Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,233 results found
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Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome, also known as hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO), refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete obstruction of the hepatic veins.  There is no clear consensus regarding the number of occluded veins, some authors claim that there should...
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Buerger disease

Buerger disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a chronic, non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory, thrombotic arteritis found predominantly in young male smokers. Clinical presentation Patients may initially present with nonspecific symptoms such as hand and foot claudication, which e...
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Bunny waveform sign

Bunny waveform sign refers to the biphasic morphology of the pulsed wave Doppler spectral waveform in the vertebral artery in early (occult/latent or partial) subclavian steal phenomenon (sometimes called a "presteal" state, before it progresses to frank flow reversal). There is a sharp decelera...
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Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...
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Calcified cerebral embolus

Calcified cerebral embolus is an uncommon and often overlooked cause of embolic ischemic stroke.  Epidemiology Although emboli are a common cause of ischemic stroke, calcified cerebral emboli are considered rare. With only a paucity of literature regarding calcified cerebral emboli – only 48 r...
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Calciphylaxis

Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a rare condition which manifests as subcutaneous vascular calcification and cutaneous necrosis (small blood vessels of the fat tissue and the skin). Some authors describe as a syndrome of vascular calcification, thrombosis and skin necrosis. ...
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Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
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Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery, also known as median artery of corpus callosum, is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It courses within or posterior to the cingulate sulcus, in parallel orientation to the pericallosal artery. It divides to give two or more cortical branches to supply the...
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Calot triangle

Calot triangle or cystohepatic triangle is a small (potential) triangular space at the porta hepatis of surgical importance as it is dissected during cholecystectomy. Its contents, the cystic artery and cystic duct must be identified before ligation and division to avoid intra-operative injury. ...
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Capillary hemangioma of the orbit

Capillary hemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry hemangiomas, on account of its coloring, or orbital infantile hemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumors of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous hemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical presen...
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Capps triad

The Capps triad refers to the constellation of clinical and imaging findings in patients with spontaneous retropharyngeal hematomas, and consists of: tracheal and esophageal compression anterior displacement of the trachea subcutaneous bruising over the neck and anterior chest History and et...
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Caput medusae sign (disambiguation)

Caput medusae sign can refer to: caput medusae sign (portal hypertension) caput medusae sign (developmental venous anomaly) History and etymology The appearance is reminiscent of Medusa, a gorgon of Greek mythology, who was encountered and defeated by Perseus.
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Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Advantages In comparison to other techniques, cardiac MRI offers: improved soft tissue definition protocol can be tailored to likely differential diagnoses a large number of sequences are available dynamic...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults (~50%) but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas...
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Cardiac venous malformations

Cardiac venous malformations (also known as cardiac hemangiomas) consists of a slow flow venous malformation and is composed of numerous non-neoplastic endothelial-lined thin-walled channels with interspersed fat and fibrous septae. Terminology It is important to note that according to newer n...
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Carney complex

Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome characterized by 1-4: cardiac myxoma often multiple seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex skin pigmentation (blue nevi): especially of the face, trunk, lips, and sclera   M...
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Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different etiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as such...
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the ascending p...
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Carotid arterial stenting

Carotid arterial stenting (CAS) is a minimally invasive endovascular interventional procedure that can potentially offer the same advantage as surgery (carotid endarterectomy). Indications Indications for carotid stenting are evolving with endarterectomy trials that evaluate the carotid stenos...
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Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm

Carotid artery pseudoaneurysms can refer to pseudoaneurysms involving any segment of the carotid arteries. Pathology As with pseudoaneurysms elsewhere, these lack all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media and adventitia). Pseudoaneurysm development can occur within hours to several...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis, also known as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).  This article refers to stenosis involving the carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Carotid bifurcation

The carotid bifurcation is the point at which the common carotid artery terminates. As it does so, it forms the internal and external carotid arteries which go on to supply the head and neck. The height of the carotid bifurcation is noted to be highly variable in the literature. Most frequently...
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Carotid body tumor

