Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

740 results found
Article

Chromaffin cells

Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in the fifth week of fetal development when neuroblas...
Article

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, is a progressive loss of glomerular function caused by a long-standing renal parenchymal disease. It is present when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for three consecutive months or greater than...
Article

Chronic periaortitis

Chronic periaortitis is an inflammatory condition which typically involves the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. It is a rare disease usually occuring in middle-aged men. It has various clinical presentations: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) perianeurysmal retroperitoneal f...
Article

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency has a number of causes. Primary adrenal insufficiency is termed Addison disease. Pathology Causes idiopathic atrophy: autoimmune adrenalitis 1 tuberculosis 1: 25% calcify fungal disease 1 histioplasmosis blastomycosis coccidioidomycosis AIDS 1 sarc...
Article

Chronic prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition characterised by chronic inflammation of the prostate gland. Under the National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification system this may encompass chronic bacterial prostatitis chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) Other...
Article

Chronic pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis is form of pyelonephritis where there are longstanding sequelae of renal infection. At the time of writing there is still no definitive consensus at to whether the condition represents an active chronic infection, arises from multiple recurrent infections, or represents st...
Article

Circumaortic left renal vein

Circumaortic left renal vein, also known as circumaortic renal collar is an anomaly of left renal vein when a supernumerary or accessory left renal vein passes posterior to the aorta, apart from the normal renal vein passing anterior to the aorta. This anomaly is potentially hazardous, if unreco...
Article

Circumcaval ureter

A circumcaval ureter, or retrocaval ureter, is a developmental anomaly of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Unfortunately both terms suggest that the ureter is at fault, whereas in reality it is the IVC. They are of two types: high loop low loop Clinical presentation Many patients with this anom...
Article

Citrate peak

Citrate is a compound examined in MR spectroscopy in the setting of possible prostate carcinoma. Citrate resonates at 2.6 ppm and is decreased in prostate cancer.  For more information go to: MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer
Article

Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
Article

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas (CCS) of the kidney are a rare mesenchymal renal tumour that accounts for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in paediatric population 1.  Epidemiology CCS is the second most common primary malignant renal neoplasm after Wilms tumour, with an annual incidence of 20 cases in the ...
Article

Cloacal exstrophy

Cloacal exstrophy (CE) is an extensive congenital abdominal wall defect which encompasses: exstrophy of the bladder omphalocoele lower abdominal wall defect Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at around 1 in 50,000 to 200,000 live births. There is a recognised male predilection with a ...
Article

Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
Article

Cobb's collar

Cobb's collar(also known as a Moormann's ring) is an uncommon finding on a paediatric voiding/micturating cystourethrogram (VCUG), but an indentation of the bulbar urethra is seen in more than half of boy's who are cystoscoped, as the narrow represents two different phenomena3-4. Pathology One...
Article

Cobra head sign (ureter)

The cobra head sign (or spring onion sign) refers to dilatation of the distal ureter, surrounded by a thin lucent line, which is seen in patients with an adult-type ureterocoele. The cobra head appearance indicates an uncomplicated ureterocele. The lucent "hood" of the cobra represents the comb...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
Article

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a form of adrenal hyperplasia related to a variety of autosomal recessive disorders in adrenal steroidogenesis; characterized by low cortisol, low aldosterone and androgen excess.  Clinical presentation virilization/genital ambiguity of female fetuses (d...
Article

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra include various anomalies due to complex development of urethra. These anomalies can be isolated or in association with other coexisting anomalies. They can be categorised as following: congenital valves  posterior urethral valve anterior urethral valv...
Article

Congenital megacalyces

Congenital megacalyces is an incidental finding which mimics hydronephrosis. It is a result of underdevelopment of the renal medullary pyramids with resultant enlargement of the calyces. It it more frequently seen in males. The enlarged, floppy calyces predispose to stasis, infection and calcu...
Article

Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter is a 'basket-term' to encompass causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It encompasses: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing prim...
Article

Congenital renal anomalies

Congenital renal anomalies comprise of vast spectrum of pathologies and include: renal agenesis renal dysgenesis congenital renal hypoplasia congenital megacalyectasis congenital cystic renal disease infantile polycystic renal disease: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD):...
Article

