Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

733 results found
Article

Scrotal filariasis

Scrotal filariasis is a manifestation of filariasis and refers to scrotal involvement from parasitic nematodes of the superfamily filarioidea. Epidemiology Known disease of the tropics and sub-tropics and a cause of morbidity in Asia, Africa and the Western Pacific regions 2. Clinical present...
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Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testicle. Pathology A haematocele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
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Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess
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Scrotal pyocoele

Scrotal pyocoeles are purulent fluid collections in the scrotal sac that generally occur in conjunction with epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Scrotal pyocoeles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis and testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent fl...
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Scrotal scintigraphy

Scrotal scintigraphy is a radio-isotope examination of the scrotal contents, primarily in patients presenting with scrotal pain. Indications Although, ultrasound remains the mainstay of scrotal imaging, scintigraphy can be used where the diagnosis is unclear, since ultrasound appearances for s...
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Scrotal tunica cyst

Scrotal tunica cysts are paratesticular cystic lesions. They include tunica vaginalis cysts tunica albuginea cysts Radiographic features Ultrasound  Typically seen as a simple appearing paratesticular cystic lesion not in the region of the epididymis. See also paratesticular lesions
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Scrotolith

Scrotoliths, also known as "scrotal pearls", are benign incidental extra testicular macro-calcifications within the scrotum. They frequently occupy the potential space of the tunica vaginalis or sinus of the epididymis. They are usually of no clinical significance 1-2. Clinical presentation Mo...
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Scrotum

The scrotum is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that contains the testes, epididymides, and spermatic cord. It consists of two chambers separated by a septum  It is an extension of the perineum, and is located between the penis and anus. Gross anatomy The scrotal wall is compos...
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Segmental renal hypoplasia

Segmental renal hypoplasia (also known as the Ask-Upmark kidney) is a type of renal hypoplasia. It is often found in young females with severe hypertension. The aetiology is unknown but has been postulated to be congenital or a sequelae of pyelonephritis. It is associated with severe juvenile hy...
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Segmental testicular infarction

Segmental testicular infarctions are uncommon testicular lesions that usually result from arterial embolisation or thrombosis (as opposed to testicular infarction from torsion, which may originate from venous occlusion). Pathology The causes of a segmental testicular infarct include: orchitis...
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Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles are paired accessory sex glands of the male reproductive system. The seminal vesicle produces over two-thirds of the ejaculate and is very high in fructose.  Gross anatomy The seminal vesicle is actually a 10-15 cm long tubular structure but is coiled tightly so it only me...
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Seminal vesicle cyst

Seminal vesicle cysts can be congenital or acquired. Congenital It is the presence of cysts within the seminal vesicles since birth. It is seen rarely and occurs probably due to an obstruction at the junction of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. It is associated with many other urogeni...
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Sertoli cell tumour of the testis

Sertoli cell tumours of the testis are uncommon sex cord stromal tumours. They are less common than Leydig cell tumours of the testis.  Epidemiology May present in both paediatric and adult males, depending on the histologic subtype. Clinical presentation Testicular mass or firmness. May occ...
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Sex cord stromal tumours of the testis

Sex cord stromal tumours of the testis are uncommon testicular neoplasms. Although ~90% of these tumours are benign, they cannot be differentiated from testicular malignancies on imaging, and are therefore usually discovered after orchiectomy. Leydig cell tumour of the testis (most common, ~30%...
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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The highest ...
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Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly splenic enlargement may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in th...
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Sigmoid kidney

A sigmoid kidney is an uncommon variant of the horseshoe kidney. Whereas the typical horseshoe kidney is fused only at the lower poles, in a sigmoid kidney both the upper and the lower poles are fused 1.
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Sildenafil citrate induced penile doppler

Erectile dysfunction is the occassional or consistent inability of a male to attain and maintain a penile erection sufficient enough and for a suffcient duration so as to allow vaginal penetration. Erectile dysfunction is multifactorial in etiology. In general erectile dysfunction increases wit...
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Skene duct cyst

Skene duct cyst is a retention cyst that forms secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the paraurethral ducts (Skene ducts) in females. Pathology They are lined by stratified squamous epithelium due to their origin from the urogenital sinus. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic. Radi...
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Skene glands

Skene glands are female paraurethral glands that secrete mucus during sexual activity. They are homologous to the male prostate gland. If the Skene duct becomes obstructed (inflammation, inspissated mucus), then a Skene duct cyst may result.
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Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

