Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

818 results found
Article

Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid. Gross anatomy Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens, and is approximately 2 cm long. The ducts course...
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Ejaculatory duct cyst

Ejaculatory duct cysts are a rare type of cyst of the prostate gland. Pathology They occur due to obstruction of the ejaculatory duct which in turn can either be congenital or secondary (e.g. inflammation). They are usually intraprostatic when small but may extend cephalad when large. Radiog...
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules of the testes E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Emphysematous cystitis

Emphysematous cystitis (EC) refers to gas-forming infection of the bladder wall. Epidemiology The condition is rare and usually confined to certain patient subgroups. Risk factors Risk factors include: diabetes mellitus considered the commonest predisposing factor 6 may be present in ~50%...
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Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is a rarely reported entity with only a handful of case reports which still lacks a strong evidence for the existence of the disease. It is reported as a rare cause of acute scrotum encountered in poorly controlled diabetics. Pathology of this condition is unknow...
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Emphysematous pyelitis

Emphysematous pyelitis is isolated gas production inside the excretory system, secondary to acute bacterial infection. It is a relatively benign entity and needs accurate differentiation from the far more serious emphysematous pyelonephritis, which is gas production from an infection in the rena...
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a morbid infection of kidneys, with characteristic gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with flank pain, urinary ...
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Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
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Endometrial carcinoma (staging)

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.  Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low speci...
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End-stage kidney disease

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), also referred as end-stage renal failure, corresponds to the last stage of a chronic kidney disease (stage 5), when the kidneys function is no longer sufficient to sustain life (GFR <15) and kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or transplant) is required. Please...
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Eosinophilic ureteritis

Eosinophilic ureteritis (and eosinophilic pyelouerteritis) is a rare cause of ureteral inflammation. The clinical presentation and imaging features are non-specific. Clinical presentation Patients are usually atopic or hypereosinophilic with peripheral eosinophilia. Associated with eosinophil...
Article

Epidermoid cyst

The term epidermoid cyst can refer to a: epidermal inclusion cyst intracranial epidermoid cyst splenic epidermoid cyst spinal epidermoid cyst testicular epidermoid cyst
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Epididymal abscess

An epididymal abscess is an uncommon complication of epididymitis. Pathology Causative organisms are the same that cause epididymitis: older individuals Escherichia coli Proteus mirabills younger individuals  Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Other rare aetiological agents S...
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Epididymal appendix

An epididymal appendix (or alternatively appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis) is a testicular appendage that is a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) which can be found in the head of the epididymis 1. In 78% of the cases, it is stalked and is thus easily ...
Article

Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci within the epididymal head. If the calcifications are large enough, then they may demonstrate acoustic shadowing. Differential diagnosis chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  traum...
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Epididymal cyst

Epididymal cysts are the most common epididymal mass. Epidemiology Epididymal cysts have been reported in ~30% (range 20-40%) of asymptomatic individuals 5. Pathology They are usually of lymphatic origin 2. The cysts contain clear serous fluid, lymphocytes, spermatozoa and debris. Clinical ...
Article

Epididymal masses

Epididymal masses are most commonly encountered on ultrasonography. Most epididymal masses are benign; malignant lesions are rare. Differential diagnosis Benign solid adenomatoid tumour of the scrotum (most common epididymal mass 4) epididymal leiomyoma sperm granulomas / post vasectomy gra...
Article

Epididymis

The epididymis (plural epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testis within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens. Gross anatomy The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to the testis. It can be sub...
Article

Epididymitis

Epididymitis refers to inflammation of the epididymis, and may be associated with inflammation extending to the testis itself, in which case the term epididymo-orchitis is used. This should be distinguished from isolated orchitis, which is by comparison much less common.  Epidemiology There ar...
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Epispadias

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly that is almost always associated with bladder exstrophy.  Epidemiology It occurs in 1 in 30,000 births, with a male: female ratio of 3:1. Clinical presentation The roof of the urethra is absent and the urethra opens anywhere between the base and the gl...
Article

Epithelioid angiomyolipoma

Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (EAML) are rare variants of the more common renal angiomyolipoma. They have malignant potential. Pathology Like more common renal angiomyolipomas, EAMLs are considered perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). EAMLs were regarded as a separate renal mass enti...
Article

Erased charcoal sign (prostate cancer)

The erased charcoal sign usually describes the typical lenticular or water drop lesion of a homogeneous low T2WI focal prostate cancer with an ill-defined border within the transition zone.
Article

