Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

772 results found
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
Article

Teratoma

Teratomas are germ cell tumours that arise from ectopic pluripotent stem cells that fail to migrate from yolk sac endoderm to the urogenital ridge during embryogenesis. By definition, they contain elements from all three embryological layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm although frequently, ...
Article

Testicular abscess

Testicular abscess is usually a complication of severe epididymo-orchitis and needs to be distinguished from other testicular pathology that may present with similar clinical or imaging features.  Epidemiology The majority of patients develop a testicular abscess as a result of untreated or se...
Article

Testicular adrenal rests

Testicular adrenal rests are a rare cause of a testicular mass. Terminology Testicular adrenal rests can be known by a variety of terms 2: testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) testicular adrenal rest tissue testicular tumour of the adrenogenital syndrome testicular adrenal-like tissue Ep...
Article

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound is the primary modality for imaging most of the male reproductive system. It is relatively quick, relatively inexpensive, can be correlated quickly with the patient's signs and symptoms, and, most importantly, does not employ ionising radiation. MRI is occasion...
Article

Testicular appendages

Testicular and epididymal appendages are remnants of embryonic ducts and are quite common, with one or more being present in ~70% of patients 1. Gross anatomy Four such appendages have been described: testicular appendix (hydatid of Morgagni) it is a Müllerian duct remnant (paramesonephric d...
Article

Testicular appendix

A testicular appendix (alternatively called appendix of testis or appendix testis) represents a developmental remnant of the paramesonephric duct (Müllerian duct) which is situated in the upper pole of the testis inside a groove between the testicle and the head of epididymis 1. Epidemiology T...
Article

Testicular arteries

The testicular arteries (also known as the spermatic arteries) are the long, small-diameter gonadal arteries in the male that supply the testis alongside the cremasteric artery and the artery to the ductus deferens.  Gross anatomy Origin As paired structures they arise symmetrically, slightly...
Article

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over ...
Article

Testicular cancer (staging)

The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:  stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour marke...
Article

Testicular cyst

Simple testicular cysts are usually nonpalpable and thus are detected incidentally. Testicular cysts require no treatment when discovered. Radiographic features Ultrasound well-marginated with an imperceptible wall anechoic with enhanced through transmission no flow on color Doppler MRI ...
Article

Testicular epidermoid cyst

Testicular epidermoid cysts, also known as keratocysts, are rare benign tumours of germ cell origin that occur in the testis.  Epidemiology Testicular epidermoid cysts account for around 1-2% of all testicular masses and typically present in mid-adulthood (2nd to 4th decades) 1,2. They are the...
Article

Testicular germ cell tumours

Testicular germ cell tumours account for 90% of primary tumours of the testes. They are the most common nonhematologic malignancy in men 15-49 years old. They are divided into: testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumours 1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumour: 60% of germ cell tumours  testic...
Article

Testicular leukaemia

Testicular leukaemia can be seen in patients during and after acute leukaemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukaemic cells. Clinical presentation Typically presents with painless testicular enlargem...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon cause of testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is c...
Article

Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The most common criterion for diagnosis is that of five microcalcifications in one testicle, although definitions have varied in the past. In t...
Article

Testicular mixed germ cell tumours

Testicular mixed germ cell tumours are, as the name suggests, testicular tumours composed of two or more types of germ cell tumour. They are considered to be part of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, as it is that component which dictates prognosis and treatment.  Overall they account for ove...
Article

Testicular seminoma

Testicular seminomas are the most common testicular tumours and account for ~45% of all primary testicular tumours. This article concerns itself only with testicular seminomas, however, seminomas can arise outside of the testicle most often within the anterior mediastinum, e.g. anterior mediasti...
Article

Testicular teratoma

Testicular teratoma, unlike ovarian teratoma, is often aggressive in its biological behaviour, and often exists as part of testicular mixed germ cell tumours.   Epidemiology Pure testicular teratomas account for only 4-9% of all testicular tumours. A similar number are seen in the context of t...
Article

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ul...
Article

Testicular trauma

Testicular trauma is the third most-common cause of acute scrotal pain and may result in various degree of damage to the testes. Testicular rupture and testicular ischaemia/infarct are two severe complications which need to be ruled out. Other injuries that can occur include 1: testicular frac...
Article

Testicular vasculitis

Testicular vasculitis can occur as either part of a systemic vasculitis or an isolated vasculitis involving only the testes with both having roughly equal prevalence.  Epidemiology The mean age of onset is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentation Symptoms can include a testicular mass w...
Article

