment the rectum is the...
Article

Spaghetti sign (bladder)

The spaghetti sign may be seen in upper urinary tract bleeding. It refers to the presence of a linear worm- or spaghetti-like filling defect within a contrast-opacified bladder 1,2. This linear filling defect represents blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby molded into a tubular shape...
Article

Spermatic cord

The spermatic cord is the tubular structure that suspends the testes and epididymis in the scrotum from the abdominal cavity. Gross anatomy Course The spermatic cord arises at the deep inguinal ring, passes through the inguinal canal and exits at the superficial inguinal ring into the scrotum...
Article

Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 fascias, 3 other things Mnemonics Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level P: pampiniform plexus D: ductus deferens C: cremasteric artery ...
Article

Spermatic cord hydrocele

Spermatic cord hydrocele (SCH) refers to a loculated fluid collection along the spermatic cord. It is separated from, and located above, the testis and the epididymis. Pathology It results from aberrant closure of the processus vaginalis. There are two recognized subtypes encysted hydrocele ...
Article

Spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma

Spermatic cord leiomyosarcomas are uncommon malignant paratesticular masses. Epidemiology Accounts for ~10% of spermatic cord sarcomas. The average of a patient at presentation is 58 years old (although has been seen as young as 15 years old). Clinical features Patients may have left inguina...
Article

Spermatic cord liposarcoma

Spermatic cord liposarcomas are the most common malignant tumor of the spermatic cord. Most present as painless, slow-growing masses and can be mistaken for inguinal hernias. They are usually well-differentiated and spread by local extension.  Epidemiology In a large population-based registry,...
Article

Spermatocele

Spermatoceles are a common type of extratesticular cyst, and represents cystic dilatation of tubules of the efferent ductules in the head of the epididymis. Clinical presentation Usually a painless, incidental finding but can present as a mass lesion if large 3. Pathology Spermatoceles are u...
Article

Sperm cell granuloma

Sperm cell granuloma, also termed epididymitis nodosa, is a benign lesion that can occur in the scrotum. They can particularly occur in those with a prior vasectomy (occurs after vasectomy in up to 40% of patients 2). Pathology It is considered a form of chronic epididymitis which occurs secon...
Article

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome is the association of Spigelian hernias and cryptorchidism in children.  Pathology It is reported that ~50% (range 28-75%) range of pediatric patients with Spigelian hernias will have ipsilateral cryptorchidism 1,2.  Along with Spigelian hernia and cryptorchi...
Article

Spinning top urethra

Spinning top urethra is non-obstructive posterior urethral dilatation seen on voiding cystourethrography, mainly in females. It was initially considered as an indicator of distal urethral narrowing/stenosis. However, it is now believed to be due to functional discoordinate voiding or bladder ins...
Article

Splenogonadal fusion

Splenogonadal fusion is a rare anomaly that occurs when there is congenital fusion between a portion of the spleen and a gonad or other mesonephric derivative. Epidemiology Much more common in male patients (~95%), occurs most commonly on the left (98%) and usually involve the testis (95%). Ha...
Article

Split bolus technique

The split bolus technique is a CT imaging investigation used in patients with hematuria aiming to put together, in a single image acquisition, both the nephrographic and renal excretory phases and thus reducing the radiation dose of the study. It is a CT protocol adopted for some institutions fo...
Article

Spoke wheel pattern in kidney

A spoke wheel pattern in renal imaging refers to a vascular appearance seen with certain renal tumors, typically seen in oncocytomas but can also be seen in renal cell carcinomas.  This appearance refers to a peripheral rim of vessels from which centripetal vessels converge centrally giving the...
Article

Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. For a broader discussion, including other etiologies, please refer to the parental article on retroperitoneal hemorrhage.  Clinical presentation ...
Article

Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis

Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis, also known as pyelosinus backflow, is a rare complication that can occasionally occur with obstructive urolithiasis (usually in the distal third of the ureter) or occasionally infection 1. Leakage of urine can result in a urinoma, and there is an increase...
Article

Spotted nephrogram

A spotted nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of patchy, segmental and subsegmental renal parenchymal enhancement. Pathology The pattern is indicative of focal areas of cortical ischemia or necrosis, as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern c...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (staging)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin stage II: invasion of penile shaft stage I...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~3-8% 1,2 of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional/urothelial cell carcinomas) but nevertheless, SCC is the most common type of nontransitional cell carcinoma involving the bladder 2. SCC of the bladder is observed ...
Article

Staghorn calculus (kidney)

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis. Epidemiology Stagh...
Article

Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Incidence Steinstrasse usually develops 1 day to 3...
Article

Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...
Article

Strangury

Strangury (also known as stranguria) describes a symptom of the unintentional agonising micturition of small volumes of urine or marked desire to do so, often without any urine passed. In many cases the bladder is empty or near empty. It has been described as the urological form of tenesmus, an...
Article

Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of alternating linear bands of high and low attenuation in a radial pattern extending through the corticomedullary layers of the kidney on iodine-based intravenous contrast enhanced imaging. It is important to know that a simila...
Article

String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
Article

Subcapsular perirenal hematoma

A subcapsular perirenal hematoma is a form of perirenal hematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) 5,...
Article

Sunburst sign (renal angiomyolipoma)

The sunburst sign refers to the appearance of arterial blush seen at selective arterial DSA of a renal angiomyolipoma. Angiomyolipoma is a hypervascular renal mass that shows dense early arterial vascular network of tortuous irregular vessels with micro- or macroaneurysms.
Article

Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the is...
Article

Superior adrenal artery

The superior adrenal (suprarenal) arteries area a group of one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. There are usually numerous small arteries arising from the inferior phrenic artery. Gross Anatomy Origin The superior suprarenal arteries arise from the inferior phrenic...
Article

Supernumerary kidney

Supernumerary kidneys are a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital system, where there are one or two accessory kidneys. Epidemiology Less than 100 cases are documented.  Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic. If present symptoms range from fever, pain to abdominal mass. Thes...
Article

Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst

Suprapubic cartilaginous cysts (SPCC) are rare cystic lesions arising from the symphysis pubis thought to be degenerative in origin. They have also been called retropubic or subpubic cysts. Epidemiology In the small number of cases in the literature, all bar one patient, have been female. The ...
Article

Supravesical fossa

The supravesical fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the median umbilical fold and the medial umbilical folds. It partially overlies the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The supravesical fossae are usually occupied by small bowel loops and the urinar...
Article

Surgical hemostatic material

Surgical hemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently intentionally left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is caused by foreign material left behind in error. Its use has increased with the advent of minimally invasive s...
Article

Surgical positions

There are various classic surgical positions for patients to be placed in for procedures, which have been adopted/repurposed for interventional radiology and some diagnostic procedures: lithotomy position Trendelenburg position reverse Trendelenburg position lateral decubitus position Litho...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.