Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

981 results found
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Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index of intrarenal arteries defined as (peak systolic velocity - end-diastolic velocity) / peak systolic velocity. The normal range is 0.50-0.70. Elevated values are associated with poorer prognosis in various renal disorders and renal tr...
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Renal arteriovenous fistula

Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (rAVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in re...
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Renal arteriovenous malformation

Renal arteriovenous malformations (renal AVMs) are an uncommon vascular anomaly, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous fistula (renal AVF). Pathology Like arteriovenous malformations elsewhere in the body, a renal AVM is formed by a connection between the arterial and venous structu...
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Renal artery

The renal arteries originate from the abdominal aorta and enter the renal hila to supply the kidneys.  Any variant in arterial supply is important to clinicians undertaking surgery or other interventional renal procedures. Gross anatomy Origin They arise from the abdominal aorta at the L1-2 v...
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Renal artery aneurysm

Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are considered the second most common visceral aneurysm (15-22%), most common being splenic artery aneurysm (60%).  Epidemiology RAAs occur in ~0.1% of the population 6,8. They are more common in females 6 with a median age of diagnosis of 50 years 8. Clinical pre...
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Renal artery dissection

Renal artery dissection may occur as a result of the following processes 1: aortic dissection extending to involve the renal artery iatrogenic (e.g. catheterization) trauma atherosclerosis fibromuscular dysplasia connective tissue diseases (e.g. Marfan syndrome) idiopathic
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Renal artery occlusion (acute)

Renal artery occlusion can happen acutely due to in-situ thrombus, embolism, or dissection. Unless immediately treated, it can lead to renal infarction 1. Epidemiology The condition is more common in the elderly, however, it may be seen in a younger age group if they have risk factors (describ...
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Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are uncommon vascular finding, with the majority occuring after a renal intervention. Pathology A renal artery pseudoaneurysm differs from a renal artery true aneurysm (as might occur in fibromuscular dysplasia) in that it does not involve all three layers of the a...
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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) (plural: stenoses) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form a...
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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in...
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Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumor confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: tumor confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: limi...
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Renal colic

Renal colic (also known as ureteric colic) refers to a pattern of abdominal pain most commonly caused by ureteric calculi. The pain (usually unilateral) is felt in the loin radiating down to the groin and is typically colicky (i.e. coming in waves) corresponding to peristalsis or spasm of the ur...
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Renal coloboma syndrome

Renal coloboma syndrome (also known as papillorenal syndrome) is a rare condition that primarily affects kidney and eye development. Affected individuals typically have hypoplastic kidneys, which can lead to end-stage renal disease. Approximately 10% of children with hypodysplastic kidneys have...
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Renal cortical defect

Renal cortical defects have a variety of causes, and present on imaging as an area of focal cortical thinning or absence of renal cortex, sometimes accompanied by focal caliectasis.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for a renal cortical defect includes 1,2: renal scarring re...
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Renal cortical necrosis

Renal cortical necrosis occurs as a result of severe systemic illness in a variety of settings and can result in permanent renal impairment.  Pathology Etiology severe hemodynamic shock traumatic blood loss postpartum hemorrhage septic shock venom toxin transfusion reaction severe dehyd...
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Renal cyst

Renal cyst is a generic term commonly used in description of any predominantly cystic renal lesion. The majority of parenchymal cystic lesions represent benign epithelial cysts; however, malignancy such as renal cell carcinoma may also present as a cystic lesion 8. Renal cysts are usually evalu...
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Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD), also known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 5 (MODY5), refers to the combination of renal cortical cysts and diabetes mellitus in patients with mutations in the HNF1B gene. When renal cysts are associated with these mutations without disturb...
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Renal dysgenesis

Renal dysgenesis is a very broad term which can include any form underdevelopment of the kidneys. The spectrum includes: renal agenesis: complete lack of formation renal hypoplasia: partial lack of formation Some authors also classify any form of renal maldevelopment affecting size, shape of ...
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Renal emphysema

Renal emphysema, or intrarenal gas, refers to the presence of gas within the kidney, with or without extension to the urinary tract.It is a rare finding and only a few differentials need to be considered 1: infections  emphysematous pyelonephritis 1 iatrogenic instrumentation biopsy surger...
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Renal epithelial cyst

