Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

733 results found
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Oncocalyx

An oncocalyx is a dilated tumour filled renal calyx, typically seen in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis.
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Orchitis

Orchitis is an infection of the testicle, which is rarely isolated, and when in conjunction with the epididymis is called epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Usually bacteria retrogradely seed into the testis from the bladder or prostate. Can also be secondary to viral infection (e.g. mumps, Coxsack...
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Ossifying renal tumour of infancy

Ossifying renal tumour of infancy (ORTI) is a rare renal tumour. Epidemiology extremely rare, <<1% of paediatric renal neoplasms (17 cases reported) 6 days - 3 months male predominant Pathology Histology reveals spindle cells and osteoblastic cells in a calcified osteoid matrix. It is thou...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
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Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
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Paediatric cystic renal diseases

The paediatric cystic renal diseases comprises a group of conditions that are all either autosomal recessive or non-hereditary: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): hyperechoic and enlarged kidney multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK): absence of functional parenchyma, urete...
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Paediatric kidney size

The paediatric kidneys follow a growth curve. The measurements below are of the longest maximal dimension. Measurements in parentheses are one standard deviation. 0 months 1:  female: 4.15 cm (0.35); male: 4.22 cm (0.32) 2 months: 5.28 cm (0.66) 6 months: 6.15 cm (0.67) 10 months: 6.23 cm (0...
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Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
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Paediatric urinary tract infection

Paediatric urinary tract infections are common and are a source of significant imaging in young children. Epidemiology Paediatric urinary tract infections affect up to 2.8% of all children every year, with approximately 2% of boys and 8% or more of girls developing a urinary tract infection at...
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Paediatric urinary tract infection (NICE guideline)

The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published the “Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management” in 2007 as a guideline for paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) management, including imaging, prophylaxis and follow-up 1.  This article inten...
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Page kidney

Page kidney refers to the phenomenon of hypertension that develops following long-standing compression of renal parenchyma by subcapsular renal collection, e.g. haematoma, seroma, urinoma. Pathology Compression of the renal parenchyma results in compression of the renal vessels, which leads to...
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Paintbrush appearance

A paintbrush appearance describes the streaky appearances of dilated contrast filled tubules within the renal medulla on IVP or CT-IVU. This appearance is characteristic for medullary sponge kidneys. See also bouquet of flowers appearance
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Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testes and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular veins. Along with the cremaster an...
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Pancake kidney

Pancake kidney (also known as discoid kidney, disc kidney, lump kidney, fused pelvic kidney or cake kidney) is a rare renal fusion anomaly of the kidneys of the crossed fused variety. Clinical presentation Pancake kidney may be an incidental finding. However, they can present clinically becaus...
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Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis

Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are the second most common benign tumours of the epididymis after adenomatoid tumours. They are more common in young men. Approximately 30% of the patients have von Hippel Lindau disease and approximately 10% to 40% of patients with von Hippel-Lindau dise...
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Papillary renal cell carcinoma

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is one of the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology This subtype may account 13-20% of all renal cell cancer. There is slightly increased male predilection. Clinical presentation As with other types of renal cell cancer, most are asymptomatic an...
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Pararectal space

The pararectal spaces are paired, triangular-shaped spaces in the posterior pelvis.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: cardinal ligament medial: rectal pillars lateral: levator ani muscle, internal iliac arteries posterior: sacrum Contents fat connective tissue Relations separated fr...
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Parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves

The pelvic splanchnic nerves also known as nervi erigentes are preganglionic (presynaptic) parasympathetic nerve fibres that arise from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. These nerves form the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system in the pelvis.   Gross anatomy O...
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Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a large list of differential diagnosis: epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) adenomatoid tumour (most common epididymal tumour) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst hydrocoele scrotal haematocoele varicocoele scrotolith (s...
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Paratesticular tumours

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testicle within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorised as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Aetiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common pa...
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Paravesical space

The paravesical spaces are paired avascular spaces of the pelvis. The paravesical spaces generally contain fat, but can become filled with ascites, blood, or other substances during pathological processes. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: lateral umbilical folds inferior: pubocervical fasc...
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Patent urachus

A patent urachus is one of the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies. It has occasionally been termed "urachal fistula". Clinical presentation A patent urachus is often diagnosed in neonates when urine is noted leaking from the umbilicus. The umbilicus may also have an abnormal appearance o...
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Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or tear-drop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder i...
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Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

Pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephros...
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Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a collection of pus in the pelvis, Pathology  Causes  Some of the causes include pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) post surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical presentation Presenting complai...
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Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is one of commonly missed and potentially treatable cause of chronic abdominal or pelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common in multiparous, premenopausal wome...
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Pelvic kidney

