Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

790 results found
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Vulva

The vulva is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular bulbs vestibule of the vulva urinary meatus vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features Individual component ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. It is also sometimes classified as a vasculitis.  Epidemiology There is an overall increased female predilection. In adults, women are affected 9-13 times more than males. In children, this ratio i...
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Varicocele grading on colour Doppler

Varicocele grading on colour Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocoele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the dia...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore...
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PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum PSA level divided by the volume of the prostate gland.  PSA density has been used as a prognostication tool in helping decide between a watch-and-wait or an invasive approach when managing prostate carcinoma. The c...
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Mons pubis

The mons pubis (plural: montes pubis) refers to the rounded protuberant skin-covered soft tissue overlying the symphysis pubis (in both sexes). It is most prominent in adult females. In females it forms the most superior part of the vulva and it is also called the mons Veneris (plural: montes V...
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Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) form the anteroinferior most part of the vulva, they are continuous with the mons pubis anteriorly and the perineum posteriorly. The labia are apposed in the midline forming the, externally-visible, pudendal cleft. Gross anatomy The labia majora have a...
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Bifid ureter

A bifid ureter, or ureter fissus, is an example of incomplete duplication of a duplex collecting system.  Epidemiology Present in ~5% (range 1-10%) of the population 1-2.  Gross anatomy A bifid ureter is formed when there is a duplex kidney (separate pelvicalyceal collecting systems) drain i...
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Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant and are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) of the population. Their proper identification is of utmost importance for surgical planning prior to live donor transplantation 2,3 and renal artery embolisation for various reasons 5. The term extra renal art...
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Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADS v2 6, ...
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Scrotolith

Scrotoliths, also known as scrotal pearls, are benign incidental extra testicular macro-calcifications within the scrotum. They frequently occupy the potential space of the tunica vaginalis or sinus of the epididymis. They are usually of no clinical significance 1,2. Clinical presentation Most...
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Vesicoureteric reflux

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically encountered in young children.  For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric reflux grading. Epidemiology The incidence of urinary tract in...
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Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus.  Related pathology paraurethral duct cyst paraurethral duct abscess
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Perineal nerve

The perineal nerve or the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve is the largest terminal branch of the pudendal nerve which is derived from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The perineal nerve gives muscular branches to superficial and deep perineal muscles as well as the external u...
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Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblite...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
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Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioural disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position duri...
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Urogenital triangle

The urogenital triangle forms the anterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's corners are defined by the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterolateral borders are the ischiopubic rami and the posterior border is the transverse perinea...
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Paraurethral duct cyst

Paraurethral duct cysts are retention cysts that form secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the paraurethral (Skene) ducts in females. Pathology The cysts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium due to their origin from the urogenital sinus. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic....
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Paraurethral glands

Paraurethral glands (or Skene glands) lie within the wall of the distal female urethra and secrete mucus during sexual activity. Each gland is drained by a single paraurethral duct. They are homologous to the male prostate gland. If the paraurethral duct becomes obstructed (inflammation, inspis...
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Female urethra

The female urethra is a simple short tube, that transports the urine out of the body, extending from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.  Gross anatomy The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embe...
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Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system (or tract) includes: penis testes epididymides ductus deferentia ejaculatory ducts seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands It can be imaged using almost the entire range of imaging modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most often used (in part because...
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Bulbourethral glands

The bulbourethral glands or Cowper glands are paired small pea-sized glands of the male reproductive tract, analogous to the female Bartholin glands. Gross anatomy The bulbourethral glands are located in the deep perineal pouch posterolateral to the membranous portion of the male urethra and c...
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Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin gland cysts are located in the posterolateral inferior third of the vagina and are associated with the labia majora.  Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic 4. Complications infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses rare instances of development of adenocarc...
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Bartholin glands