Renal epithelial cysts, also known as simple renal cysts, are common benign lesions of the renal parenchyma. Since they are uncommon in children and progressively more common with age, they are considered acquired lesions. Epidemiology overall high prevalence increasingly common with age 1,2 ...
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Renal forniceal rupture

Renal forniceal or calyceal rupture is the radiographic finding of a perirenal urine leak as a result of ureteric obstruction. Anatomy The renal fornices are the thin pointed projections, arising from the lateral aspects of each minor calyx, and extending a short distance into the renal column...
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Renal hemosiderosis

Renal hemosiderosis results from accumulation of hemosiderin in the kidneys. It is usually considered a benign and incidental radiologic finding and rarely results in clinically apparent renal dysfunction.  Pathology Renal hemosiderosis is a known complication of the following conditions: chr...
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Renal hilar lip

A renal hilar lip is a developmental anomaly of the kidney. It is an infolding of the cortex at the level of the renal sinus and in this region the renal cortex appears thicker.  Radiographic features On imaging it appears as supra- or infra-hilar cortical bulges. At certain levels of cross-se...
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Renal hydatid infection

Renal hydatid infection is a very rare manifestation of hydatid disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Epidemiology Renal hydatid infection is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid dise...
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Renal hypoplasia

Renal hypoplasia refers to a congenitally small kidney where there is essentially normal residual parenchyma but smaller calyces, lobules and papillae. This is in contrast to renal atrophy where renal development was initially normal but the kidney has become smaller secondary to various other p...
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Renal infarction

Renal infarction results from interruption of the normal blood supply to part of, or to the whole kidney. The main imaging differential diagnosis includes pyelonephritis and renal tumors. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients will depend on the underlying cause, although as most c...
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Renal intraparenchymal acceleration time

Renal intraparenchymal acceleration time is a parameter used in assessing renal arterial stenosis on Doppler ultrasound. It is the time taken from the start of systole to peak systole.  normal range: a value of usually < 0.07 seconds is taken as being within normal limits 1.
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Renal lymphangiectasia

Renal lymphangiomas, also known as renal lymphangiectasia,  are a rare disorder, where there is dilatation of perirenal, parapelvic, and intrarenal lymphatics. The diagnosis can be suggested by imaging, and aspiration of chylous fluid is usually confirmatory. For a broader discussion, please re...
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Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually a part component of multi-systemic lymphoma. Primary renal lymphoma, which is defined as lymphoma involving the kidney exclusively without any manifestation of extra-renal lymphatic disease 3-5. Typical imaging findings are multiple bilateral hypodense or infiltrative r...
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Renal mass

A renal mass can be broadly divided into two broad categories: renal tumor renal pseudotumor
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Renal medullary carcinoma

Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive variant of renal cell cancer centered in the renal medulla.  Epidemiology Renal medullary carcinoma occurs almost exclusively in adolescent and young adult blacks with sickle cell trait or hemoglobin SC disease but not with homozygous h...
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Renal milk of calcium cysts

Renal milk of calcium cysts refer to the appearance of a calcium precipitate found either within a calyceal diverticulum, that has lost communication with the collecting system, or within a simple renal cyst.  Clinical presentation Renal milk of calcium cysts are typically asymptomatic.  Radi...
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RENAL nephrometry scoring system

The RENAL nephrometry scoring system was developed to categorize renal masses into low, intermediate and high complexity, based on cross-sectional imaging findings. Its purpose is to aid in decision making, patient counseling, surgical planning, and patient follow-up, as well as academic reporti...
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Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytomas are relatively benign renal tumors. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
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Renal oncocytosis

Renal oncocytosis, also known as renal oncocytomatosis, is the presence of many concurrent renal oncocytomas with or without renal cell carcinomas. Typically a dominant larger tumor is present, with bilateral innumerable smaller tumors. Sometimes renal failure may develop 1. 
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Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uremic osteopathy, is a constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults)/rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium and p...
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Renal papillary adenoma

Papillary adenomas of the kidney are benign renal neoplasms arising from the renal tubular epithelium and almost always located within the cortex. They fall under the general category of renal adenomas, and are considered one of the commonest of renal epithelial neoplasms. Epidemiology The est...
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Renal papillary necrosis