Small cell carcinomas of the bladder are rare bladder cancers with a poor prognosis. Its appearance overlaps other bladder cancers, in particular, urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma. Epidemiology A very rare tumor, it has been estimated at <0.0001% of bladder cancers. It is thought to have...
Article

Soft tissue rim sign

The soft-tissue rim sign is used to distinguish a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith. The former appears as a calcific density with a surrounding rim of soft tissue which represents the oedematous ureteric wall. Phleboliths on the other hand usually have imperceptible walls (although up to 8% m...
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Solitary filling defect of the ureter (differential)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has some differentials, including: within the lumen calculus sloughed papilla blood clot benign polyp within the wall transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tuberculosis  metastasis endometriosis When multiple fi...
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SpaceOAR

SpaceOAR is a technique in which a physical space is created between the prostate gland and rectum for electron beam radiotherapy targeted to the prostate cancer.  OAR stands for "organ at risk", and in cases of prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment the rectum is the main organ at risk. The in...
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Spaghetti sign in the bladder

The spaghetti sign refers to the presence of a linear worm like filling defect within a contrast opacified bladder. This linear filling defect is considered to represent blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby moulded in the tubular shape. It is seen in patients with gross haematuria. Pr...
Article

Sperm cell granuloma

Sperm cell granuloma, also termed epididymitis nodosa, is a benign lesion that can occur in the scrotum. They can particularly occur in those with a prior vasectomy (occurs after vasectomy in up to 40% of patients 2). Pathology It is considered a form of chronic epididymitis which occurs secon...
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Spermatic cord

The spermatic cord is the tubular structure that suspends the testes and epididymis.  Gross anatomy Course The spermatic cord starts at the deep inguinal ring, passes through the inguinal canal and exits at the superficial inguinal ring into the scrotum 3. Contents ductus deferens artery o...
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Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex Life 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex L...
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Spermatic cord hydrocele

Spermatic cord hydrocele (SCH) refers to loculated fluid collection along the spermatic cord. It separated from and located above the testicle and the epididymis. Pathology It results from aberrant closure of the processus vaginalis. There are two recognised sub types encysted hydrocele - fl...
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Spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma

Spermatic cord leiomyosarcomas are uncommon malignant paratesticular masses. Epidemiology Accounts for ~10% of spermatic cord sarcomas. The average of a patient at presentation is 58 years old (although has been seen as young as 15 years old). Clinical features Patients may have left inguina...
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Spermatocoele

Spermatocoeles are a common type of extra-testicular cyst, and represents cystic dilatation of tubules of the efferent ductules in the head of the epididymis. Clinical presentation Usually a painless, incidental finding but can present as a mass lesion if large 3. Pathology Spermatocoeles ar...
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Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome is the association of Spigelian hernias and cryptorchidism in children.  Pathology It is reported that ~50% (range 28-75%) range of paediatric patients with Spigelian hernias will have ipsilateral cryptorchidism 1,2.  Along with Spigelian hernia and cryptorch...
Article

Spinning top urethra

Spinning top urethra is non-obstructive posterior urethral dilatation seen on voiding cystourethrography, mainly in females. It was initially considered as an indicator of distal urethral narrowing/stenosis. However, it is now believed to be due to functional discoordinate voiding or bladder ins...
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Splenogonadal fusion

Splenogonadal fusion is a rare anomaly that occurs when there is congenital fusion between a portion of the spleen and a gonad or other mesonephric derivative. Epidemiology Much more common in male patients (~95%), occurs most commonly on the left (98%) and usually involve the testis (95%). Ha...
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Split bolus technique

The split bolus technique is a CT imaging investigation used in patients with haematuria aiming to put together, in a single image acquisition, both the nephrographic and renal excretory phases and thus reducing the radiation dose of the study. It is a CT protocol adopted for some institutions f...
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Spoke wheel pattern in kidney

A spoke wheel pattern in renal imaging refers to a vascular appearance seen with certain renal tumours, typically seen in oncocytomas but can also be seen in renal cell carcinomas.  This appearance refers to a peripheral rim of vessels from which centripetal vessels converge centrally giving th...
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Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation may be vague and varied: no inciting history no evidence of cutaneous bruising back, lower abdomin...
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Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis

Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis (SRRP) is a rare complication that can occasionally occur with obstructive urolithiasis or occasionally infection 1. Leakage of urine can result in a urinoma.
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Spotted nephrogram

