Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,233 results found
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Common facial vein

The common facial vein is formed by the joining of the facial vein and anterior branch of the retromandibular vein. It is part of the venous drainage system of the face. Summary origin and termination: the facial vein (along with the facial artery) pierces the deep investing fascia of the neck...
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Common femoral vein

The common femoral vein (CFV) forms from the confluence of the femoral vein and the deep femoral vein, and continues as the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament. It accompanies the common femoral artery. Terminology "Common femoral vein" is not listed in Terminologia Anatomica, however...
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Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is one of the 3 branches of the celiac artery. Gross anatomy Origin The common hepatic artery is normally a terminal branch of the celiac artery, the largest branch coursing to the right. Course It passes anterior to the pancreas, and then inferiorly to the r...
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Common iliac artery

The common iliac arteries (CIAs) are the large paired terminal branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Origin The abdominal aorta bifurcates anterolateral (to the left side) of the L4 vertebra, into the right and left common iliac arteries.  Course The common iliac arteries (CIAs) en...
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Common iliac vein

The common iliac vein, corresponding with the common iliac artery, drains venous blood from the pelvis, lower limbs and their associated structures. Summary location: pelvis, anterior to the sacroiliac joint origin and termination: union of internal and external iliac veins; into the inferior...
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Common interosseous artery

The common interosseous artery is a branch of the proximal part of the ulnar artery at the level of the pronator teres in the distal part of the cubital fossa. It is a short vessel that dives laterally and deeply before bifurcating into anterior and posterior interosseous arteries.
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Concentric ring sign

The concentric ring sign is a pathognomonic sign for a subacute hematoma on MRI. A subacute hematoma may show three characteristic layers of signal intensity: a thin peripheral rim of low signal intensity on all pulse sequences corresponding to hemosiderin an inner peripheral high-signal inten...
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Cone artery

The cone artery, also known as the artery of Desproges-Gotteron, is a rare anatomical variant which commonly arises from the internal iliac artery. Gross anatomy Origin The cone artery has a variable origin and may arise from the internal iliac or its branches, commonly the iliolumbar artery....
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Confluence of sinuses

The confluence of sinuses, also known as the torcula or torcular herophili is the site of the confluence of: superior sagittal sinus straight sinus occipital sinus transverse sinuses The anatomy is highly variable and three types can be distinguished: type 1: superior sagittal sinus drains...
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Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...
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Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, i.e. does the artery run between big pulsating objects - right ventricular outflow tract / ...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
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Congenital hemangioma

Congenital hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of childhood that are present at birth. They are mostly indistinguishable from infantile hemangioma on imaging but have distinct histological and clinical features. While the majority are cutaneous or subcutaneous in nature, they can occur extra...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the inferior vena cava type 2: localized, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
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Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, also known as levo- or L-loop transposition (L-TGA), is a rare cardiovascular anomaly with inversion of the ventricles and great arteries. Epidemiology This anomaly comprises less than 1% of all congenital heart diseases 1,2,7.  Clin...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...
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Congenital vascular anomalies

Congenital vascular anomalies is a subgroup of vascular anomalies present at birth. They comprise both vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Based on the ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies1 here is a non-comprehensive list with examples of vascular anomalies that are usually conge...
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Congestion

Congestion is a pathological term referring to reduced blood flow out from tissues, which may be localized or systemic 1. Clinical presentation Congestion commonly presents with increased swelling and edema of tissues where blood flow is reduced. With prolonged congestion, the tissues may beco...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potential symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditis....
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Contrast enhanced MR angiography

Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) is a technique involving 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GE) sequences, with administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). It can be used to assess vascular structures of almost any part of the body. Its key features are: T1 weighted spoiled gradien...
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Contrast-induced nephropathy

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) describes an association between intravenous or intra-arterial contrast administration and renal impairment, but increasingly the evidence shows that contrast is not the cause of the renal impairment and that confounding factors such as sepsis are likely to be ...
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Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of intravenously-administered contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; it is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complication...
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Conus artery