The Bartholin glands (or greater vestibular glands) are paired pea-sized structures, lying on either side of the vaginal opening, and are homologous to the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands in the male. They form part of the vulva. Gross anatomy These glands are described as less than 1 cm in diam...
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Unilateral renal enlargement (differential)

Unilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include: duplicated pelvicalyceal system crossed-fused renal ectopia renal arterial infarction renal vein thrombosis anatomic compression of the renal vein compensatory hypertrophy acute bacterial nephritis obstructive ...
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Bilateral renal enlargement

Bilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include 1: diabetic nephropathy (common) renal involvement with lymphoma acute interstitial nephritis vasculitis / autoimmune HIV nephropathy leukemia autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys (ARPKD) adult dominant polycys...
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CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
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Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Aetiology Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
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Molar tooth sign (abdomen)

Abdominal molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of contrast media spilled out of the urinary bladder on CT cystography after extraperitoneal bladder rupture. Contrast flows out of the ruptured bladder, occupying preperitoneal cavum Retzii and surrounds the bladder in the shape of a molar to...
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
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String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
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Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
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Eosinophilic ureteritis

Eosinophilic ureteritis (and eosinophilic pyelouerteritis) is a rare cause of ureteral inflammation. The clinical presentation and imaging features are non-specific. Clinical presentation Patients are usually atopic or hypereosinophilic with peripheral eosinophilia. Associated with eosinophil...
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Tubular ectasia of rete testis

Tubular ectasia of rete testis represents dilated testicular mediastinal tubules.  Epidemiology This condition is more common in men over the age of 55 years.  Pathology This is a benign condition thought to result from the partial or complete obliteration of the efferent ducts. These sperma...
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Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
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Testicular vasculitis

Testicular vasculitis can occur as either part of a systemic vasculitis or an isolated vasculitis involving only the testes with both having roughly equal prevalence.  Epidemiology The mean age of onset is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentation Symptoms can include a testicular mass w...
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Bladder calculus

Bladder calculi occur either from migrated renal calculi or urinary stasis. Bladder calculi can be divided into primary and secondary stones: primary: stones form de novo in the bladder secondary: stones are either from renal calculi which have migrated down into the bladder, or from concretio...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~3-8% 1,2 of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional/urothelial cell carcinomas) but nevertheless, SCC is the most common type of nontransitional cell carcinoma involving the bladder 2. SCC of the bladder is observed ...
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Urachus

The urachus is the fibrous vestigial remnant of the fetal allantois. The lumen of the urachus usually obliterates after birth and it becomes the median umbilical ligament, a midline linear fibrous fold of parietal peritoneum, extending from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. If the lume...
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Primary prostatic malignant melanoma

Primary melanoma of the prostate is rare, and usually cannot be diagnosed on imaging alone. In many cases, it is believed that in fact the tumour represents prostatic involvement by melanoma of the urethra. Epidemiology Primary malignant melanoma of the prostate represent both a tiny fraction ...
Article

Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extraperitoneal structure located in the true pelvis. Its primary function is as a reservoir for urine.  Gross anatomy The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anteri...
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Penis

The penis is the most distal part of the male urogenital system. Gross anatomy The gross anatomy of the penis can be divided into five sections:  Skin loosely connected to the tunica albuginea distally folded to form the prepuce (foreskin) at the corona of the penis the internal layer of t...
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Bulbospongiosus muscle

The bulbospongiosus is a muscle found in the superficial perineal pouch which covers the bulb of the penis in males and the bulb of the vestibule in females. Summary origin: median raphe and perineal body insertion: dorsum of penis/clitoris, perineal membrane innervation: pudendal nerve blo...
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Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space superior (deep) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital t...
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Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the is...
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Perineal membrane

The perineal membrane is a thin triangular horizontal layer of dense tough fascia in the perineum the dividing the urogenital triangle into the superficial (inferior) and deep (superior) perineal pouches. It attaches to the inferior margins of the ischiopubic rami, enclosing the anterior portio...
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Renal tumours