Carotid body tumor, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumor that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, caro...
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Carotid endarterectomy

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure that involves removing athersclerotic plaque causing internal carotid artery stenosis in order to to prevent ischemic stroke. It can be used in both in the setting of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. More recently, percutaneous ...
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Carotid near-occlusion

Carotid near-occlusion is a special form of severe carotid artery stenosis that results in a partial or complete collapse of the distal internal carotid artery lumen due to underfilling.  It should not be confused with carotid pseudo-occlusion due to terminal intracranial internal carotid arter...
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Carotid pacemaker

Carotid pacemakers, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, are devices that deliver activation energy, via carotid leads, to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send signals to the brain and the signals are interpr...
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Carotid pseudo-occlusion

Carotid pseudo-occlusion refers to apparent occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery on CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography due to a stagnant column of unopacified blood proximal to terminal T-junction occlusion by thromboembolism 1,2.  It is important not to mistake this...
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Carotid space

The carotid space, the suprahyoid portion of which is also known as the poststyloid parapharyngeal space, is a deep compartment of the head and neck bound by the carotid sheath. Terminology The "carotid space" terminology was introduced by some radiologists to facilitate differential diagnosis...
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Carotid web

Carotid webs, also known as carotid intimal variant fibromuscular dysplasia, are rare vascular pathologies of the internal carotid artery that are an important cause of cryptogenic and recurrent ischemic stroke. Terminology Carotid webs have had many different names in the literature, includin...
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Carotidynia

Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome, is a rare syndrome characterized by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation. It was classified by the International Headache Society (IHS) in 1988 as an idiopathic neck pain syndrome associated with tenderness over the carotid bifurcation with...
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Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Causes of ascending aorta calcification

There are relatively few causes of calcification of the ascending aorta 1-3: atherosclerosis (this usually spares the ascending aorta) aortitis syphilis Takayasu arteritis idiopathic See also porcelain aorta
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Causes of a small aorta

Causes of a small aorta include: Williams syndrome Takayasu arteritis giant cell arteritis neurofibromatosis midaortic syndrome small aorta syndrome idiopathic
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Caval variants

Many caval variants exist, due to the complex embryology of the venous system. These are important for a number of reasons:  not to confuse them with pathology suggest the presence of frequently associated other abnormalities planning of vascular intervention or surgery Types superior vena ...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous tempor...
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Cavernous sinus hemangioma

Cavernous sinus hemangioma is an uncommon cause of a cavernous sinus mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unexpected surgical blood loss.  Epidemiology Cavernous hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus account for less than 1% of all parasellar masses 1. They have a predilection for m...
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Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology Cavernous sinus thrombosis is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the l...
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Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a sequela of portal vein thrombosis and is the replacement of the normal single channel portal vein with numerous tortuous venous channels. For a discussion of demographics and presentation, please refer to the article on portal vein thrombo...
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Central artery of the retina

The central artery of the retina or central retinal artery arises from the ophthalmic artery near or with the posterior ciliary arteries (either the lateral or medial branches) and supplies the retina 1,2. Gross anatomy The central artery of the retina courses anteriorly and inferior to the op...
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Central nervous system vasculitis

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PIC...
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Cephalic vein

The cephalic vein, along with the basilic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm and terminates by draining into the axillary vein.   Summary origin: radial aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum of...
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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterized by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known va...
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Cerebral cavernous venous malformation

Cerebral cavernous venous malformations, also commonly known as cavernous hemangiomas or cavernomas, are common cerebral vascular malformations, usually with characteristic appearances on MRI. It is the third most common cerebral vascular malformation after developmental venous anomaly and capil...
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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare complication seen after treatment of long-standing severe carotid stenosis by carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. It is believed to be the result of failure of normal cerebral blood flow autoregulation.  Epidemiology Hyperperfusion occu...
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Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and characterized by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that c...
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Cerebral varix