Testicular yolk sac tumour

Testicular yolk sac tumours (also known as endodermal sinus tumour of the testis) is the most common childhood testicular tumour (80%), with most cases occurring before the age of two years 1. In adults, pure yolk sac tumour is extremely rare, however mixed germ cell tumour are commonly seen. P...
Article

Testis

The testes (also known as the testicles) are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 mL volume at puberty 1. Norm...
Article

Threads and streaks sign

The threads and streaks sign refers to an angiographic appearance of a vascularised tumour thrombus extending into the ipsilateral renal vein or the inferior vena cava from a renal cell carcinoma. This gives an appearance of linear, thread-like or string-like appearance of the involved vessel.  ...
Article

Throckmorton sign (pelvis)

Throckmorton sign, also known as John Thomas sign, refers to when the penis points in the direction of unilateral disease, typically of the pelvis or hip.  Throckmorton sign is a slang term used humorously by medical students and residents. According to the first serious study of the sign publ...
Article

Torsion of the appendix testis

Torsion of the appendix testis is the most common cause of an acute painful hemiscrotum in a child. The appendix testis is located at the upper pole of the testis (between the testis and the head of the epididymis). The normal appendix testis is 1 to 4 mm in length, and it is oval or pedunculat...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder, and bladder TCC is the most common tumour of the entire urinary system. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder specifically. Related articles include: general di...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumour, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III ...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder staging uses the TNM system which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumour staging system. It is very similar to the staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta - non-invasive papi...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis staging uses the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: noninvasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (noninvasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epithelial...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter staging uses the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the renal pelvis.  TNM staging T Ta: noninvasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (noninvasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epithelia...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (renal pelvis)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is uncommon compared to renal cell carcinoma and can be challenging to identify on routine imaging when small.  This article concerns itself with TCCs of the renal pelvis specifically. For a general discussion of this tumour please see transitiona...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (ureter)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter are uncommon compared to similar tumours elsewhere along the urinary tract but are nonetheless the most common primary tumour of the ureter. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the ureter specifically. For a general discuss...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (urethra)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra is rare and is limited to the proximal urethra in men (membranous and prostatic). The vast majority of urethral tumours are squamous cell carcinomas. See also squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra transitional cell carcinoma
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (urinary tract)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary tract and may be found along its entire length, from the renal pelvis to the bladder.  As imaging findings and treatment vary according to where along the urinary...
Article

Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
Article

Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis

Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis is uncommon. It is a lesion in the iliac artery proximal to the implantation of the transplant renal artery. Epidemiology Uncommon, although as the population of renal transplant recipients has become older and more diabetic, the incidence of this disea...
Article

Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a technique that is used most commonly to evaluate the prostate gland, including ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies depth of invasion of colon/rectal cancer (for staging purposes) It can also be used for guidance in placing a transrectal drain, or in rare pro...
Article

Transureteroureterostomy

Transureteroureterostomy (TUU) is a procedure in which one ureter is divided and then connected (re-routed) into the other. It is performed when a distal ureter needs to be bypassed and can be performed instead of a psoas hitch or Boari flap. It may be preferable if the patient has had prior rad...
Article

Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a traditional therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostatism from benign prostatic hyperplasia. TURP results in characteristic imaging features. Indications acute urinary retention recurrent infection recurrent haematuria azo...
Article

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism can a mosaic composition of 46XX and 46XY .They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Sub types There are three forms of true hermaphrotidism unilateral true hermaph...
Article

Tuberculous adrenalitis

Tuberculous adrenalitis is the result of adrenal mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. Its incidence has decreased in the western world with the declining incidence of tuberculosis. Pathology As the tuberculous infection causes destruction of the adrenal cortex, primary adrenal insufficie...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as tuberous sclerosis complex or Bourneville disease, is a neurocutaneous disorder (phakomatosis) characterised by the development of multiple benign tumours of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosis has...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have been adapted from Roach et al 1998 1: definitive TS complex: either 2 major features or 1 major and 2 minor probable TS complex: 1 major and 1 minor possible TS complex: either 1...
Article

Tubular ectasia of rete testis

Tubular ectasia of rete testis represents dilated testicular mediastinal tubules.  Epidemiology This condition is more common in men over the age of 55.  Pathology This is a benign condition thought to result from the partial or complete obliteration of the efferent ducts. These spermatozoa-...
Article