The conus artery is a small early branch off the right coronary artery (RCA) circulation. Gross anatomy Supply The artery has a variable distribution, but usually supplies a region of the anterior interventricular septum and the conus of the main pulmonary artery (hence its name). Variant an...
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Coral reef aorta

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare disease, described as hard calcifications involving the arterial wall which protrude into the lumen. It predominantly involves the posterior thoracic and abdominal aorta. CRA luminal lesions can cause significant aortic stenosis. Epidemiology Patients usually p...
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Corona mortis

Corona mortis, Latin for "crown of death", is a common variant vascular anastomosis between the external iliac artery or deep inferior epigastric artery with the obturator artery. It is reported to be present in a third of patients on routine multi-detector CT examination 1,4.  Knowledge of thi...
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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise from the coronary sinuses immediately distal (superior) to the aortic valve and supply the myocardium of the heart with oxygenated blood. The arteries branch to encircle the heart covering its surface with a lacy network, perhaps resembling a slightly crooked crown. ...
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Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysms are an uncommon, predominantly incidental finding. Epidemiology Coronary artery aneurysms are most common in men 3, likely reflecting the increased rates of atherosclerosis in men compared to women. Prevalence varies in the literature between 0.1-5% 4. Clinical prese...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is primarily due to narrowing of the coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis, which results in myocardial ischemia, and is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation Coronary artery disease is asymptomatic in most of the population. When seve...
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Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized findings communication method and clinical decision aid relevant to coronary CT angiography. The system was created by a collaboration of the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), American Colle...
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Coronary artery dissection

Coronary artery dissection (also known as spontaneous coronary artery dissection or SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome especially in young patients who are otherwise healthy. Epidemiology Coronary artery dissection occurs mainly in young, otherwise health patients especially in f...
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Coronary hypoplasia

Coronary hypoplasia or hypoplastic coronary artery disease (HCAD) is a congenital coronary artery anomaly of intrinsic anatomy and can be defined as one or more coronary arteries being abnormally small or underdeveloped. Epidemiology Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is described as a rare c...
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Coronary microvascular obstruction

Microvascular obstruction (MVO), also known as no-reflow phenomenon, is an established complication encountered in coronary angioplasty for prolonged acute myocardial infarction.  Pathology The phenomenon results from obstruction of the myocardial microcirculation, which is composed of vessel...
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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the largest cardiac venous structure. It returns the majority of the blood supply for the left ventricle to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains int...
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Coronary veins

The coronary veins return deoxygenated blood from the myocardium back to the right atrium. Most venous blood returns via the coronary sinus. Coronary venous anatomy is highly variable, but is generally comprised of three groups: cardiac veins which drain into the coronary sinus: great cardiac ...
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Cortical vein thrombosis

Cortical vein thrombosis, also known as superficial cerebral vein thrombosis, is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the superficial cerebral veins besides the dural sinus, often coexisting with deep cerebral vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis. It has different clinica...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the interscalene space, and distally thr...
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Coup de poignard of Michon

Coup de poignard of Michon refers to spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage, usually as a result of a spinal AVM. Presentation is with sudden excruciating back pain, akin to being stabbed with a dagger (poignard = french for dagger). It is the corollary of the thunderclap headache.
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Cremasteric artery

The cremasteric artery is a small branch of the inferior epigastric artery that enters the deep inguinal ring of the inguinal canal and supplies the layers of the spermatic cord and also the skin of the scrotum, including the cremaster muscle. History and etymology The word "cremaster" derives...
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Crescent sign of arterial dissection

The crescent sign refers to the high signal crescent seen in the wall of a vessel when dissected. This may be seen both on T1 or T2 sequences depending on the age of the blood (see aging blood on MRI). It is classically referred to in internal carotid artery dissection. It should not be confuse...
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Crural arteries

Crural arteries are the arteries of the leg, distal to the popliteal artery. Usage Typically used in the context of peripheral arterial disease, the term is used to describe distal lesions, as distinct from those in the aortoiliac or femoropopliteal segments of the arterial tree. Crural arteri...
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Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Terminology There are three main types of cryoglobulinaemia which are grouped, as per the Br...
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CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
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CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
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CT cerebral venography (technique)