Renal tumours (for the purposes of this article taken to broadly mean neoplastic lesions) should be distinguished from renal pseudotumours. Whilst renal tumours can be broadly divided into primary and secondary (metastatic), benign and malignant or adult and paediatric tumours, they are more fo...
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Folliculin gene-associated syndrome

Folliculin gene-associated syndrome (FLCN-S) or Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a genetic multisystemic disease mainly characterised by: multiple lung cysts and secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces multiple bilateral renal tumours (particularly chromophobe renal cell cancer and oncocytoma) c...
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Cowper duct syringocele

Cowper duct syringocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the main duct of the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands. Clinical presenation Affected patients may present with postvoid dribbling, urinary frequency, weak stream, or haematuria. Pathology Four groups of syringoceles have been described 2:...
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Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter encompasses causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It includes: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing primary megaureter althoug...
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Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the genitourinary tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 Intravenous Urogram (IVU) / Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound:...
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Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
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Penile implant

Penile implants are a surgically placed device to assist with erectile dysfunction. The device has inflatable components inserted in the penile shaft with a reservoir typically placed in the pelvis. See also erectile dysfunction Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction medical devices in the a...
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Renal transplant related complications

The recipients of renal transplants are susceptible to a number of complications. Incidence of each is variable and partially subject to specific surgical transplantation techniques and management patterns 3. Pathology Renal transplant complications These can be broadly categorised as periren...
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Cortical rim sign

The cortical rim sign is useful in distinguishing acute pyelonephritis from a segmental renal infarct and is seen on contrast enhanced CT or MRI. In the setting of acute pyelonephritis, the areas of abnormally reduced enhancement typically involve a complete wedge of renal parenchyma, extending...
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Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
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Renal abscess

Renal abscess, like any other abscess, is a collection of infective fluid in the kidney. It is usually a sequela of acute pyelonephritis, where severe vasospasm and inflammation may occasionally result in liquefactive necrosis and abscess formation. Epidemiology It can affect all ages and has ...
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Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
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Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome (some prefer pelvic venous insufficiency 9) is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is a commonly missed and potentially-treatable cause of chronic abdominopelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common ...
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Localised cystic renal disease

Localised cystic renal disease (LCRD) (or localised cystic kidney disease) is an uncommon, non-familial, non-progressive disease characterised by clusters of cysts within normal renal parenchyma. It can be confused with unilateral autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), multilocula...
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Perirenal space

The perirenal space is the largest of the three divisions of the retroperitoneum and is the most easily identified. It contains the kidneys, renal vessels and proximal collecting systems, adrenal glands and an adequate amount of fat to allow identification on CT scanning. The space is surrounde...
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Lateroconal fascia

The lateroconal fascia is the peritoneal thickening at the adjoining lateral borders of the anterior and posterior perirenal fasciae laterally. Congdon and Edson 1 first named it due to its location lateral to the perirenal space, and therefore the perirenal fascia, which is also known as the co...
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Posterior pararenal space

The posterior pararenal space is the smallest and most clinically insignificant portion of the retroperitoneum. Gross anatomy It is filled with fat, blood vessels and lymphatics, but contains no major organs. Boundaries posteriorly: bound by transversalis fascia anteriorly: bound by posteri...
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Testicular fracture

Testicular fracture refers to a break in the parenchyma of the testicle as a result of blunt trauma.  Radiographic features Ultrasound A fracture line can be seen as a hypoechoic and avascular area within the testis but is only seen in 17% of cases 1. A tunica albuginea rupture may also be pr...
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Perirenal fascia

The perirenal fascia is a dense, elastic connective tissue sheath that envelops each kidney and adrenal gland together with a layer of surrounding perirenal fat forming the perirenal space. It is a multi-laminated structure which is fused posteromedially with the muscular fasciae of the psoas a...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Testicular dislocation