A spotted nephrogram refers to non homogenous, irregular, patchy renal parenchymal enhancement seen predominantly on angiograms. Pathology It is considered to be due to focal areas of cortical ischaemia or necrosis seen as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern can...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~3-8% 1,2 of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional cell carcinomas) but nevertheless, SCC is the most common type of nontransitional cell carcinoma involving the bladder 2. SCC of the bladder is observed more freque...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (staging)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin stage II: invasion of penile shaft stage I...
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Staghorn calculus (kidney)

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis. Epidemiology Stagh...
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. History and etymology The term was coined by Egber...
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Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...
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Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram, originally described on plain film urography, but just as easily seen on CT urography represents linear bands of contrast extending from the medulla of the kidney towards the cortex. Pathology Striations result from stasis and concentration of contrast material in oedemato...
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String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
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Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...
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Sunburst sign (renal angiomyolipoma)

The sunburst sign refers to the appearance of arterial blush seen at selective arterial DSA angiography of a renal angiomyolipoma. Angiomyolipoma is a hypervascular renal mass that shows dense early arterial vascular network of tortuous irregular vessels with micro- or macro-aneurysms.
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Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital traingle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. ...
Article

Superior adrenal artery

The superior adrenal (suprarenal) arteries area a group of one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. There are usually numerous small arteries arising from the inferior phrenic artery. Gross Anatomy Origin The superior suprarenal arteries arise from the inferior phrenic...
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Supernumerary kidney

Supernumerary kidneys are a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital system, where there are one or two accessory kidneys. Epidemiology Less than 100 cases are documented.  Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic. If present symptoms range from fever, pain to abdominal mass. Thes...
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Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst

Suprapubic cartilaginous cysts (SPCC) are rare cystic lesions arising from the symphysis pubis thought to be degenerative in origin. They have also been called retropubic or subpubic cysts. Epidemiology In the small number of cases in the literature, all bar one patient, have been female. The ...
Article

Supravesical fossa

The supravesical fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the median umbilical fold and the medial umbilical folds. It partially overlies the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The supravesical fossae are usually occupied by small bowel loops and the urinar...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
Article

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. It is also sometimes classified as a vasculitis.  Epidemiology There is an overall increased female predilection. In adults, women are affected 9-13 times more than males. In children, this ratio i...
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Tamm-Horsfall proteins

Tamm-Horsfall proteins may be a cause of echogenic renal pyramids in a neonate. Tamm-Horsfall proteins excreted by the renal tubular epithelium. They are most often encountered on neonatal renal ultrasound, where the concentrated proteins in the renal pyramids may mimic nonobstructing renal sto...
Article

Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
Article

Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: 2.5 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics uptake by glomerular...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agent in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise imaging of various structures: Tc-99m ECD (ethyl c...
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Teratoma

Teratomas are germ cell tumours that arise from ectopic pluripotent stem cells that fail to migrate from yolk sac endoderm to the urogenital ridge during embryogenesis. By definition, they contain elements from all three embryological layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm although frequently, ...
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Testes

The testes (singular "testis" or "testicle") are the male gonads and contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 cc volume at puberty 1. Norm...
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Testicular abscess

Testicular abscess is usually a complication of severe epididymo-orchitis and needs to be distinguished from other testicular pathology that may present with similar clinical or imaging features.  Epidemiology The majority of patients develop a testicular abscess as a result of untreated or se...
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Testicular adrenal rests

Testicular adrenal rests are a rare cause of a testicular mass. Terminology Testicular adrenal rests can be known by a variety of terms 2: testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) testicular adrenal rest tissue testicular tumour of the adrenogenital syndrome testicular adrenal-like tissue Ep...
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Testicular and scrotal ultrasound

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound is the primary modality for imaging most of the male reproductive system. It is relatively quick, relatively inexpensive, can be correlated quickly with the patient's signs and symptoms, and, most importantly, is non-ionising. MRI is occasionally used for probl...
Article

Testicular appendages

Testicular and epididymal appendages are remnants of embryonic ducts and are quite common, with one or more being present in ~70% of patients 1. Gross anatomy Four such appendages have been described: testicular appendix (hydatid of Morgagni) it is a Müllerian duct remnant (paramesonephric d...
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Testicular appendix

A testicular appendix (alternatively called appendix of testis or appendix testis) represents a developmental remnant of the paramesonephric duct (Müllerian duct) which is situated in the upper pole of the testis inside a groove between the testicle and the head of epididymis 1. Epidemiology T...
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Testicular arteries