External iliac lymph nodes

The external iliac lymph nodes can be found surrounding the external iliac artery and act as the draining nodes for several regions of the pelvis and lower limb.  Gross anatomy The external iliac lymph nodes lie anterior to the internal iliac lymph nodes and usually form three separate subgrou...
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Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3: an irregular bulge in capsule obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour focal capsular retraction and or thicken...
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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis. It is less successful in obese patients and with stones >2 cm. Complications steinstrasse: incomplete fragmentation that results in a pile-up of stone fragments that obstruct the ureter renal hae...
Article

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
Article

Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum; it is a normal anatomic variant. Epidemiology It is found in ~10% of the population 2.  Radiographic features Ultrasound An extrarenal pelvis usually appears dilated, erroneously suggesting...
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Extratesticular cystic lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for extratesticular cystic lesions includes: hydrocele epididymal cyst spermatocele haematoma haematocele loop of bowel from an inguinal hernia abscess pyocele post-vasectomy varicocele Very rarely, a scrotal mesothelioma may present as a cystic mass.
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Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
Article

Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Fanconi syndrome

Fanconi syndrome describes generalised proximal renal tubule dysfunction causing impaired reabsorption of many urinary solutes.  Clinical presentation Clinical features include poor growth, fatigue, dehydration, polyuria, muscle weakness, and bone pain. Features on a basic blood panel includes...
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Fat containing renal lesions

There are numerous fat-containing renal lesions, including: renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumour renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma/liposarcoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat: renal junction line fat in a renal scar renal sinus lipomatosis ...
Article

Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
Article

Female pseudohermaphroditism

Female pseudohermaphroditism (FPH) is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with female pseudohermaphroditism have female internal genitalia and female karyotype (XX) with various degree of external genitalia virilization. Causes  congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ...
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Female urethra

The female urethra is a simple short tube, that transports the urine out of the body, extending from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.  Gross anatomy The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embe...
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Fetal cystic renal disease

Fetal cystic renal disease can be in included in three of the four types classified according the system by Osathanondh and Potter 1: Potter type I: infantile polycystic kidney disease Potter type II: multicystic dysplastic kidneys Potter type III: adult polycystic kidney disease Potter type...
Article

Fetal hydrocele

A fetal hydrocele refers to a hydrocele present in utero. Epidemiology They may be sonographically identified in ~15% of male fetuses in the third trimester 6. Pathology Often result from a patent processus vaginalis. They are more frequently unilateral.  Associations hydrops fetalis meco...
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Fetal hydronephrosis

Fetal hydronephrosis represents the abnormal dilatation of the fetal renal collecting system, with pelviureteric junction obstruction the most commonly encountered cause.  Please, refer to the article on fetal pyelectasis for a dedicated discussion on this relatively common and usually benign f...
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Fetal megacystis

Fetal megacystis refers to the presence of an unusually large bladder in a fetus.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence of antenatal imaging is at ~1:1500 pregnancies. Pathology It can result from a number of causes but the main underlying mechanism is either a distal stenosis or reflux. As...
Article

Fetal pyelectasis

Fetal pyelectasis refers to a prominence of the renal pelvis in utero that is a relatively common finding, which in the majority of cases resolves spontaneously.  Please refer to the article on fetal hydronephrosis for a continued discussion on this matter.  Terminology  Although there is an ...
Article

Fetal urachal cyst

A fetal urachal cyst refers to a urachal cyst occuring in utero. It may or may not communicate with the vertex of the fetal bladder. It may also arise within the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord urachal cysts originate from an extra-abdominal urachal system.  See also fetal intra-abdominal cysts...
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Fetal urinary ascites

Fetal urinary ascites is one of the causes of fetal ascites and can arise from a number of pathologies. in utero bladder perforation fetal megacystis transudation from the fetal bladder persistent urogenital sinus Radiographic features Ultrasound The presence of fetal ascites without...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterised by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
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Fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum

Fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum is a relatively rare, non-neoplastic extratesticular non-epididymal lesion. Epidemiology It affects any age. Although rare, it is considered the third most common extra testicular mass after a scrotal lipoma and an epididymal adenomatoid tumour.  Pathology ...
Article

Filarial dance sign

The filarial dance sign refers to a twirling motion of microfilariae (e.g. W. bancrofti) noted in dilated lymphatic channels. It is identified as a characteristic sign and indicator of scrotal filariasis. The dilated channels are identified with absence of color flow on colour Doppler study (CD...
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Filariasis