Testicular dislocation is a rare condition in which a testicle is dislocated from its normal position within the scrotum to another location, most commonly the superficial inguinal pouch. Epidemiology The condition mainly occurs in younger men with a mean age of 25 years 2. Clinical presentat...
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Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It it more frequently seen in males. The enlarged, floppy calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calcul...
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Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable paediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slight...
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RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Testicular lipomatosis

Testicular lipomatosis is a rare condition characterised by homogeneously hyperechoic non-shadowing lesions within the testes on ultrasound without flow on colour Doppler. It is seen as a component of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog (gene)) hamartoma tumour syndrome which includes: Cowden ...
Article

Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis, also known as floating or wandering kidney and ren mobilis, refers to the descent of the kidney more than 5 cm or two vertebral bodies when the patient moves from a supine to upright position during IVU 1-2. Displacement can also occur medially across the midline, so-called medial...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Ureteric jet

Ureteric jets (or ureteral jets) are the visualisation of the normal physiological periodic efflux of urine from the distal end of each ureter into the bladder.  Physiology When the urine passing down the ureter reaches the vesicoureteric junction it is forced out into the bladder via a strong...
Article

Urine

Urine represents the biofluid end-product of the renal filtration process. Normally it is a transparent, sterile, pale-yellow liquid (although clearly colour varies with the person's hydration status).  Urine is one of the most easily-accessible biofluids in the human body and has been intensiv...
Article

Haematuria (adult)

Haematuria occurs when blood enters the urinary collecting system and is excreted in the urine. There are many aetiologies for haematuria, and they range from benign and transient to gravely concerning. Haematuria can derive from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate (in men), or urethra. Imag...
Article

Chyluria

Chyluria is the finding of chyle in the urine, and is due to a pathological communication between the lymphatic system and the renal tract. It is most commonly found in South-Eastern Asia, where it is due to lymphatic filariasis, but in the non-tropical world it is most commonly encountered afte...
Article

Male urethra

The male urethra is a fibromuscular tube that drains urine from the bladder. It has a longer, more complicated, course than the female urethra and is also more prone to pathology. Gross anatomy The male urethra measures, on average, 18-20 cm in length. It commences at the internal urethral ori...
Article

Ureter

The ureter is a paired fibromuscular tube that conveys urine from the kidneys in the abdomen to the bladder in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ureter is 25-30 cm long and has three parts: abdominal ureter: from the renal pelvis to the pelvic brim pelvic ureter: from the pelvic brim to the bla...
Article

Kidneys

The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. Gross anatomy Location The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall, with one on either side of the vertebral column, in the perirenal space. The long axis of the kidney is parall...
Article

Ureteric stent

Ureteric stents, also known as double J stents or retrograde ureteric stents, is a urological catheter that has two "J-shaped" (curled) ends, where one is anchored in the renal pelvis and the other inside the bladder. Stents are used for the free passage of urine from the kidney to the bladder,...
Article

Urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal tract leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.  Terminology As there is no definitive distincti...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder staging uses the TNM system which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumour staging system. It is very similar to the staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: non-invasive papil...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder, and bladder TCC is the most common tumour of the entire urinary system. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder specifically. Related articles include: general di...
Article

Adenocarcinoma (urinary bladder)

Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~1% of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional cell carcinomas). Pathology Metaplasia of urinary bladder induced by chronic irritation or infection can lead to adenocarcinoma. Pathological types of adenocarcinoma of the urin...
Article

Bladder inflammatory pseudotumour

Bladder inflammatory pseudotumour is a non-neoplastic proliferation of cells. Epidemiology This entity is more common in adults, with a mean age at diagnosis of 38 years.  Clinical presentation Patients present most commonly with an ulcerating bleeding mass, haematuria, and voiding symptoms....
Article

Split bolus technique

The split bolus technique is a CT imaging investigation used in patients with haematuria aiming to put together, in a single image acquisition, both the nephrographic and renal excretory phases and thus reducing the radiation dose of the study. It is a CT protocol adopted for some institutions f...
Article

Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...

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