Renal papillary necrosis refers to ischemic necrosis of the renal papillae. Necrosis also occurs in the medullary pyramids. Clinical presentation Patients can present with both acute episodes or chronic renal papillary necrosis. Calyceal or ureteral obstruction by sloughed papillae manifests w...
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Renal papillary necrosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of renal papillary necrosis are plentiful and include: NSAID POSTCARDS AD SPORT C: a list of causes in decreasing order of incidence DINASOR Mnemonics NSAID Most common causes: N: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) S: sickle cell disease A: acetamin...
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Renal pelvis

The renal pelvis (or, more rarely, the renal infundibulum) forms part of the pelvicalyceal system of the kidney and is the connection between the calyces and the ureter. Gross anatomy The renal pelvis is triangular in shape, lies posteriorly in the renal hilum surrounded by fat and vessels and...
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Renal pseudotumor

A renal pseudotumor is a mass that will simulate a tumor on imaging but is composed of non-neoplastic tissue. There are many examples 1: Developmental prominent column of Bertin persistent fetal lobulation dromedary hump splenorenal fusion cross-fused renal ectopia renal hilar lip Infect...
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Renal replacement lipomatosis

Renal replacement lipomatosis is a rare condition characterized by fatty tissue proliferation in the renal sinus and perinephric space with marked destruction/atrophy of renal parenchyma (due to chronic inflammation). Clinical presentation Patients usually present with non-specific complaints ...
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Renal replacement therapy

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) (also called renal dialysis or just dialysis) is used to supplement renal function in patients with either end-stage chronic kidney disease or medically-refractory acute renal impairment. Theory Haemodialysis refers to the diffusion of solutes in solution across...
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Renal sinus

The renal sinus is a fat-filled compartment of the kidney. Gross anatomy The renal sinus is a fatty compartment located within the medial aspect of the kidney. It communicates with the perinephric space. It contains the renal hilum and is bordered by renal parenchyma laterally.  Contents ren...
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Renal sinus cyst

Renal sinus cysts are simple renal cysts that lie within the renal sinus. Terminology It is worth noting that some authors 5,6 use the term renal lymphangiectasia interchangeably. It is likely that true renal lymphangiectasia is a separate and rare disorder, and is thus discussed separately. ...
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Renal sinus lipomatosis

Renal sinus lipomatosis refers to a condition where there is excessive renal sinus fat replacement. Pathology It results from renal parenchymal atrophy, inflammation, calculous disease, aging, or exogenous or endogenous steroids. There is usually no or rarely little mass effect on the collect...
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Renal sympathetic denervation

Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN), also known as renal denervation, is an interventional procedure that uses radiofrequency ablation to destroy the nerve endings in the wall of the renal arteries. Endovascular (trans-catheter) techniques are an alternative to surgical sympathectomy.  Indicat...
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Renal tract calculi (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Renal tract calculi, also known as urolithiasis, refer to renal stone formation at any point along the renal tract (from kidneys to bladder and urethra). Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our artic...
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Renal transplant

Renal transplantation is one, if not the most, common transplant procedures undertaken worldwide. Consequently, purposeful and incidental imaging of renal transplants and renal transplant-related complications are increasingly common. These include acute renal transplant rejection and chronic re...
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Renal transplant rejection

Renal transplant rejection is one of the feared complications of renal transplantation. In terms of onset, this can be broadly divided into two groups: acute renal transplant rejection chronic renal transplant rejection: usually after one-year post-transplantation (at least after 3 months) R...
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Renal transplant related complications

The recipients of renal transplants are susceptible to a number of complications. Incidence of each is variable and partially subject to specific surgical transplantation techniques and management patterns.  Pathology Renal transplant complications These can be broadly categorized as perirena...
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Renal transplant torsion

Renal transplant torsion is a very rare complication of renal transplant, occurring mostly in intraperitoneal transplants because of the increased mobility compared to extraperitoneal transplants, which are less mobile.  Clinical presentation Non-specific clinical symptoms such as nausea, abdo...
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Renal transplant ultrasound

