Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

818 results found
Article

Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
Article

Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in ...
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Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It is more frequently seen in males. The enlarged, floppy calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calcul...
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Epithelioid angiomyolipoma

Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (EAML) are rare variants of the more common renal angiomyolipoma. They have malignant potential. Pathology Like more common renal angiomyolipomas, EAMLs are considered perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). EAMLs were regarded as a separate renal mass enti...
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Urachal cyst

Urachal cysts are one of the manifestations of the spectrum of congenital urachal remnant abnormalities.  Clinical presentation Urachal cysts usually remain asymptomatic until complicated by infection or bleeding. Epidemiology An infected urachal cyst can occur at any age. Pathology Uracha...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumours of neuroblastic origin. Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. They represent the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancy and are the third commonest childhood tumour after leukaemia an...
Article

Testicular sarcoidosis

Testicular sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. In cases of urogenital sarcoidosis, more commonly the epididymis is affected. Epidemiology Testicular sarcoidosis is more common in African-American patients, as are other forms of sarcoidosis 1. Up to 5% of patients with chronic s...
Article

Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging and primarily used to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: 2.5 hours normal di...
Article

Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
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Delayed nephrogram

A delayed nephrogram, commonly described on plain film urography, but also visible on CT urography, is when there is absence or reduction of the normal renal parenchymal enhancement on nephrographic phase images. A delayed nephrogram is characteristically unilateral and is usually distinguished...
Article

Testis

The testes, also known as the testicles, are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 mL volume at puberty 1. ...
Article

Spermatocele

Spermatoceles are a common type of extratesticular cyst, and represents cystic dilatation of tubules of the efferent ductules in the head of the epididymis. Clinical presentation Usually a painless, incidental finding but can present as a mass lesion if large 3. Pathology Spermatoceles are u...
Article

Extratesticular cystic lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for extratesticular cystic lesions includes: hydrocele epididymal cyst spermatocele haematoma haematocele loop of bowel from an inguinal hernia abscess pyocele post-vasectomy varicocele Very rarely, a scrotal mesothelioma may present as a cystic mass.
Article

Testicular cyst

Simple testicular cysts are usually nonpalpable and thus are detected incidentally. Testicular cysts require no treatment when discovered. Radiographic features Ultrasound well-marginated imperceptible wall anechoic with posterior acoustic enhancement no flow on colour Doppler MRI follo...
Article

Hydrocele

Hydroceles are acquired or congenital serous fluid collections between the layers of the tunica vaginalis surrounding a testis or spermatic cord. They are the most common form of "testicular" enlargement and present with painless enlargement of the scrotum. On all modalities, hydroceles appear a...
Article

Metastases to testis

Metastases to testis are a rare cause of a testicular mass and may be bilateral in up to 15% of patients.  Epidemiology Metastases to the testes are apparent in ~0.04% of autopsy studies in patients with known malignancy. The average age is 57 years, much older than the primary age for primary...
Article

Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
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Percutaneous renal biopsy

Percutaneous renal biopsy, utilising either ultrasound or CT, allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. The biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or targeted (i.e....
Article

Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
Article

Renal transplant ultrasound

The central approach of renal transplant ultrasound is to evaluate for possibly treatable surgical or medical complications arising in the transplanted kidney. Institutions vary in the exact schedule of renal transplant ultrasound assessment, but it is common to obtain an initial ultrasound 24-...
Article

Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal mass lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastases or other ad...
Article

Adrenal myelolipoma

Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign, and usually asymptomatic, tumours of the adrenal gland characterised by the predominance of mature adipocytes.  On imaging, they usually present as large masses with a variable amount of fat-containing components. Epidemiology Rare tumours with estimated ...
Article

Crossed fused renal ectopia

Crossed fused renal ectopia refers to an anomaly where the kidneys are fused and located on the same side of the midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 1000 births 1. There is a recognised male predilection with a 2:1 male to female ratio. More than 90% of crossed ren...
Article

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of general male population and ~40% of subfertile a...
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Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis

Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis is acquired false diverticula resulting from herniation of epithelium through the muscularis layer of the ureter and characterized by the presence of multiple outpouchings smaller than 5 mm. It is sometimes bilateral and is often located in the upper two-thirds of t...
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Diverticulum

Diverticula are outpouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. Diverticulum is the singular form and diverticula is the correct Latin plural form. 'Diverticuli' and 'diverticulae' are erroneous and should not be used (cf. septum).  True diverticula contains all layers of the...
Article

Unilateral testicular lesions

The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.  Neoplastic Common seminoma (40-50% of tumours) non seminomatous germ cell tumours: testicular teratoma testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only) testicular choriocarcinoma testicular embry...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterised by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved. Although less common than pulmonary and mediastinal disease, abdominal sarcoidosis can mimic more common infectious or neoplast...
Article

Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency refers to inadequate secretion of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids). Terminology It may occur from partial or complete destruction of the adrenal cortex, in which case it is termed primary adrenal insufficiency (also known as Addison disease). Secon...
Article

Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
Article

Adrenal lesions (differential)

Adrenal lesions cover a broad spectrum from benign to neoplastic entities. Due to increased use of cross-sectional imaging they are frequently detected as incidental lesions ("incidentalomas"). If found incidentally, please refer to the Management of incidental adrenal masses: American College o...
Article

Adrenal haemorrhage

Adrenal haemorrhage can result from a variety of traumatic and non-traumatic causes. When unilateral, it is often clinically silent. In contrast, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can lead to catastrophic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical presentation The large majority of patients with unilateral a...
Article

Adrenal lymphangioma

Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign cystic adrenal lesions. Epidemiology Adrenal lymphangiomas are extremely rare; prevalence is estimated at 0.06% 8. They can occur at any age, with a peak incidence between the 3rd and 6th decades of life. Accor...
Article

Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and is the largest male accessory gland. It typically weighs between 20-40 grams with an average size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm. The prostate is comprised of 70% glandular tissue and 30% fibromuscular or stromal tissue 1-3 and provides ~30% of the...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis (diagnostic criteria)

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have most recently been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2018) 1.  Criteria Genetic criteria The identification of...
Article

Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin gland cysts are located in the posterolateral inferior third of the vagina and are associated with the labia majora.  Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic 4. Complications infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses rare instances of development of adenocarc...
Article

Phaeochromocytoma

Phaeochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% ...
Article

Testicular teratoma

Testicular teratoma, unlike ovarian teratoma, is often aggressive in its biological behaviour, and often exists as part of testicular mixed germ cell tumours.   Epidemiology Pure testicular teratomas account for only 4-9% of all testicular tumours. A similar number are seen in the context of t...
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multi-system disorder that can occur either sporadically or in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is often considered a forme fruste of TSC.​ Epidemiology It almost exclusively affects women of childbearing age 7. The estimated in...
Article

Twinkling artifact

Twinkling artifact is the result of intrinsic machine noise seen with colour Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colours on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as calculi), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an assoc...
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Hymen

The hymen (plural: hymens) is a thin fold of mucous membrane which extends across the vaginal opening, usually with some form of internal defect, which permits the free passage of normal menses.  It usually ruptures during coitus with the remnants, usually in the form of small tags of tissue ar...
Article

Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
Article

Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Article

Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is an X-linked dominant disease characterised by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease and, at times, ocular lesions. Clinical presentation haematuria sensorineural hearing loss: typically high frequency 2 ocular abnormalities  anterior lenticonus: most commo...
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Epididymal appendix

An epididymal appendix (or alternatively appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis) is a testicular appendage that is a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) which can be found in the head of the epididymis 1. In 78% of the cases, it is stalked and is thus easily ...
Article

Septate uterus

A septate uterus is a common type of congenital uterine anomaly, and it may lead to an increased rate of pregnancy loss. The main imaging differential diagnoses are arcuate uterus and bicornuate uterus. Epidemiology It is considered the commonest uterine anomaly (accounts for ~55% of such anom...
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Cystic adrenal neoplasm