Filariasis refers to infection with nematodes (roundworms) of the family Filarioidea. There are three species of these thread-like filarial worms: Wuchereria bancrofti: responsible for 90% of cases Brugia malayi: causes most of the remainder of cases Brugia timori: an uncommon cause It can a...
Article

Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome

The Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome is a sub type of congenital nephrotic syndrome. A large placenta and proteinuria from birth are considered hallmarks of the disease 2. The proteinuria is often of intra-uterine onset. Although it is named the Finnish type, it can occur outside Finla...
Article

Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter further up, as the right ureter hooks behind th...
Article

Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride

Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride (also known as 18F-NaF or sodium fluoride) is a PET radiotracer used primarily for skeletal imaging. Structure Fluorine-18-labeled sodium fluoride is an ionic compound comprised of a single sodium atom bound to a positron-emitting isotope of fluorine.  Dist...
Article

Folliculin gene-associated syndrome

Folliculin gene-associated syndrome (FLCN-S) or Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a genetic multisystemic disease mainly characterised by: multiple lung cysts and secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces multiple bilateral renal tumours (particularly chromophobe renal cell cancer and oncocytoma) c...
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Fornix (disambiguation)

The term fornix (plural: fornices) is used for anatomical structures in multiple organ systems that all share an arch-like morphology: fornix (brain) fornix (eye) fornix (lacrimal) fornix (pharynx) fornix (renal) fornix (stomach) fornix (vagina) History and etymology Fornix is Latin for...
Article

Fossa navicularis

The fossa navicularis refers to a normal mild dilatation of the urethra. It occurs at the most distal/downstream portion of the urethra. It is more evident in males, where it occurs in the penile/pendulous urethra, near the urethral meatus. There is also a fossa navicularis in women: the more f...
Article

Fountain sign

The fountain sign is sonographic sign described in acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE). It refers to the appearance of the pattern of vascularity seen during transverse colour Doppler sonography of the scrotum with both testes together1. In these transverse views in patients with AISE, marked...
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Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is a necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately, the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 years but rarely in women. Other than age, predispo...
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Fraley syndrome

Fraley syndrome is the eponymous term for a dilated calyx (hydrocalyx) due to compression of a calyceal infundibulum from an adjacent artery or vein. It is rare, but it occurs more often in an upper pole calyx. The hydrocalyx may be painful.
Article

Free/total PSA ratio

The free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA) is an additional new parameter used in assessing PSA levels. Some authors 1,2 recommend that men with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10 ng/mL who are not suspected of having prostate cancer by whatever means should undergo %fPSA measurement and then be carefully monitored ...
Article

Frenulum (disambiguation)

Frenulum (plural: frenula) is an anatomical term and refers to a small fold of soft tissue that checks the movement of an anatomical part. frenulum (clitoris) frenulum (ileocaecal valve) frenulum (labia minora) frenulum (penis) frenulum (tongue) History and etymology Frenulum derives from...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Gas in the urinary bladder

There numerous causes of gas in the bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include: iatrogenic IDC by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc emphysematous cystitis intraluminal and intramural gas mo...
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Genitourinary tuberculosis

Genitourinary tuberculosis is the second most common site of infection in humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, second only to pulmonary tuberculosis.  It can most easily be divided anatomically into: renal tuberculosis (renal parenchyma, calyces and renal pelvis) bladder and ureteric tubercu...
Article

Germ cell tumour (classification)

Germ cell tumours are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tu...
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Germ cell tumours

Germ cell tumours are found widely throughout the body, and encompass a wide range of individual tumours. This article does not deal with any specific body locations. For detailed discussion please refer the articles listed at the end of this page.  Pathology Germ cell tumours arise from ecto...
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
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Germinoma

Germinoma is a term that if unqualified, usually refers to a tumour of the brain but can also refer to similar tumours of other regions particularly the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma: see WHO classification of CNS tumours All these tumours s...
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Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
Article

Goblet sign (ureter)

The goblet sign (or champagne glass sign) refers to the appearance of the ureter when it is focally dilated by an intraluminal mass. It is best seen when the ureter is opacified from below, by a retrograde ureterogram. Presence of this sign indicates the pathology to be chronic, permitting the l...
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Goldman classification of urethral injuries

The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anterior to the ureters. Like the s...
Article