Tubular ectasia of the epididymis

Tubular ectasia of the epididymis results in enlargement of the epididymis with multiple cystic interfaces. It typically occurs in those with a prior vasectomy but can be also seen with other causes of obstruction of the ductus deferens. Radiographic features Ultrasound This can give a charac...
Article

Tumours of the male urethra

Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Article

Tunica albuginea cyst

Tunica albuginea (TA) cysts are the most common extratesticular benign scrotal mass lesion. They are a type of scrotal tunica cyst. Epidemiology Their mean age at presentation is 40 years (may be even be seen in the 5th and 6th decades). Clinical presentation They are usually palpable. Path...
Article

Tunica vaginalis cyst

Tunica vaginalis cyst is a type of benign paratesticular cystic lesion. This arises in associated to the tunica vaginalis. It is a cyst that arises from the tunica and, in conjunction with tunica albuginea cysts, they are collectively termed scrotal tunica cysts. Pathology Their exact cause is...
Article

Tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma

Tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma refers to mesothelioma arising from the tunica vaginalis.  Epidemiology Malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis is extremely rare.  Clinical presentation  Patients usually present with enlarging or recurrent hydrocele, or less frequen...
Article

Umbilical-urachal sinus

An umbilical-urachal sinus belongs to the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies and represents a non-communicating dilatation of the urachus at the umbilical end. Clinical presentation Presentation is commoner in children and rare in adult. Radiographic features An umbilical-urachal sinus...
Article

Urachal cyst

Urachal cysts are one of the manifestations of the spectrum of congenital urachal remnant abnormalities.  Clinical presentation Urachal cysts usually remain asymptomatic until complicated by infection or bleeding. Epidemiology Infected urachal cyst can occur at any age. Pathology Urachal c...
Article

Urachus

The urachus is the fibrous vestigal remnant of the fetal allantois. The lumen of the urachus usually obliterates after birth and it becomes the median umbilical ligament, a midline linear fibrous fold of parietal peritoneum, extending from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. If the lumen...
Article

Ureter

The ureter is a paired fibromuscular tube that conveys urine from the kidneys in the abdomen to the bladder in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ureter is 25-30 cm long and has three parts: abdominal ureter: from the renal pelvis to the pelvic brim pelvic ureter: from the pelvic brim to the bla...
Article

Ureteral duplication

Ureteral duplication is the most common congenital abnormality associated with the urinary tract, and occurs in ~1% of the population. Gross anatomy Duplication can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, and may be partial or complete: partially duplicated ureters fuse into a single ureter proxim...
Article

Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis

Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis is acquired false diverticula resulting from herniation of epithelium through the muscularis layer of the ureter and characterized by the presence of multiple outpouchings smaller than 5 mm. It is more commonly bilateral and located in the upper two-thirds of the ur...
Article

Ureteral tumours

A number of tumours may affect the ureter, by far the most common histology being transitional cell carcinoma. transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter: 95% 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the ureter: 5% adenocarcinoma of the ureter: <1%
Article

Ureteric bud

The ureteric bud (also known as the metanephrogenic diverticulum) is a protrusion of the mesonephric duct that appears during the embryological development of urogenital organs. It will eventually form the urinary collecting system (i.e. collecting tubes, calyces, renal pelvis, ureter) of the ki...
Article

Ureteric calculi

Ureteric calculi or stones are those lying within the ureter, at any point from the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) to the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). They are the classic cause of renal colic-type abdominal pain. They are a subset of the broader topic of urolithiasis. Epidemiology The lifetim...
Article

Ureteric injury

Ureteric injury is a relatively uncommon, but severe event, which may result in serious complications as a diagnosis is often delayed.  Clinical presentation Ureteric injuries unreliably demonstrate macro- or micro-scopic haematuria as it may be absent in up to 25% of patients 5, 6. Classic cl...
Article

Ureteric rupture

Ureteric rupture is rare but has been described. It may be spontaneous or secondary to another pathology or intervention. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are sudden, severe, persistent lower abdominal pain with severe peritoneal irritation. Abdominal compartment syndrome, respir...
Article

Ureteric stent

Ureteric stents, also known as double J stents or retrograde ureteric stents, is a urological catheter that has two "J-shaped" (curled) ends, where one is anchored in the renal pelvis and the other inside the bladder. Stents are used for the free passage of urine from the kidney to the bladder,...
Article

Ureteritis

Ureteritis refers to inflammation of the ureter, it is rare and is often associated with cystitis or pyelonephritis 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with symptoms of cystitis or pyelonephritis with suprapubic/flank pain, dysuria, haematuria and/or fever. White cell count may also...
Article