Pelvic kidney (sometimes known as sacral kidney) is a kidney that is fixed in the bony pelvis or across the spine 1. Epidemiology Pelvic ectopia is seen in 1 in 2100-3000 autopsies. It is considered the most common form of renal ectopia 4. Clinical presentation These patients are asymptomati...
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Pelvic lipomatosis

Pelvic lipomatosis (also known as pelvic fibrolipomatosis) represents excessive deposition of fat in pelvis due to overgrowth of adipose cells leading to compression of pelvic organs. Epidemiology The condition usually presents in patients 20-50 years of age. The condition is predominantly (2/...
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Pelvic peritoneal space

The pelvic peritoneal space is the inferior reflection of the peritoneum over the fundus of the urinary bladder and the front of the rectum at the junction of its middle and lower thirds. In females, the reflection is also over the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus and the upper poste...
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Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction

Penile Doppler (papaverine induced colour duplex Doppler) is an excellent and highly accurate means of assessing patients with erectile dysfunction. Pathology Penile erection is a result of complex interaction between nervous, arterial, venous and sinusoidal systems. Any defect in one of these...
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Penile fracture

Penile fracture is a rare event, however requires emergency diagnosis and intervention. It is a rupture of corpora cavernosa and penile sheath (tunica albuginea) caused by trauma to an erect penis, most commonly during sexual intercourse. What a urologist needs to known in such an emergency, is...
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Penile implant

Penile implants are a surgically placed device to assist with erectile dysfunction. The device has inflatable components inserted in the penile shaft with a reservoir typically placed in the pelvis. See also erectile dysfunction Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction medical devices in the a...
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Penis

The penis is the most distal part of the male urogenital system. Gross anatomy The gross anatomy of the penis can be broken into five sections:  Skin loosely connected to the tunica albuginea distally folded to form the prepuce (foreskin) at the corona of the penis the internal layer of th...
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Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure for the extraction of large renal calculi. It is usually performed in the operating theatre either by a urologist or combined urologist-radiologist team. Indication PCNL is used to destroy and remove renal calculi, typically over 2 cm...
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Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a technique in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications urinary tract obstruction urinary diversion (e.g. ureteric injury; urine leak) a...
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Percutaneous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange

Percutaenous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange are two procedures undertaken in those with long term nephrostomies. These patients are often either unsuitable or do not wish to have ureteric stenting to relieve their urinary tract obstruction. Nephrostomy salvage Nephrostomy salvage is und...
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Perineal nerve

The perineal nerve or the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve is the largest terminal branch of the pudendal nerve which is derived from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The perineal nerve  gives muscular branches to superficial and deep perineal muscles as well as the external ...
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Perinephric abscess

A perinephric abscess may result due to rupture of a renal abscess into the perirenal space, but usually it develops directly from acute pyelonephritis. However, any inflammatory process outside the Gerota's fascia may also result in perinephric abscess. Perinephric abscesses are associated with...
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Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections are commonly seen after renal transplantation. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection is often nonspecific, and generating a differential often relies on when the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period haematoma ultraso...
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Perinephric stranding

Perinephric stranding refers to the appearance of oedema within the fat of the perirenal space on CT or MRI. While a degree of symmetric bilateral perinephric stranding is common, particularly in the elderly, asymmetric or unilateral perinephric stranding is an important sign of renal inflammati...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
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Perirenal cobweb

Perirenal cobwebs is the presence of prominent perinephric septae. It is best appreciated on CT images. Pathology The cobweb is considered to be due to engorged venous collaterals or due to edema and fluid extravasation into the perirenal space 1. Perirenal cobwebs may be seen in many benign ...
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Perirenal fascia

The perirenal fascia is a dense, elastic connective tissue sheath that envelops each kidney and adrenal gland together with a layer of surrounding perirenal fat. It is a multi-laminated structure which is fused posteromedially with the muscular fasciae of the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscle...
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Perirenal lymphocoele

Perirenal lymphocoeles are the most common cause of perinephric fluid collection. They can potentially occur in a post-transplant situation in up to 25% of cases. Clinical presentation Perirenal lymphocoele is usually asymptomatic but they can be large enough to cause hydronephrosis or venous ...
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Perirenal space

The perirenal space is the largest of the three divisions of the retroperitoneum and is the most easily identified. It contains the kidneys, renal vessels and proximal collecting systems, adrenal glands and an adequate amount of fat to allow identification on CT scanning. The space is surrounde...
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Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several peri-urethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal - vulval - vaginal region male genitourinary...
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Perlmann tumour