The central approach of renal transplant ultrasound is to evaluate for possibly treatable surgical or medical complications arising in the transplanted kidney. Institutions vary in the exact schedule of renal transplant ultrasound assessment, but it is common to obtain an initial ultrasound 24-...
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Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating, and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflect that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
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Renal tuberculosis

Renal tuberculosis, a subset of genitourinary tuberculosis, accounts for 15-20% of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and can result in varied and striking radiographic appearances.  Tuberculosis can involve both the renal parenchyma and the collecting system (calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder a...
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Renal tubular acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to defects in the renal tubular transport of hydrogen ions, bicarbonate ions, or both, in the kidneys resulting in a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis.  Epidemiology The exact prevalence of renal tubular acidosis is unknown but the entity is probably u...
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Renal tubular ectasia

Renal tubular ectasia is an incidental finding that is seen more commonly on intravenous pyelography (IVP), but which can also occasionally be seen on CT urography (CTU). Terminology Renal tubular ectasia is also known as benign renal tubular ectasia. The term "benign" was used to differentiat...
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Renal tumors

Renal tumors (for the purposes of this article taken to broadly mean neoplastic lesions) should be distinguished from renal pseudotumors. Whilst renal tumors can be broadly divided into primary and secondary (metastatic), benign and malignant, or adult and pediatric tumors, they are more formal...
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Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognized and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognized as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
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Renal vein

The renal veins are asymmetric paired veins that drain the kidneys.  Gross anatomy Course The renal vein is formed by the union of two-to-three renal parenchymal veins in the renal sinus. It emerges from the renal hilum anterior to the renal artery and drains into the inferior vena cava at th...
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Renal vein anomalies

There are several variations in renal venous anatomy. Some of these are specific to the left renal vein. Left renal vein anomalies are generally classified into four types 2: type I  the ventral preaortic limb of the left renal vein is obliterated, but the dorsal retroaortic limb persists and...
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Renal vein thrombosis

Renal vein thrombosis (plural: renal vein thromboses) can be either from "bland" thrombus or tumor thrombus (extension of tumor into the vein). There are numerous etiologies for bland thrombus, but it most commonly occurs in the hypercoagulable nephrotic syndrome. Renal vein thrombus is commoner...
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Renal vein varices

Renal vein varices develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic. Clinical presentation Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or hematuria. Pathology Etiology chronic renal vein thrombosis nutcracker syndrome posterior nutc...
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Renovascular hypertension

Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a type of secondary hypertension, where high blood pressure develops secondary to renal artery disease.  Epidemiology Approximately 2.5% (range 0.5-5%) of hypertensive patients will have RVH as a cause 2,3.  Pathology Etiology There are a number of conditi...
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Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is a normal anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional procedu...
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Retrograde pyelography

Retrograde pyelography (also known as retrograde pyeloureterography) is a method of imaging the upper urinary collecting system. After IVU and CTU were developed, it has been rarely performed as a primary study, but it still has a few potential indications as a secondary study. Indications non...
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), is a condition that has previously been described as chronic periaortitis. It is an uncommon fibrotic reaction in the retroperitoneum that typically presents with ureteric obstruction. The disease is part of a spectrum of entities that have a common pathogenic pr...
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Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Terminology Some articles conflate and/or confuse retroperitoneal hemorrhage and Wunderlich syndrome 5. However Wunderlich syndrome refers primarily to bleeding around the kidney, not the retroperitoneum in genera...
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Retropubic space

The retropubic space (also known as the prevesical space, cave of Retzius or cavum Retzii) is an extraperitoneal space located posterior to the pubic symphysis and anterior to the urinary bladder. It is separated from the anterior abdominal wall by the transversalis fascia and extends to the lev...
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Reverse rim sign (kidney)

The reverse rim sign describes relative hypoenhancement of the renal cortex and normal enhancement of the renal medulla on contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. This enhancement pattern can also be visualized using CEUS 2. It is a typical finding of renal cortical necrosis that may occur in the setting...
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Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney

Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of early childhood, closely related to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the brain (see rhabdoid tumors). Epidemiology Rhabdoid tumors occur exclusively in children, with 60% occurring before the age of 1 year of a...
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (genitourinary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract are uncommon tumors occurring in pelvic organs.  It is a disease nearly exclusive to the pediatric population.  For a general discussion of this type of tumor, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology The peak incidence of tum...
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Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileoceca...
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Rim sign (chronic hydronephrosis)