Cystic adrenal neoplasms are uncommon and only account for a minority of cystic adrenal lesions 3. They may be represented several histological types: adrenal adenoma 1 adrenal cortical carcinoma 1,2 adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma 2 phaeochromocytoma 1 teratoma (paediatric population) 4 ...
Article

Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
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Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumour

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structu...
Article

Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal fluid-filled structure which is lined by epithelium; with one exception: lung cysts contain gas, not fluid. By contradistinction, a pseudocyst lacks an epithelial lining and instead has a vascular and fibrotic capsule. Cysts are extremely common and found in most organs. E...
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Hermaphroditism

Hermaphroditism states are a result of abnormalities in embryonic development and may have mixed characteristics of each sex, with variable clinical manifestations. True hermaphroditism is defined as the simultaneous presence in a single individual of both testicular and ovarian tissues, that may...
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Multilocular cystic renal tumour

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (renal pelvis)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is uncommon compared to renal cell carcinoma and can be challenging to identify on routine imaging when small.  This article concerns itself with TCCs of the renal pelvis specifically. For a general discussion of this tumour, please see transition...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Ureter

The ureter is a paired fibromuscular tube that conveys urine from the kidneys in the abdomen to the bladder in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ureter is 25-30 cm long and has three parts: abdominal ureter: from the renal pelvis to the pelvic brim pelvic ureter: from the pelvic brim to the bla...
Article

Internal pudendal vein

The internal pudendal veins are the set of accompanying veins to the internal pudendal artery draining the perineal region to empty into the internal iliac vein. Gross Anatomy Tributaries inferior rectal veins males penile bulb and scrotum vein females clitoris and posterior labial vein ...
Article

Increased renal echogenicity

Increased renal echogencity is a nonspecific finding but can represent a number of underlying conditions.  These include: normal variation renal amyloidosis chronic kidney disease: increased cortical echogenicity sickle cell disease 4 See also echogenic renal pyramids - paediatric renal ...
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Chronic renal transplant rejection

Chronic renal transplant rejection is a form of renal transplant rejection. It usually later following transplantation. Pathology Chronic rejection is defined as a gradual deterioration in graft function beginning at least 3 months after transplantation 3.  The creatinine levels may rise but ...
Article

Adrenal abscess

Adrenal abscesses are rare lesions affecting the adrenal glands and are usually encountered in the setting of disseminated infection. Epidemiology Although cases have been described in both neonates and adults, no systematic literature is available on the epidemiology of adrenal abscesses.  P...
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Abdomen (oblique view)

AP oblique supine radiograph is normally performed when localising foreign bodies or lines within the abdominal cavity. Additionally, the oblique abdominal series can be utilised in the assessment of the upper intestinal tract during barium studies. Patient position the patient is laying 30 de...
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Abdomen (PA prone view)

PA prone radiograph is rarely performed, often utilised when a patient is unable to lay supine. The projection is adequate for the examination of the abdominal cavities, however, not as practical for the renal structures due to magnification. Patient position the patient is prone, either on th...
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Valsalva manoeuvre

The Valsalva manoeuvre is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
Article

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblite...
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Pancake kidney

Pancake kidney (also known as discoid kidney, disc kidney, lump kidney, fused pelvic kidney or cake kidney) is a rare renal fusion anomaly of the kidneys of the crossed fused variety. Clinical presentation Pancake kidney may be an incidental finding. However, they can present clinically becaus...
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Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uraemic osteopathy, is the constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults) / rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium ...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterised by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
Article

Curlicue ureter sign

The curlicue ureter sign1 is seen intravenous pyelogram in cases of ureteral herniation in sciatic hernia, causing a curled appearance of the herniated ureter. Although very rare, this sign is pathognomonic of sciatic hernia.
Article

Ileovesicostomy

Ileovesicostomy (also known as "cutaneous ileocystostomy", "ileal chimney", or "bladder chimney") is an uncommon urologic diversion in which a loop of small bowel is anastomosed/augmented to the dome of the bladder. This loop of bowel then exits through a urostomy. The diversion is not continent...
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Renal milk of calcium cysts