Perlmann tumour of the kidney (also sometimes known as benign adenomatous multicystic kidney tumour) is often mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. Many now consider it synonymous with the more well-known multilocular cystic nephroma.
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Persistent fetal lobulation of the kidneys

Persistent fetal lobulation is a normal variant seen occasionally in adult kidneys. It occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the developing renal lobules. Embryologically, the kidneys originate as distinct lobules that fuse as they develop and grow. It is often seen on ultrasound, CT or MRI...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). F-18 is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-life of approx...
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Peyronie disease

Peyronie disease is the most common cause of painful penile induration. Fibrous tissue plaques form within the tunica albuginea, causing painful deformity and shortening of the penis. Though clinical diagnosis is usually accurate, the role of imaging is to evaluate extension of plaques, whether ...
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Phantom calyx

Phantom calyx is a calyx which fails to fill with contrast admist a well opacified remainder of pyelocalyceal system. It refers to an intrarenal process which has infilterated and caused obliteration of the involved collecting system element. It may be seen in: tumour: especially transitional ...
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Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
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Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of contrast opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to a presence of a large pelvic haematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
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Pine cone bladder

A pine cone bladder or christmas tree bladder is a cystogram appearance in which the bladder is elongated and pointed with thickened trabeculated wall. It is typically seen in severe neurogenic bladder with increased sphincter tone (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) due to suprasacral lesions (abo...
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Polyorchidism

Polyorchidism (or supranumerary testes) refers to the presence of more than two testes and is a very rare congenital anomaly. The supernumerary testis can be usually located inside the scrotum (75% of the patients) or less commonly in the inguinal canal, the retroperitoneum, or the abdominal cav...
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Post transplant lymphoproliferative / lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD)

Post transplant lymphoproliferative/lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD) is increasing in prevalence as the number and survival length of solid organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients also increases. It represents a variety of conditions varying from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy but is...
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Posterior pararenal space

The posterior pararenal space is the smallest and most clinically insignificant portion of the retroperitoneum. Gross anatomy It is filled with fat, blood vessels and lymphatics, but contains no major organs. Boundaries posteriorly: bound by transversalis fascia anteriorly: bound by posteri...
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Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
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Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...
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Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are affec...
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Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
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Primary pigmented nodular adrenal dysplasia

Primary pigmented nodular adrenal dysplasia (PPNAD) is a rare benign adrenal condition characterised by ACTH-independent autonomous hypersecretion of cortisol, leading to Cushing syndrome.  Epidemiology PPNAD is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, which has yet to be confidently mapped. ...
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Primary prostatic malignant melanoma

Primary melanoma of the prostate is rare, and usually cannot be diagnosed on imaging alone. In many cases, it is believed that in fact the tumour represents prostatic involvement by melanoma of the urethra. Epidemiology Primary malignant melanoma of the prostate represent both a tiny fraction...
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Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of s...
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Primary urethral malignant melanoma

Melanoma of the urethra is very rare tumour of the male urethra, and often presents as an invasive prostatic mass. As such it is usually referred to as primary prostatic malignant melanoma. Related articles malignant melanoma primary cutaneous melanoma primary noncutaneous melanoma primary ...
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Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and is the largest male accessory gland. It typically weighs between 20-40 grams with an average size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm. The prostate is comprised of 70% glandular tissue and 30% fibromuscular or stromal tissue 1-3 and provides approximate...
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Prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.  Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...
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Prostate cancer (staging)

Prostate cancer staging can be thought of in terms of physical location or grading histologically. The TNM classification is used to determine spread, and the Gleason score is used to determine the histological type. Another staging system is the Jewett-Whitmore staging system. Additionally, th...
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Prostate cancer (summary)

Prostate cancer, also called carcinoma of the prostate or prostate carcinoma, is the commonest malignant tumour in men. It is primarily a disease of old age and many men remain asymptomatic.  Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on prostate cancer. Summary ep...
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Prostate cystic disease

Prostate cystic disease encompasses a wide variety of pathologies that all result in cyst formation within the prostate. midline cystic lesions / cyst like lesions Mullerian duct cyst prostatic utricle cyst ejaculatory duct cyst (tends to be more paramidline 6) cystadenoma of prostate duct...
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Prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS)

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADSv2 6 by...
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Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity

Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity is a common finding in pelvic MRIs that needs to be differentiated. A prostate directed MRI is usually performed using a multi-parametric technique to differentiate prostate cancer from more benign changes. This includes T2 weighted images, dynamic contr...
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Prostate sarcoma

Prostatic sarcoma is an uncommon and heterogenous group of tumour arising from mesenchymal cells in and around the prostate.  In children the most common tumour type is a prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma, which accounts for approximately a third of all prostatic sarcomas 1.  In adults leiomyosarcoma...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquifying agent for seminal fluid and the normal amount in human serum is usually ver...
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Prostate-specific membrane antigen

