Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

733 results found
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Epispadias

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly that is almost always associated with bladder exstrophy.  Epidemiology It occurs in 1 in 30,000 births, with a male: female ratio of 3:1. Clinical presentation In males, three types are described - glandular, penile and complete. Glandular form is most...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Ethylene glycol toxicity

Ethylene glycol, best known as a component of antifreeze, has been ingested both deliberately and accidentally, resulting in neurotoxicity and renal failure.  Clinical presentation A delay is present between ingestion and development of symptoms. Initial symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity is...
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Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3: an irregular bulge in capsule obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour focal capsular retraction and or thicken...
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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis. It is less successful in obese patients, and with stones > 2 cm. Complications Steinstrasse: incomplete fragmentation that results in a pile-up of stone fragments that obstruct the ureter renal h...
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. It occurs most commonly in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes and less frequently in the lung, pleura, breast, thymus, small bowel, and central nervous system.1  EMH in the adrenal is uncommon,2...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum. It is a normal variant that is found in ~10% of the population 2.  The renal pelvis is formed by all the major calyces. An extarenal pelvis usually appears dilated giving a false indication of ...
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Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
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Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Fat containing renal lesions

There are many renal masses which can contain macroscopic fat, including renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumour renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat renal junction line fat in a renal scar renal sinus lipomatosis ...
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males. 
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Female pseudohermaphroditism

Female pseudohermaphroditism (FPH) is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with female pseudohermaphroditism have female internal genitalia and female karyotype (XX) with various degree of external genitalia virilization. Causes  congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ...
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Female urethra

The female urethra is a simple tube that extends from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.  Gross anatomy The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embedded in the anterior vaginal wall and runs with...
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Fetal cystic renal disease

Fetal cystic renal disease can be in included in three of the four types classified according the system by Osathanondh and Potter 1: Potter type I: infantile polycystic kidney disease Potter type II: multicystic dysplastic kidneys Potter type III: adult polycystic kidney disease Potter type...
Article

Fetal hydrocoele

A fetal hydrocoele refers to an hydrocoele present in utero. Epidemiology They may be sonographically identified in ~ 15% of male fetuses in the third trimester 6. Pathology Often result from a patent processus vaginalis. They are more frequently unilateral.  Associations hydrops fetalis ...
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Fetal hydronephrosis

Fetal hydronephrosis represents the abnormal dilatation of the fetal renal collecting system, with pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction the most commonly encountered cause.  Please, refer to the article on fetal pyelectasis for a dedicated discussion on this relatively common and usually benign ...
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Fetal megacystis

Fetal megacystis refers to the presence of an unusually large bladder in a fetus.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence of antenatal imaging is at ~1:1500 pregnancies. Pathology It can result from a number of causes but the main underlying mechanism is either a distal stenosis or reflux. As...
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Fetal pyelectasis

Fetal pyelectasis refers to a prominence of the renal pelvis in utero that is a relatively common finding, which in the majority of cases resolves spontaneously.  Please refer to the article on fetal hydronephrosis for a continued discussion on this matter.  Terminology  Although there is an ...
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Fetal urachal cyst

A fetal urachal cyst refers to a urachal cyst occuring in utero. It may or may not communicate with the vertex of the fetal bladder. It may also arise within the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord urachal cysts originate from an extra-abdominal urachal system.  See also fetal intra-abdominal cysts...
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Fetal urinary ascites

Fetal urinary ascites is one of the causes of fetal ascites and can arise from a number of pathologies. in utero bladder perforation fetal megacystis transudation from the fetal bladder persistent urogenital sinus Radiographic features Ultrasound The presence of fetal ascites without...
Article

Fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum

Fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum is a relatively rare non-neoplastic extra testicular non-epididymal lesion. Epidemiology It affects any age. Although rare, it is considered the third most common extra testicular mass after a scrotal lipoma and an epididymal adenomatoid tumour.  Pathology ...
Article

Filarial dance sign

The filarial dance sign refers to a twirling motion of microfilariae (e.g. W. bancrofti) noted in dilated lymphatic channels. It is identified as a characteristic sign and indicator of scrotal filariasis. The dilated channels are identified with absence of color flow on colour Doppler study (CD...
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Filariasis

Filariasis refers to infection with nematodes (roundworms) of the family Filariodidea. There are three types of these thread-like filarial worms: Wuchereria bancrofti: responsible for 90% of cases Brugia malayi: causes most of the remainder of cases B. timori: also causes the disease It can ...
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Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome

The Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome is a sub type of congenital nephrotic syndrome. A large placenta and proteinuria from birth are considered hallmarks of the disease 2. The proteinuria is often of intra-uterine onset. Although it is named the Finnish type, it can occur outside Finla...
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Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as "J-shaped ureters" or "hockey stick ureter" describe the course of the distal ureter in patients with significant Benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter further up, as the right ureter hooks behind the...
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Fossa navicularis

The fossa navicularis refers to a normal mild dilatation of the urethra. It occurs at the most distal/downstream portion of the urethra. It is more evident in males, where it occurs in the penile/pendulous urethra, near the urethral meatus. There is also a fossa navicularis in women: the more f...
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Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is a necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 but is rarely seen in women. Other than age, predisp...
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Fraley syndrome