The rim sign can be seen in association with chronic hydronephrosis.  In patients with chronic hydronephrosis, in all forms of contrast-enhanced imaging of the obstructed kidney, enhancement may occur in the residual, but markedly atrophic, renal parenchyma, surrounding the dilated calyces and ...
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Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) include: Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1) undescended testis 10-40x increased risk  around 10% of all tumors are associated with undescended testis higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal or...
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Robson staging system of renal cell carcinoma

Robson staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is simple but has largely been replaced by the TNM system (see renal cell cancer staging article). Robson staging revolves around the relationship to Gerota's fascia, involvement of renal vein and regional nodes. stage I: limited to kidney stage II:...
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Rule of 10s (Wilms tumor)

Wilms tumor classically follows a "rule of 10s" 1,2: up to 10% may have unfavorable histology 10% are bilateral 10% have vascular invasion 10% have calcifications on CT 10% have pulmonary metastases at presentation See also Wilms tumor
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Sacral nerve stimulator

Sacral nerve stimulators are a form of neuromodulation therapy. They are used for urogenital disorders such as urge urinary incontinence and detrusor hyperactivity, and colorectal disorders such as chronic constipation refractory to conventional medical therapy, and fecal incontinence. There is ...
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Saddlebag bladder sign (endopelvic fascial defect)

The saddlebag bladder sign refers to the appearance caused on axial pelvic MR images by posterior drooping of the posterolateral wall(s) of the urinary bladder, due to loss of integrity of the lateral level 2 endopelvic fascia. If combined with a defect of the puborectalis muscle on the ipsilate...
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Salt and pepper sign

The salt and pepper sign is used to refer to a speckled appearance of tissue. It is used in many instances, but most commonly on MRI. NB: pathologists also use the term. Differential diagnosis Vascular tumors Used to describe some highly vascular tumors which contain foci of hemorrhage, typic...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved. Although less common than pulmonary and mediastinal disease, abdominal sarcoidosis can mimic more common infectious or neoplast...
Article

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is a rare malignant prostatic tumor variant usually composed of both malignant glandular cells and spindle cells. Terminology Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is also known as carcinosarcoma, metaplastic carcinoma or spindle cell carcinoma of the pros...
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Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (sRCC) may develop when one of the more common histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma degenerates into a sarcoma. On imaging, they are generally large masses, with irregular contours, and malignant-appearing, but do not have specific imaging features. Epi...
Article

Schiller-Duval body (histology)

Schiller-Duval body is a perivascular structure that can be found in 50% of testicular yolk sac tumors also known as endodermal sinus tumors. If present it is considered pathognomonic.  Pathology A central vessel is surrounded by tumor cells, and the cell-vessel complex is contained in a cysti...
Article

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
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Schistosomiasis (urinary tract manifestations)

Bladder schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia of the bladder, is an infection by the Schistosoma flukeworm and is a major health problem in developing parts of the world predisposing individuals to bladder squamous cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over ...
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Sciatic hernia

Sciatic hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a rare type of pelvic floor hernia, which occur through either the greater or lesser sciatic foramina. The hernias can contain variable structures. See also curlicue ureter sign
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (renal manifestations)

Renal manifestations of scleroderma are common, affecting up to 25% of patients. Some patients (5-10%) can present with a scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). These patients have an abrupt onset of hypertension and acute renal failure 4.  For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the ...
Article

Scrotal cystocele

Scrotal cystoceles are a type of urinary bladder hernia, where the bladder herniates into the scrotum. Clinical presentation asymptomatic voiding problems scrotal swelling Radiographic features Ultrasound Scrotal sac will contain fluid. Emptying of a scrotal cystocele with voiding is an i...
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Scrotal filariasis

Scrotal filariasis is a manifestation of filariasis and refers to scrotal involvement from parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Filarioidea. Epidemiology Known disease of the tropics and subtropics and a cause of morbidity in Asia, Africa and the Western Pacific regions 2. Clinical presenta...
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Scrotal hematocele

Scrotal hematoceles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testis. Pathology A hematocele normally results from trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a hematocele 4. Radiographic featu...
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Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess scrotal filariasis

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