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, that has become an increasingly prominent imaging biomarker 1. PSMA has emerged as a useful target in PET imaging of prostate cancer, especially in the evaluation of small volume lymph node and bone metastases 2. ...
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Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy is a common procedure to remove the prostate gland, most often for prostate adenocarcinoma, although occasionally performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia. When performed for tumor, it is only indicated for tumors that are confined to the prostate. There are two main types of pr...
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Prostatic abscess

Prostatic abscesses can be a rare complication of prostatitis.  Epidemiology It has become relatively uncommon in clinical practice due to antibiotic therapy in those with prostatitis. It tends to affect diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Most patients tend to present in the 5th to 6th de...
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Prostatic artery embolisation

Prostatic artery embolisation (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilised to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic haemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment o...
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Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcification is a common finding, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Clinical presentation Prosta...
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Prostatic carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the most common malignant tumour in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. Epidemiology It is primarily a disease of the el...
Article

Prostatic cystadenoma

Prostatic cystadenoma or multilocular cystadenoma of prostate is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the prostate gland. If lesions are considerably large they may also be termed giant multilocular cystadenomas of the prostate. Pathology Lesions are histologically characterised by glands and cy...
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Prostatic infarction

Prostatic infarction refers to necrosis of the prostate gland tissue from a lack of blood supply. Pathology Histology Histology slices on biopsy specimens may show reactive atypia 3. Causes prostatic artery embolisation presumed pelvic ischaemia after cross-clamping of the aorta for coron...
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Prostatic utricle cyst

Prostatic utricle cyst (PUC) is an area of focal dilatation that occurs within the prostatic utricle. They are midline cystic masses in the male pelvis and can be very difficult or impossible to distinguish from a Mullerian duct cyst. Epidemiology Utricle cysts are most often detected in the ...
Article

Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. Prostatitis is a clinical diagnosis and imaging is useful to evaluate abscess formation.  The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classified prostatitis in...
Article

Prostatomegaly

Prostatomegaly is a term used to generally describe enlargement of the prostate gland from whatever cause. Usually the prostate is considered enlarged on imaging when it measures beyond 30 cc (30 grams) in size.  Terminology The term prostatomegaly is often used interchangeably with benign pro...
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Prune belly syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as Eagle Barrett syndrome 3 or triad syndrome, is a rare anomaly comprising a specific constellation of features. It consists of three major findings: gross ureteric dilatation anterior abdominal wall underdevelopment (resulting in the "prune belly" appearance)...
Article

Pseudobladder

Pseudobladder refers to a pelvic cystic mass that simulates the urinary bladder. The location of the lesion should allow differentiation from the bladder but if doubt exists and clinical necessity arises, a delayed phase CT or MRI with excreted contrast or IDC-administered retrograde contrast f...
Article

Pseudoenhancement

Pseudoenhancement is an artifact in postcontrast CT evaluation of renal cysts. The distinction between cystic and solid lesions visualised in CT is primarily made on the basis of whether the lesion enhances with contrast administration. A renal cystic lesion is considered "enhancing" when there...
Article

Pseudohydronephrosis

Pseudohydronephrosis refers to normal anatomy or non-significant pathologies that may mimic hydronephrosis. There is usually fluid-density material within a dilated of a part of the urinary tract, but without other signs of obstruction such as retroperitoneal fat stranding, renal perfusion abnor...
Article

Pseudoureterocoele

Pseudoureterocoeles are acquired dilatations of the submucosal portion of the distal ureter that mimic simple ureteroceles. The appearance of the radiolucent wall surrounding the dilated distal ureteral segment (cobra head sign) is an important differentiating point.  The distinction is importa...
Article

Psoas hitch

A psoas hitch is a method of ureteric re-implantation following distal ureteric resection or injury. The reconstruction is indicated when the distal ureter is injured or resected for cancer or stricture disease, and the remaining portion of ureter cannot reach the bladder for a ureteroneocystot...
Article

Pulmonary-renal syndromes

Pulmonary-renal syndromes refer to a group of conditions that can affect the lung and kidneys. These conditions are typically characterised by diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.  Diseases that can result in a pulmonary-renal syndrome includes: certain pulmonary vasculitides ...
Article

Putty kidney

A putty kidney refers to a pattern of renal calcification associated with renal tuberculosis conventionally described on plain radiography. Calcification characteristically is very homogeneous and ground glass like, representing calcified caseous tissue 3-4. Premkumar et al labelled calcificatio...

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