Gonadoblastoma

Gonadoblastomas are uncommon sex cord / stromal tumours. They are associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders"). Epidemiology The vast majority are found <30 years of age. Most are discovered in the perinatal period. May occur in phenotypic males or...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem necrotising non-caseating granulomatous c-ANCA positive vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. ...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (renal manifestations)

The renal manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis) are occult on imaging, especially when compared to the pulmonary changes. Approximately half of GPA patients have kidney disease at presentation. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a ...
Article

Granulomatous prostatitis

Granulomatous prostatitis is a nodular form of chronic prostatitis. It is usually diagnosed on biopsy. Pathology Causes idiopathic infection iatrogenic BCG post-radiotherapy systemic disease: sarcoidosis autoimmune Subtypes Several classification systems exist. A frequently used clas...
Article

Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...
Article

Growing teratoma syndrome

Growing teratoma syndrome is a rare complication after treatment for metastatic (or in the case of intracranial disease, primary) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It was first described in the paediatric population with treated germ cell neoplasms, and represents enlarging masses at ...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia (less commonly haemospermia) refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety in patients despite usually being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease comm...
Article

Haematuria (adult)

Haematuria occurs when blood enters the urinary collecting system and is excreted in the urine. There are many aetiologies for haematuria, and they range from benign and transient to gravely concerning. Haematuria can derive from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate (in men), or urethra. Imag...
Article

Haematuria (paediatric)

Haematuria in a child is evaluated differently than in an adult in two main respects: there is a lower likelihood of a malignancy (renal or bladder) causing the haematuria preference is given to nonionizing radiation Pathology Haematuria can be considered in three main forms: "gross" haemat...
Article

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystem thrombotic microangiopathic disease characterised by the triad of renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of renal failure in infancy and childhood requiring dialysis.  There are two forms of this syn...
Article

Haemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

The haemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumour cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate th...
Article

HANAC syndrome

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown. Clinical presentation The cardinal features of HANAC syndrome are helpfully described in the name of...
Article

Height adjusted total kidney volume

Height adjusted total kidney volume (HtTKV) is used in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to predict the onset of renal insufficiency. There is strong evidence to indicate that baseline htTKV predicts, with good sensitivity and specificity, the development of renal insuff...
Article

Hepatorenal syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome refers to a form of acute kidney injury caused by changes in renal blood flow regulation due to liver pathology 1. Although the syndrome occurs mainly in cirrhotic livers it has been reported in patients with acute fulminant liver failure as well 1. Epidemiology The incide...
Article

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by a mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast ca...
Article

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a recently identified autosomal dominant tumour susceptibility syndrome. It is characterised by: predisposition to benign cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) susceptibility to early-onset renal cell carcinoma   typ...
Article

Hereditary renal cancer syndromes

Despite the vast majority of renal cancers being sporadic, there are a number of hereditary renal cancer syndromes: von Hippel Lindau syndrome: predominantly clear cell type tuberous sclerosis: predominantly clear cell type hereditary leiomyomata renal cell cancer syndrome: described in ISUP ...
Article

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome, is a rare anomaly characterised by Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) associated with mesonephric duct anomalies 3.  This entity is also known as obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA). It is not to be confused with the Wunderlich syndro...
Article

Hermaphroditism

Hermaphroditism states are a result of abnormalities in embryonic development and may have mixed characteristics of each sex, with variable clinical manifestations. True hermaphroditism is defined as the simultaneous presence in a single individual of both testicular and ovarian tissues, that may...
Article

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture at ultrasound may be the result of a variety of underlying pathology: seminiferous tubular atrophy - can occur in around 14% of middle aged to elderly patients 2 testicular trauma orchitis
Article

HIV/AIDS (genitourinary manifestations)

Genitourinary manifestations of HIV/AIDS are protean and can be divided into: HIV-associated nephropathy renal diseases related to opportunistic infections: CMV, tuberculosis and MAC infections, fungal infections, pneumocystis carinii infection drug-related renal diseases: indinavir-induced ...
Article

HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
Article

HIV-associated nephropathy

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS and leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis is not imaging-based and must be confirmed by renal biopsy. Epidemiology HIVAN is seen in patients at advanced stages of HIV and AIDS, but it can also be see...
Article

Horseshoe adrenal gland

A horseshoe adrenal gland is a very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes referred to as a butterfly, fused or midline adrenal gland. It is a solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline of the fused portion either passing between the aorta and the inferior vena cava or posterior to the a...

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