Cerebral varices, also known as cerebral venous aneurysms or isolated cerebral varices are uncommon cerebral vascular malformations, rarely found in isolation, hence the name isolated cerebral varix. They are more commonly encountered in association with other vascular malformation, such as dura...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with hemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without hemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemiolo...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
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Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) encompasses maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencephalic group with involvement o...
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Cerebrovascular malformations

Cerebrovascular malformations are vascular malformations related to the vessels that supply the brain and other cranial structures. Classification Over the years, cerebrovascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by different authors. Over the years cerebral vascular mal...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterized by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
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Charles T Dotter

Charles T Dotter (1920-1985) is often considered the father of interventional radiology who in 1964 performed the very first peripheral angioplasty, and made many other major contributions in this field. Early life Charles Theodore Dotter was born in Boston on 14 June 1920. He graduated with a...
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Chen sign

Chen sign on chest radiography is the prominence of the left basal pulmonary vasculature, compared to the right, seen in valvular pulmonary stenosis. It is due to the asymmetric increase in pulmonary blood flow to the left lung due to preferential blood flow into the left pulmonary artery after ...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
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Chinese dragon sign (vascular)

Chinese dragon sign is a radiological sign in abdominal radiograph and CT describing the radiologic appearance of calcified tortuous splenic artery that resembles the Chinese dragon. The tortuous splenic artery segment on the splenic hilum side represents the dragon head while the other arterial...
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Chronic coronary syndrome

Chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) is a term that defines coronary artery disease as a chronic progressive course that can be altered, stabilized or improved by lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy and coronary revascularization. It has been introduced to replace the previous term ‘stable coron...
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Chronic hereditary lymphedema

Chronic hereditary lymphedema (also known as Milroy disease) is a condition characterized by lower limb lymphedema. Patients typically present with pedal edema at or before birth or soon after. Occasionally, it develops later in life. Pathology Genetics Mutations in the FLT4 gene are thought ...
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Chronic mesenteric ischemia

Chronic mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal angina, is an uncommon type of intestinal ischemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three tim...
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Chronic periaortitis

Chronic periaortitis is an inflammatory condition which typically involves the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. It is a rare disease usually occurring in middle-aged men. It has various clinical presentations: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) perianeurysmal retroperitoneal ...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Chronic venous insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) occurs due to inadequate functioning of venous wall and/or valves in lower limb veins resulting in excessive pooling of blood. Pathology The condition results from venous hypertension which in turn is usually caused by reflux in the superficial venous compart...
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon (heptagon) formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of...
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Circumaortic left renal vein

Circumaortic left renal vein, also known as circumaortic renal collar is an anomaly of left renal vein when a supernumerary or accessory left renal vein passes posterior to the aorta, apart from the normal renal vein passing anterior to the aorta. This anomaly is potentially hazardous, if unreco...
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Circumflex aorta

Circumflex aorta is a rare aortic arch anomaly caused by retroesophageal crossing of the aorta to the contralateral side. A vascular ring is formed when a ductus or ligamentum arteriosum contralateral to the aortic arch connects the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery. Clinical presentatio...
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Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is one of the two major coronary arteries that arise from the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery can be referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (...
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Circumflex fibular artery

The circumflex fibular artery is a minor artery of the leg. Gross anatomy Origin and course Most often arises from the posterior tibial artery, passes laterally round the neck of the fibula through the soleus to anastomose with the lateral inferior genicular, medial genicular and anterior tib...
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Cirsoid aneurysm

Cirsoid aneurysms are rare arteriovenous malformations of the scalp and extremities.  Clinical presentation Patients often present with a slow-growing pulsatile mass and may also experience bleeding, tinnitus and/or a headache 3.  Pathology Cirsoid aneurysms develop due to an abnormal arteri...
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Cisterna chyli

The cisterna chyli (CC) (plural: cisternae chyli), also known as the receptaculum chyli, is a normal anatomical structure in the lymphatic system. It is seen as a saccular area of dilatation in the lymphatic channels that are located in the retrocrural space, usually to the immediate right of th...
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Classification of endoleaks