Fraley syndrome is the eponymous term for a dilated calyx (hydrocalyx) due to compression of a calyceal infundibulum from an adjacent artery or vein. It is rare, but it occurs more often in an upper pole calyx. The hydrocalyx may be painful.
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Free/total PSA ratio

The free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA) is an additional new parameter used in assessing PSA levels. Some authors 1,2 recommend that men with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10 ng/mL who are not suspected of having prostate cancer by whatever means should undergo %fPSA measurement and then be carefully monitored ...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Gas in the urinary bladder

There numerous causes of gas in the bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include: iatrogenic IDC by far the most common cause cystoscopy etc... emphysematous cystitis intraluminal and intramural gas ...
Article

Genitourinary tuberculosis

Genitourinary tuberculosis is the second most common site of infection in humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, second only to pulmonary tuberculosis.  It can most easily be divided anatomically into: renal tuberculosis (renal parenchyma, calyces and renal pelvis) bladder and ureteric tubercu...
Article

Germ cell tumour (classification)

Germ cell tumours are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tu...
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Germ cell tumours

Germ cell tumours are found widely throughout the body, and encompass a wide range of individual tumours. This article does not deal with any specific body locations. For detailed discussion please refer the articles listed at the end of this page.  Pathology Germ cell tumours arise from ecto...
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
Article

Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
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Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
Article

Goblet sign (ureter)

The goblet sign (or champagne glass sign) refers to the appearance of the ureter when it is focally dilated by an intraluminal mass. It is best seen when the ureter is opacified from below, by a retrograde ureterogram. Presence of this sign indicates the pathology to be chronic, permitting the l...
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Goldman classification of urethral injuries

The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anterior to the ureters. Like the s...
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Gonadoblastoma

Gonadoblastomas are uncommon sex cord / stromal tumours. They are associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders"). Epidemiology The vast majority are found <30 years of age. Most are discovered in the perinatal period. May occur in phenotypic males or...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem systemic necrotising non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. This ar...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (renal manifestations)

The renal manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) are occult on imaging, especially when compared to the pulmonary changes. Approximately half of GPA patients have kidney disease at presentation. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (We...
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Granulomatous prostatitis

Granulomatous prostatitis is a nodular form of chronic prostatitis. It is usually diagnised by biopsy. Pathology Causes idiopathic infection iatrogenic: (BCG,post radiation) systemic disease such as sarcoidosis  autoimmune diseases Subtypes One form of classificiations is as nonspecif...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1, 2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease process affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also ...
Article

Growing teratoma syndrome

Growing teratoma syndrome is a rare complication after treatment for metastatic (or in the case of intracranial disease, primary) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It was first described in the paediatric population with treated germ cell neoplasms, and represents enlarging masses at ...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety to patients despite commonly being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease commonest cause in < 40 years of...
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Haematuria (adult)

Haematuria occurs when blood enters the urinary collecting system. There are many aetiologies for haematuria, and they range from benign and transient to gravely concerning. Haematuria can derive from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate (in men), or urethra. Imaging can often be useful to de...
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Haematuria (paediatric)

Haematuria in a child is evaluated differently than in an adult in two main respects: there is a lower likelihood of a malignancy (renal or bladder) causing the haematuria preference is given to nonionizing radiation Pathology Haematuria can be considered in three main forms: "gross" haemat...
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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystem thrombotic microangiopathic disease characterised by the triad of renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of renal failure in infancy and childhood requiring dialysis.  There are two forms of this syn...
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Haemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

Haemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumour cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate than t...
Article

HANAC syndrome

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown. Clinical presentation The cardinal features of HANAC syndrome are helpfully described in the name of...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast canc...
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Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a recently identified autosomal dominant tumour susceptibility syndrome. It is characterised by: predisposition to benign cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) susceptibility to early-onset renal cell carcinoma   typ...
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Hereditary renal cancer syndromes

Despite the vast majority of renal cancers being sporadic, there are a number of hereditary renal cancer syndromes: von Hippel Lindau syndrome: predominantly clear cell type tuberous sclerosis: predominantly clear cell type hereditary leiomyomata renal cell cancer syndrome: described in ISUP ...
Article

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome, is a rare anomaly characterised by Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) associated with mesonephric duct anomalies 3.  This entity is also known as obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA). It is not to be confused with the Wunderlich syndro...
Article

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture at ultrasound may be the result of a variety of underlying pathology: seminiferous tubular atrophy - can occur in around 14% of middle aged to elderly patients 2 testicular trauma orchitis
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HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
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HIV-associated nephropathy

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS and leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis is not imaging-based and must be confirmed by renal biopsy. Epidemiology HIVAN is seen in patients at advanced stages of HIV and AIDS, but it can also be see...
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HIV/AIDS (genitourinary manifestations)

Genitourinary manifestations of HIV/AIDS are protean and can be divided into: HIV-associated nephropathy renal diseases related to opportunistic infections: CMV, tuberculosis and MAC infections, fungal infections, pneumocystis carinii infection drug-related renal diseases: indinavir-induced ...
Article