Congenital urachal anomalies

Congenital urachal anomalies are a spectrum of potential anomalies that can occur due to incomplete involution of the urachus. Epidemiology A urachal remnant occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 patients. Pathology The urachus connects the dome of the bladder to the umbilical cord during fetal ...
Article

Conjoint tendon

The conjoint tendon forms when the medial fibres of the internal oblique aponeurosis unite with the deeper fibres of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis. The conjoint tendon then turns inferiorly and attaches onto the pubic crest and pecten pubis 1. It forms part of the posterior wall of the i...
Article

Conn syndrome

Conn syndrome (or primary hyperalderosteronism) is a condition of excess of aldosterone production and occurs secondary to adrenal cortical adenoma, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, or rarely, adrenal carcinoma. Differentiation between the causes is required to avoid unnecessary surgery.  Clinica...
Article

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents containing microbubbles of perfluorocarbon or nitrogen gas. The bubbles greatly affect ultrasound backscatter and increase vascular contrast in a similar manner to intravenous contrast agents used in C...
Article

Contrast-induced nephropathy

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third most common cause of all hospital-acquired acute renal failure and accounts for ~10% of all cases. There is still an ongoing debate regarding its occurrence after intravenous contrast medium administration because most of the cases occur after intr...
Article

Cortical nephrocalcinosis

Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis is ~20 times less common than medullary nephrocalcinosis. Pathology Aetiology renal cortical necrosis: common 2 renal infarction/ischaemia sepsis toxaemia of pregnancy drugs snake bites arsenic poisoning extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) haem...
Article

Cortical nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic for cortical nephrocalcinosis is: COAG Mnemonic C: cortical necrosis O: oxalosis A: Alport syndrome G: (chronic) glomerulonephritis See also nephrocalcinosis cortical nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis mnemonic
Article

Cortical rim sign

The cortical rim sign is useful in distinguishing acute pyelonephritis from a segmental renal infarct and is seen on contrast enhanced CT or MRI. The wedges of reduced enhancement seen in the setting of acute pyelonephritis represent oedema and ischaemia which involves the whole wedge of renal ...
Article

Cowper duct syringocele

Cowper duct syringocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the main duct of the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands. Pathology Four groups of syringoceles have been described 2 simple syringocele: minimally dilated duct most frequent perforate syringocele: bulbous duct that drains into the urethr...
Article

Cremasteric artery

The cremasteric artery is a small branch of the inferior epigastric artery that enters the deep inguinal ring of the inguinal canal and supplies the layers of the spermatic cord and also the skin of the scrotum, including the cremaster muscle. History and etymology The word "cremaster" derives...
Article

Cremaster muscle

The cremaster muscle is the thin fascial muscle of the spermatic cord made of skeletal muscle. It is also referred to as cremaster fascia or simply the cremaster. Its action is to retract the testes, important in thermoregulation and spermatogenesis.  Gross anatomy It is derived from the inter...
Article

Crossed fused renal ectopia

Crossed fused renal ectopia essentially refers to an anomaly where the kidneys are fused and located on the same side of the midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 1000 births 1. There is a recognised male predilection with a 2:1 male to female ratio. More than 90% of...
Article

Crossed renal ectopia

Crossed renal ectopia is said to be present when the kidney is seen in the opposite retroperitoneal space. It is more common for the left kidney to be ectopically located on the right side. More than 85% of these get fused resulting in crossed fused renal ectopia. Less than 15% cases are non-fus...
Article

Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism refers to an absence of a testis (or testes) in the scrotal sac. It may refer to an undescended testis, ectopic testis, or an atrophic or absent testis. Correct localisation of the testes is essential because surgical management varies on location. Pathology The testes develop i...
Article

CT abdomen (summary)

CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis performed 60 seconds after pump-injection of iodinated contrast intro a peripheral vein. However, dependin...
Article

CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
Article

CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumours. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of...
Article