Ureteritis cystica

Ureteritis cystica or pyeloureteritis cystica is a benign condition of the ureters representing multiple small submucosal cysts.  Epidemiology Typically this condition is seen in diabetics, with recurrent urinary tract infection. As such is is most frequently seen in older patients and is more...
Article

Ureterocoele

Ureterocoeles represent congenital dilatation of the distal-most portion of the ureter. The dilated portion of the ureter may herniate into the bladder secondary to the abnormal structure of vesicoureteric junction (VUJ). Epidemiology Most ureterocoeles are congenital, usually associated with ...
Article

Ureterovaginal fistula

Ureterovaginal fistulae refer to abnormal communications between the lumina of the ureter(s) and the vagina.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with urinary incontinence through the vagina which may be accompanied by fever and chills 1. Symptoms usually begin within 2-4 weeks foll...
Article

Urethra

The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately: female urethra male urethra
Article

Urethral agenesis

Urethral agenesis (or urethral atresia) refers to a situation where there is a congenital absence of the urethra.  It can be a cause of fetal obstructive uropathy. Pathology Associations prune belly syndrome 5 bladder agenesis 2 Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show a dilate...
Article

Urethral calculus

Urethral calculi are an uncommon type of urolithiasis, accounting for ~1% of all urinary tract stones. Epidemiology They almost all occur in males 2 with two peak incidences - one in childhood and the other at 40 years 3. Clinical presentation Most commonly acute lower urinary tract symptoms...
Article

Urethral clamps

Various radiological and surgical instruments, including urethral clamps, have been developed to try to improve retrograde/ascending urethrogram (RUG/ASU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) technique in males. These are very rarely (if ever) used anymore. Brodny clamp This device has a metall...
Article

Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticulum, or urethrocoele, is a focal outpouching of the urethra. It should not be confused with a ureterocoele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Article

Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma

Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence in a urethral diverticulum. Epidemiology Urethral diverticulum seen in ~0.6-6% of women. In small series, only 3-6% of resected urethral diverticula show adenocarcinoma 3-4. Clinical features Urinary frequency, urgency, burning mictur...
Article

Urethral duplication

Urethral duplication is a rare condition in which either a part or the entire urethra is duplicated. It usually occurs in the sagittal plane and the more dorsal copy is usually the duplication. Pathology A urethral duplication may occur due to a variety of developmental miscues. In a woman, it...
Article

Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
Article

Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
Article

Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
Article

Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extra-peritoneal structure located in the true pelvis. Gross anatomy The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anterior apex and an inferior neck with two inferolatera...
Article

Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary Bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
Article

Urinary bladder diverticulum

Bladder diverticulum are outpouchings from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. They may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size. Epidemiology There are two peaks - one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 years 2. Pathology Diverticu...
Article

Urinary bladder hernia

Herniation of the urinary bladder is a relatively uncommon but not a rare condition. It occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal. Herniations through ischiorectal, obturator or abdominal wall openings have also been described. Blad...
Article

Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Aetiology Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
Article

Urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification (differential)

Causes of urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification include: Common bladder calculus schistosomiasis of the urinary tract tuberculosis Uncommon neuroblastoma; pheochromocytoma radiation reaction alkaptonuria (ochronosis) amyloidosis calculus in a urachal cyst or in a bladder divertic...
Article

Urinary diversion

Urinary diversion is created after the removal of the urinary bladder (radical cystectomy or cystoprostatectomy, usually done to treat invasive bladder cancer). There are three main varieties: neobladder formed from a segment of ileum (i.e. ileal conduit, also known as a "Bricker conduit") th...
Article

Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is equitable in both males and females.  It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system. The urinary...
Article

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Pathology UTIs occur when there is bacterial colonisation of the uroepithelium and a subsequent...
Article

Urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal track leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.  Terminology Although there is no definitive dis...
Article

Urinothorax

Urinothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space. Clinical presentation Patients present with varying degrees of respiratory distress depending on the amount of fluid that has accumulated 1,3. Pathology The aetiology of urinothorax can...
Article

Urogenital curriculum

The urogenital curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core genitourinary knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra), adrenal glands, prostate penis, scrotal content (testes, ...
Article

Urogenital triangle

The urogenital triangle forms the anterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's corners are defined by the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterolateral borders are the ischiopubic rami and the posterior border is the transverse perinea...
Article

Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal/kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.  See main ar...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.