Horseshoe adrenal gland

An horseshoe adrenal gland is very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes called a butterfly adrenal gland, fused adrenal gland or midline adrenal gland. It is the solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline with the fused portion either passing between the aorta and the inferior vena cav...
Article

Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Epidemiology Horseshoe kidneys are found in approximate...
Article

Hutch diverticulum

Hutch diverticula are congenital bladder diverticula, seen at the vesicoureteric junction, in the absence of posterior urethral valves or neurogenic bladder. They are though to result from a weakness in the detrusor muscle anterolateral to the ureteral orifice. Epidemiology The occur almost e...
Article

Hydrocoele

Hydroceles are acquired or congenital serous fluid collection between the layers of the tunica vaginalis surrounding a testis or spermatic cord. They are the most common form of testicular enlargement, and present with painless enlargement of the scrotum. On all modalities, hydrocoeles appear as...
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Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblit...
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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis is defined as dilatation of the urinary collecting system of the kidney (the calyces, the infundibula, and the pelvis) 1. The term hydroureteronephrosis is used when the dilatation also involves the ureter.  Hydronephrosis in fetuses and newborns has specific causes that are cove...
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Hydronephrosis (grading)

Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis: grade 0 no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
Article

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumour, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular haemorrhage (Page kidney)
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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body. It can be primary, secondary or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the PTH lead to increased osteoclastic activity...
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Hypertrophied column of Bertin

A column of Bertin is the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged columns ...
Article

Hypospadias

Hypospadias refers to type of congential malformation affecting the male external genitalia. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 (range 0.2-4.1) per 1000 live births. Pathology The urethral meatus is abnormally positioned proximally and ventrally to its normal position. It is though...
Article

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the retrope...
Article

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (ISC), sometimes called dystrophic scrotal calcinosis,  is a rare benign condition characterized by superficial calcifications within the skin of the scrotum of unclear etiology, typically affecting men aged 20-40. The condition is primarily cosmetic, but may recur ...
Article

IgA nephropathy

IgA nephropathy (also known as IgA nephritis or Berger disease) is a form of glomerulonephritis.  Epidemiology IgA nephropathy is considered the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide and is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Pathology Primary IgA nephropathy is c...
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Ileal conduit

An ileal conduit (or "Bricker conduit") was one of the original types of urinary diversions, and it is still in use today. The conduit is most often placed after cystectomy (or cystoprostatectomy) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although not a continent diversion, it may be preferred if the...
Article

Ileal ureter interposition

Ileal ureter interpositions are uncommon urologic reconstructions, using a loop of small bowel to replace a damaged ureter. The concept is similar to the formation of a neobladder from small bowel (e.g. ileal conduit), except one is forming a neo-ureter. Variants include using colon as an inter...
Article

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy, utilising either ultrasound or CT allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. Biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or target...
Article

Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen is without a normal central opening. Epidemiology It happens in 0.1% of the female population, usually an isolated finding.  Clinical features Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. An imperforat...
Article

Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...
Article

Inferior adrenal artery

The inferior adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of three adrenal arteries that supplies the adrenal gland. Gross anatomy Origin Ipsilateral renal artery (usually before the terminal division of the renal artery) Location The course of the inferior suprarenal artery depends on its origin. Re...
Article

Inferior rectal nerve

The inferior rectal nerve, also known as the inferior anal nerve or inferior hemorrhoidal nerve, is a branch of the pudendal nerve which is derived from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The nerve provides sensory innervation to the anal canal inferior to the pectinate line and mot...
Article

Infertility

Infertility is common, affecting 15-20% of couples, and is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle 3. It can be due to a variety of both female and male factors, and these are discussed in separate articles: fema...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
Article

Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
Article

International prostate symptom score

The international prostate symptom score (IPSS) is an 8 question (7 symptom questions + 1 quality of life question) screening tool used in screening, diagnosis, symptom tracking and aiding management of the symptoms associated with bladder emptying and is useful in those with benign prostatic hy...
Article

Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Aetiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary...
Article

Intrarenal reflux

Intrarenal reflux (IRR) involves intrarenal extension of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) into the tubular system of the kidney. IRR occurs in 3-10% of cases and can lead to renal injury, which may eventually result in renal scarring. The condition can be diagnosed by micturating cystourethrography ...
Article

Intratesticular haematoma

Intratesticular haematomas typically result from testicular trauma. Radiographic features isoechoic/hyperechoic region in the traumatised testicle, becoming more hypoechoic as it resolves lack of colour Doppler flow Differential diagnosis segmental testicular infarct testicular neoplasm g...
Article

Intratesticular varicocoele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
Article

Intrathoracic kidney

An intrathoracic kidney is a very rare form of ectopic kidney. There has been no reported increased incidence of stones or infections as with other forms of ectopic kidneys. The adrenal glands are usually normal in location. Clinical presentation Intrathoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic ...
Article

Intravenous urography

Intravenous urography (IVU), also referred as intravenous pyelography (IVP) or excretory urography (EU), is a radiographic study of the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters and the urinary bladder. This exam has been largely replaced by CT urography.  Terminology Some prefer the ter...

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