CT KUB

Computed tomography of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) is a quick non-invasive technique for diagnosis of urolithiasis. It is usually considered the initial imaging modality for suspected urolithiasis in an emergency setting 1. Advantages  quick easily accessible identification of calc...
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT) is an increasingly used test in the patient with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. There is some evidence that trauma patients who undergo whole body CT (WBCT) / panscan have better survival than patients who undergo selectiv...
Article

CT urography

CT urography (CTU or CT-IVU) has now largely replaced traditional IVU in imaging the genitourinary tract. It gives both anatomical and functional information, albeit with a relatively higher dose of radiation. The aim is to illustrate the collecting systems, ureters and bladder with intravenous...
Article

Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome is due to the effects of excessive glucocorticoids which may be exogenous or endogenous. Pathology In modern Western populations, iatrogenic steroid administration for treatment of inflammatory condition is the most common cause, e.g. asthma, rheumatoid arthritis. Endogenous ...
Article

Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal fluid filled structure which is lined by epithelium. This distinguishes it from a pseudocyst with lacks an epithelial lining and instead has a vascular and fibrotic capsule Cysts are extremely common and found in many organs. Examples include: renal cysts hepatic cysts ...
Article

Cystadenocarcinoma of the rete testis

Cystadenocarcinoma of the rete testis is the malignant version of cystadenoma of the rete testis.   Epidemiology Primarily a disease of older men (>60 years old), but has been noted in a wide age range (8-91 years). Pathology Histologic evaluation requires exclusion of malignant mesothelioma...
Article

Cystadenoma of the rete testis

Cystadenoma of the rete testis is a rare cystic testicular tumour. It does not have specific imaging features, but may be suggested in the differential of a large multiloculated cystic tumor involving the testicle. It cannot be radiologically differentiated from cystadenocarcinoma. Epidemiology...
Article

Cystic adrenal neoplasm

Cystic adrenal neoplasms are uncommon and only account for a minority of cystic adrenal lesions 3. They may be represented several histological types: adrenal adenoma 1 adrenal cortical carcinoma 1,2 adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma 2 phaeochromocytoma 1 Differential diagnosis Consider adr...
Article

Cystic lesions around vagina and female urethra

There several cystic lesions around the vagina and female urethra; some of the imaging differential considerations would include: urethral diverticulum Gartner duct cyst: at or above the level of the pubic symphysis anterior to the vaginal wall Bartholin gland cyst: posterolateral to distal v...
Article

Cystic lesions of the testes

Testicular cystic lesions are a relatively common occurrence on testicular ultrasound. They result from widely variable pathological entities ranging from benign to malignant. These entities include: simple testicular cyst tunica albuginea cyst (mesothelial cyst) cystic transformation of rete...
Article

Cystic renal diseases

Cystic renal disease can be confusing. There are many conditions, many of which have similar names or are eponymous, and with a few exceptions, are relatively rare. It is easiest to think of them into two separate demographic: paediatric cystic renal diseases adult cystic renal disease
Article

Cystic renal dysplasia

Cystic renal dysplasia refers to a group congenital renal anomalies characterised by the formation of cysts. Many of  the congenital cystic renal diseases  fall under this group. Pathology Associations Meckel-Gruber syndrome trisomy 13
Article

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

A cystic retroperitoneal lesion can carry a relatively broad differenital which includes: retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muc...
Article

Cystinuria

Cystinuria is an inherited condition in which there is an excess of cystine in the urine. This excess predisposes to the formation of cysteine stones. Terminology "Cysteine" refers to the amino acid. "Cystine" is the oxidized dimer of the amino acid. Epidemiology It is thought to occur in 1:...
Article

Cystitis cystica

Cystitis cystica is the same condition as ureteritis cystica and closely related to cystitis glandularis. It is a relatively common chronic reactive inflammatory disorders that occur in the setting of chronic irritation of the bladder mucosa. Epidemiology Cystitis cystica is seen in a variety ...
Article

Cystitis glandularis

Cystitis glandularis are small focal polypoid bladder mucosal thickenings and irregularities due to metaplasia of the urothelium (to mucin producing goblet cells) which proliferates into buds growing down into the lamina propria; this entity is closely related to cystitis cystica, with which it ...
Article