Renal milk of calcium cysts refer to the appearance of a calcium precipitate found either within a calyceal diverticulum, that has lost communication with the collecting system, or within a simple renal cyst.  Clinical presentation Renal milk of calcium cysts are typically asymptomatic.  Path...
Article

Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumours with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascul...
Article

CT KUB

Computed tomography of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) is a quick non-invasive technique for diagnosis of urolithiasis. It is usually considered the initial imaging modality for suspected urolithiasis in an emergency setting 1. Advantages  quick easily accessible identification of calc...
Article

Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...
Article

Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
Article

Perirenal lymphocele

Perirenal lymphoceles are the most common cause of perinephric fluid collection. They can potentially occur in a post-transplant situation in up to 25% of cases. Clinical presentation Perirenal lymphocele is usually asymptomatic but they can be large enough to cause hydronephrosis or venous ob...
Article

Thimble bladder

Thimble bladder​ is a descriptive term for extreme fibrosis and contracture of the bladder walls, resulting in a tiny bladder. The term is usually used to describe changes from advanced genitourinary tuberculosis.
Article

Ketamine bladder

Ketamine bladder or ketamine bladder syndrome refers to lower urinary tract symptoms associated with long-term ketamine use. Epidemiology The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms in long-term ketamine users has been identified to be as high as 90% in some studies 1. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Prostatic utricle cyst

Prostatic utricle cyst (PUC) is an area of focal dilatation that occurs within the prostatic utricle. They are midline cystic masses in the male pelvis and can be very difficult or impossible to distinguish from a Mullerian duct cyst. Epidemiology Utricle cysts are most often detected in the ...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Tunica albuginea (testis)

The tunica albuginea (TA) forms the fibrous covering of the testis and is itself covered by the serous layer, the tunica vaginalis. The covering is total, except for at the point of attachment of the epididymis, and a small defect posteriorly where the spermatic cord vessels enter and leave the ...
Article

Adrenal collision tumour

An adrenal collision tumour or collision tumour of the adrenal gland is an uncommon condition where two histologically distinct tumours abut each other or are in close proximity in the same adrenal gland. Pathology Collision tumours have been reported in nearly every organ, for example, collis...
Article

Tamm-Horsfall proteins

Tamm-Horsfall proteins, also known as uromodulin, may be a cause of echogenic renal pyramids in a neonate. Tamm-Horsfall proteins are physiologically excreted by the renal tubular epithelium. They are most often encountered on neonatal renal ultrasound, where the concentrated proteins in the re...
Article

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It ca...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis, also known as tuberous sclerosis complex or Bourneville disease, is a neurocutaneous disorder (phakomatosis) characterised by the development of multiple benign tumours of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosis has an i...
Article

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) are a rare mesenchymal renal tumour that account for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in the paediatric population 1.  Epidemiology Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is the second most common primary malignant paediatric renal neoplasm after Wilms tumour, ...
Article

Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections are commonly seen after renal transplantation. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection is often nonspecific but may be partially differentiated by when the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period (<4 weeks) haematoma ultr...
Article

Ejaculatory duct cyst

Ejaculatory duct cysts are a rare type of cyst of the prostate gland. Pathology They occur due to obstruction of the ejaculatory duct which in turn can either be congenital or secondary (e.g. inflammation). They are usually intraprostatic when small but may extend cephalad when large. Radiog...
Article

Hyperdense renal cyst

Benign hyperattenuating renal cysts are also known as hyperdense renal cysts. Epidemiology They are frequently found in patients with either acquired cystic renal disease or autosomal dominant polycystic renal disease 1. Radiographic features homogeneously hyperattenuating (even when a narro...
Article

Urine

Urine represents the biofluid end-product of the renal filtration process. Normally it is a transparent, sterile, pale-yellow liquid (although clearly colour varies with the person's hydration status).  Urine is one of the most easily-accessible biofluids in the human body and has been intensiv...
Article

Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...

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