Endoleaks occur when an aneurysmal sac continues to be pressurised despite endoluminal stent placement. See the full article on endoleaks here. Classification There are five types: type I: leak at graft ends (inadequate seal) - most common after repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms 4 Ia: prox...
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CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their inciden...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. Epidemiology Coarctations account for between 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. They are more frequent in males, M:F ratio of ~2-3:1. Associations As with many congenital abnormalities, coarctation of the aorta is ...
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Cobweb sign of arterial dissection

The cobweb sign is seen in cases of arterial dissection (usually aortic dissection) on CT angiogram (CTA) examinations and represents strands or ribbons of media crossing the false lumen, and appearing as thin filiform filling defects. Although it is a specific sign for the false lumen, it is i...
Article

Celiac artery

The celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross anatom...
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Celiac artery aneurysm

Celiac artery aneurysms are a form of visceral artery aneurysm and account for around 4% of such cases (fourth most common visceral arterial aneurysm). Epidemiology Associations An association with non-visceral arterial aneurysms is considered frequent 2.  Clinical presentation While some p...
Article

Celiac artery compression syndrome

Celiac artery compression syndrome, also known as median arcuate ligament syndrome, Dunbar syndrome, or Harjola-Marable syndrome, is a rare condition characterized by upper abdominal pain in the setting of compression of the celiac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Although well-recognized as ...
Article

Celiac artery dissection

Celiac artery dissection is a type of arterial dissection. Dissection of the celiac artery is rarely seen as a primary phenomenon and is most often encountered due to propagation of an aortic dissection. Epidemiology Celiac artery dissection is usually iatrogenic but may also be secondary to: ...
Article

Celiacomesenteric trunk

The celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. Four...
Article

Cogan syndrome

Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of young adults that is primarily characterized by 1,4,6: inflammatory eye disease (classically interstitial keratitis) 6 audiovestibular dysfunction (similar to Meniere disease) 6 Epidemiology Cogan syndrome is rare and can occur in people of any age and ...
Article

Coil herniation

A coil herniation refers to the part of a detachable coil prolapsing out of the aneurysm and into the parent artery. It is an uncommon complication and is typically seen at the end of the embolization procedure. Contributing factors include 1: wide aneurysm neck instability of the coil in the ...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognized, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Colic branch of the ileocolic artery

The colic branch of the ileocolic artery supplies blood to the ascending colon. It courses superiorly along the left side of the ascending colon before anastomosing with the descending branch of the right colic artery to supply blood to the cecum and proximal ascending colon 1,2. 
Article

Collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

There are several collateral systems between the primary vascular supply of the foregut and midgut.  The collateral between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery include: gastroduodenal artery (GDA) branch of the common hepatic artery and anastomoses with branches of the inferior pa...
Article

Color bruit artifact

The color bruit or tissue vibration artifact is a type of color Doppler ultrasound artifact which results in color signal overflowing to the perivascular tissues most often caused by stenosis, AV fistulas, or shunts. Thus, this artifact is useful by pinpointing areas of potentially pathological ...
Article

Color flash artifact

The color flash artifact is a commonly encountered artifact on color Doppler ultrasound, representing spurious flow signal arising due to tissue/transducer motion.  Physics The flash artifact is caused by movement of reflective tissues (e.g. due to respiration), or the transducer, which genera...
Article

Color-write priority

Color-write priority is an adjustable setting of color Doppler duplex ultrasound and determines whether a particular pixel on the image displays color or grayscale B-mode information at the moment. Color-write priority is rarely changed directly during routine ultrasound imaging, even though it...
Article

Comet tail sign (phleboliths)

The comet tail sign (in urological imaging) is helpful in distinguishing a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith and strongly favors the latter.  The sign refers to a tail of soft tissue extending from a calcification, representing the collapsed/scarred/thrombosed parent vein. When well seen, it ...
Article

Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired structure that supplies blood to the head and neck.  Summary origin: left: branch of the aortic arch right: branch of the brachiocephalic trunk course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and neck main bran...

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