Cystography

Cystography is a fluoroscopic study that images the bladder. It is similar to a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and the difference between the studies is primarily one of emphasis; a cystogram focuses on the bladder and a VCUG focuses on the posterior urethra. The study has been adapted to CT w...
Article

Cystolithotomy

Cystolithotomy is a urologic procedure to remove one or more bladder stones. It is typically performed for a patient with large or numerous bladder stones or if an endoscopic approach has not been successful.  The traditional approach described below is an open cystolithotomy. Other approaches...
Article

Dartos muscle

The dartos muscle is the thin rugated fascial muscle of the scrotum made of smooth muscle. Hence it is also referred to as dartos fascia or simply the dartos. It forms from the subcutaneous tissue of the scrotum and base of the penis and attaches to the scrotal skin and fibrous midline septum be...
Article

Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space above the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, posterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle. Bo...
Article

Delayed nephrogram

A delayed nephrogram, commonly described on plain film urography, but also visible on CT urography, is when there is absence or reduction of the normal renal parenchymal enhancement on nephrographic phase images. A delayed nephrogram is characteristically unilateral and is usually distinguished...
Article

Developmental anomalies of the kidney and ureter

Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters are numerous and not only potentially render image interpretation confusing but also, in many instances, make the kidneys more prone to pathology: number renal agenesis supernumerary kidney fusion horseshoe kidney: most common cross fused ...
Article

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the deficiency or resistance to the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which results in polyuria and polydipsia.  Epidemiology DI occurs in 3 per 100,000 people 2.  Pathology DI may be described as 1-3: central/neurogenic/hypothalamic: vasopressin deficie...
Article

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a situation characterised by development of neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid haemodialysis. I...
Article

Diverticulum

Diverticula are out-pouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. True diverticula contains all layers of the wall of the parent organ (typically mucosa, muscular layer and serosa) uncommon e.g. Meckel diverticulum False diverticula does not contain all layers (typically mu...
Article

Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris

Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris is one of the two terminal branches of the pudendal nerve that arises from nerve whilst in the pudendal canal. The other terminal branch is the perineal nerve.  Gross anatomy Course Entering the urogenital triangle of the perineum, the dorsal nerve of penis o...
Article

Double contrast cystography

Double contrast cystography (pneumocystography) is an older technique to evaluate the bladder lumen. It has rarely been used (if ever) after the advent of cross-sectional imaging. The exam is performed similarly to a conventional cystogram, but gas is also introduced through the Foley catheter....
Article

Double retroaortic left renal vein

Double retroaortic left renal vein is a very rare entity that is usually clinically silent and detected incidentally at imaging, surgery or autopsy. The knowledge of anatomical variations helps the surgeon or interventionist to avoid complications during surgery and interventional procedures 4 ...
Article

Drash syndrome

Drash syndrome, also known as the Denys-Drash syndrome, is associated with an abnormal WT1 gene (Wilms tumour gene) and consists of: Wilms tumour male pseudohermaphroditism progressive glomerulonephritis
Article

Dromedary hump

Dromedary humps are prominent focal bulges on the lateral border of the left kidney. They are normal variants of the renal contour, caused by the splenic impression onto the superolateral left kidney. Dromedary humps are important because they may mimic a renal mass, and as such is considered a...
Article

Drooping lily sign (ureter)

The drooping lily sign is a urographic sign in some patients with a duplicated collecting system. It refers to the inferolateral displacement of the opacified lower pole moiety due to an obstructed (and unopacified) upper pole moiety. The similarity to a lily is further strengthened by the smal...
Article

Ductus deferens

The ductus deferens (plural: ductus deferentes) forms part of the male internal genitalia where it transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. In modern anatomic nomenclature, it is no longer referred to as the vas deferens. Gross anatomy The ductus deferens is a paired 30-45...
Article

Ductus deferens calcification

Calcification of the ductus deferens can result from: diabetes mellitus - most common normal ageing chronic infection - more frequently irregular and unilateral tuberculosis syphilis gonorrhea schistosomiasis chronic urinary tract infection
Article