The testicular arteries (also known as the spermatic arteries) are the long, small-diameter gonadal arteries in the male that supply the testis alongside the cremasteric artery and the artery to the ductus deferens.  Gross anatomy Origin As paired structures they arise symmetrically, slightly...
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Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over ...
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Testicular cancer (staging)

The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:  stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour marke...
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Testicular cyst

Simple testicular cysts are usually nonpalpable and thus are detected incidentally. Testicular cysts require no treatment when discovered. Radiographic features Ultrasound On US, testicular cysts are usually well-defined and anechoic with enhanced through transmission and an imperceptible wa...
Article

Testicular epidermoid cyst

Testicular epidermoid cysts, also known as keratocysts, are rare benign tumours of germ cell origin that occur in the testis.  Epidemiology Testicular epidermoid cysts account for around 1-2% of all testicular masses and typically present in mid-adulthood (2nd to 4th decades) 1,2. They are the...
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Testicular germ cell tumours

Testicular germ cell tumours account for 90% of primary tumours of the testes. They are the most common nonhematologic malignancy in men 15-49 years old. They are divided into: testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumours 1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumour: 60% of germ cell tumours  testic...
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Testicular leukemia

Testicular leukemia can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukaemic cells. Clinical presentation Typically presents with painless testicular enlargemen...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon cause of testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is c...
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Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The diagnosis is only made with more than five calcifications are detected. In the vast majority of cases testicular microlithiasis is bilatera...
Article

Testicular mixed germ cell tumours

Testicular mixed germ cell tumours are, as the name suggests, testicular tumours composed of two or more types of germ cell tumour. They are considered to be part of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, as it is that component which dictates prognosis and treatment.  Overall they account for ove...
Article

Testicular seminoma

Testicular seminomas are the most common testicular tumours and account for ~45% of all primary testicular tumours. This article concerns itself only with testicular seminomas, however, seminomas can arise outside of the testicle most often within the anterior mediastinum, e.g. anterior mediasti...
Article

Testicular teratoma

Testicular teratoma, unlike ovarian teratoma, is often aggressive in its biological behaviour, and often exists as part of testicular mixed germ cell tumours.   Epidemiology Pure testicular teratomas account for only 4-9% of all testicular tumours. A similar number are seen in the context of t...
Article

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ul...
Article

Testicular trauma

Testicular trauma is the third most-common cause of acute scrotal pain and may result in various degree of damage to the testes. Testicular rupture and testicular ischaemia/infarct are two severe complications which need to be ruled out. Other injuries that can occur include 1: testicular frac...
Article

Testicular yolk sac tumour

Testicular yolk sac tumours (also known as endodermal sinus tumour of the testis) is the most common childhood testicular tumour (80%), with most cases occurring before the age of two years 1. In adults, pure yolk sac tumour is extremely rare, however mixed germ cell tumour are commonly seen. P...
Article

Threads and streaks sign

The threads and streaks sign refers to an angiographic appearance of a vascularised tumour thrombus extending into the ipsilateral renal vein or the inferior vena cava from a renal cell carcinoma. This gives an appearance of linear, thread like or string like appearance of the involved vessel.  ...
Article

Throckmorton sign (pelvis)

Throckmorton sign, also known as John Thomas sign, refers to when the penis points in the direction of unilateral disease, typically of the pelvis or hip.  Throckmorton sign is a slang term used jokingly by medical students and residents. History and etymology It is named after Tom Bentley Th...
Article

Torsion of the appendix testis

Torsion of the appendix testis is the most common cause of an acute painful hemiscrotum in a child. The appendix testis is located at the upper pole of the testis (between the testis and the head of the epididymis). The normal appendix testis is 1 to 4 mm in length, and it is oval or pedunculat...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder, and bladder TCC is the most common tumour of the entire urinary system. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder specifically. Related articles include: general di...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (renal pelvis)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is uncommon compared to renal cell carcinoma and can be challenging to identify on routine imaging when small.  This article concerns itself with TCCs of the renal pelvis specifically. For a general discussion of this tumour please see transitiona...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (ureter)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter are uncommon compared to similar tumours elsewhere along the urinary tract but are nonetheless the most common primary tumour of the ureter. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the ureter specifically. For a general discuss...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (urethra)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra is rare and is limited to the proximal urethra in men (membranous and prostatic). The vast majority of urethral tumours are squamous cell carcinomas. See also squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra transitional cell carcinoma
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (urinary tract)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary tract and may be found along its entire length, from the renal pelvis to the bladder.  As imaging findings and treatment vary according to where along the urinary...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumour, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III ...

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