Duplex collecting system

A duplex collecting system, or duplicated collecting system, is one of the most common congenital renal tract abnormalities. It is characterised by an incomplete fusion of upper and lower pole moieties resulting in a variety of complete or incomplete duplications of the collecting system. While ...
Article

Dynamic contrast enhancement in prostate cancer

Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI is emerging as a useful clinical technique as part of a multi-parametric approach for evaluating the extent of primary and recurrent prostate cancer.  Protocol and equipment Typically 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient-echo MRI sequences with an endorec...
Article

Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
Article

Ectopic kidney

Ectopic kidney (or renal ectopia) is a developmental renal anomaly characterised by abnormal anatomical location of one or both of the kidneys. They can occur in several forms: cross fused renal ectopia ectopic thoracic kidney pelvic kidney Epidemiology The estimated incidence of an ectopi...
Article

Ectopic testis

Ectopic testes are a rare congenital anomaly, differing from undescended testis (cryptorchidism) in that ectopic testis is a congenitally abnormally located testis, that has descended from the abdominal cavity away from the normal path of descent while undescended testis are congenitally abnorma...
Article

Ectopic ureter

An ectopic ureter is a congenital renal anomaly that occurs as a result of abnormal caudal migration of the ureteral bud during its insertion to the urinary bladder. Normally the ureter drains via the internal ureteral orifice at the trigone of the urinary bladder.  In females, the most common ...
Article

Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid. Gross anatomy Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens and is approximately 2 cm long. They course throu...
Article

Ejaculatory duct cyst

Ejaculatory duct cysts are rare type of prostatic cyst. Pathology They occur due to obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts which in turn can either be congenital or secondary (e.g. inflammation). They are usually intraprostatic when small but may extend cephalad when large. Radiographic featur...
Article

Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
Article

Emphysematous cystitis

Emphysematous cystitis (EC) refers to gas forming infection of the bladder wall. Epidemiology The condition is rare and usually confined to certain patient subgroups. Risk factors Risk factors include: diabetes mellitus considered the commonest predisposing factor 6 may be present in ~50%...
Article

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is a rarely reported entity with only a handful of case reports which still lacks a strong evidence for the existence of the disease. It is reported as a rare cause of acute scrotum encountered in poorly controlled diabetics. Pathology of this condition is unknow...
Article

Emphysematous pyelitis

Emphysematous pyelitis is defined as isolated gas production inside the excretory system, secondary to acute bacterial infection. It is a relatively benign entity and needs accurate differentiation from emphysematous pyelonephritis, which is a much morbid condition. It has an excellent prognosis...
Article

Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a  morbid infection of kidneys, with characteristic gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with flank pain, urinary...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma (staging)

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.  Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low speci...
Article

End-stage kidney disease

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), also referred as end-stage renal failure, corresponds to the last stage of a chronic kidney disease (stage 5), when the kidneys function is no longer sufficient to sustain life (GFR <15) and kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or transplant) is required. Please...
Article

Epidermoid cyst

The term epidermoid cyst can refer to a: epidermal inclusion cyst intracranial epidermoid cyst splenic epidermoid cyst spinal epidermoid cyst testicular epidermoid cyst
Article

Epididymal abscess

An epididymal abscess is an uncommon complication of epididymitis. Pathology Causative organisms are the same that cause epididymitis: older individuals Escherichia coli Proteus mirabills younger individuals  Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Other rare aetiological agents S...
Article

Epididymal appendix

An epididymal appendix (or alternatively appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis) is a testicular appendage that is a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) which can be found in the head of the epididymis 1. In 78% of the cases, it is stalked and is thus easily ...
Article

Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci with shadows within the epididymal head and usually implies chronic epididymitis. Other conditions to be considered in the differential are: chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  tr...
Article

Epididymal cyst

Epididymal cysts are the most common of epididymal masses. Epidemiology Epididymal cysts have been reported in ~30% (range 20-40%) of asymptomatic individuals 5. Pathology They are usually of lymphatic origin 2. Cysts contain clear serous fluid, lymphocytes, spermatozoa and debris. Clinical...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.