CT cerebral venography (also known as a CTV head or CT venogram) is a contrast-enhanced examination with an acquisition delay providing an accurate detailed depiction of the cerebral venous system.  NB: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specific...
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CT perfusion in ischemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischemic stroke has become established in most centers with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging. It enables differentiation of salvageable ischemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from the irrevocably ...
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Cubital fossa

The cubital fossa (a.k.a. antecubital fossa) (plural: fossae) is an inverted triangular space that forms the transition between the arm and the forearm. It is located anterior to the elbow joint. The terms cubital/antecubital fossa are also used in surface anatomy for the skin overlying this re...
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Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis is a form of vasculitis that affect the skin. This is considered the most common of vasculitis affecting the skin and usually results from deposition of immune complexes at the vessel wall. Patients usually have a palpable purpura.
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Cystic adventitial disease

Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an uncommon vascular pathology predominantly affecting peripheral vessels. The vast majority of cases occur in arteries, with venous involvement being an extremely rare occurrence 8. Epidemiology It typically affects young to middle-aged individuals without ...
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Cystic artery

The cystic artery is the main artery supplying the gallbladder. It most commonly arises from the right hepatic artery within Calot triangle 1. Gross anatomy The cystic artery typically passes posterior to the cystic duct to reach the neck of the gallbladder. At this point, it gives off two-to-...
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Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma, also known as cystic or nuchal lymphangioma, refers to the congenital macrocystic lymphatic malformations that most commonly occur in the cervicofacial regions, particularly at the posterior cervical triangle in infants. Terminology While these lesions are commonly known as cys...
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D-dimer

D-dimer is a commonly tested biological marker which is produced by the enzymatic breakdown of cross-linked fibrin which forms the fibrous mesh of a blood clot. The measurement of D-dimer in the circulation acts as a marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which can be useful in the diagnosis of...
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DeBakey classification

The DeBakey classification, along with the Stanford classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asc...
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III) See also Stanford classification of aortic dissection DeBakey classification
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Deep brachial artery

The deep brachial artery or profunda brachii artery is a large branch of the brachial artery, located in the arm. Summary origin: brachial artery location: posterior aspect of the arm supply: triceps brachii main branches: middle collateral and radial collateral arteries Gross anatomy Ori...
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Deep cerebral vein thrombosis

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the internal cerebral veins, often coexisting with cortical vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis, and with different clinical presentations relying on which segment is involved. As such please refer to...
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Deep circumflex iliac artery

The deep circumflex iliac artery arises from the external iliac artery. Gross anatomy origin: lateral aspect of the external iliac artery above the inguinal ligament, almost opposite to the inferior epigastric artery course: travels superiorly parallel to the inguinal ligament towards the ant...
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Deep femoral vein

The deep femoral vein or the profunda femoris vein lies anterior to its artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the artery. Through these tributaries it connects distally with the popliteal and proximally with the inferior gluteal veins. It sometimes drains the medial a...
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Deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery

The deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery originates from the ulnar artery near the base of the fifth metacarpal. It contributes to the arterial supply of the opponens pollicis, hypothenar and interossei muscles. It also supports the supply of the palmar aspect of the metacarpus and digits, via...
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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) most commonly occurs in the lower limbs, however, are not uncommon in the upper limb and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate articles. Terminology The term indeterminate (equivocal) DVT is ...
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Dehiscent jugular bulb

Dehiscent jugular bulbs are present when the sigmoid plate between a high riding jugular bulb and the middle ear is absent, allowing the wall of the jugular bulb to bulge into the middle ear cavity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~5% (range 3.5-7%) of the symptomatic population (e.g. ...
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Deltopectoral groove

The deltopectoral groove is located between the superolateral aspect of the pectoral region and the deltoid muscle. It runs obliquely from superomedial to inferolateral and contains the cephalic vein which at the upper margin of the groove dives deep to pierce the clavipectoral fascia and enter ...
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Dense vein sign

The dense vein sign refers to hyperattenuating thrombus within a cortical vein or dural venous sinus due to acute venous thrombosis. When located in the superior sagittal sinus, particularly posteriorly, it is sometimes referred to as the delta, triangle or pseudodelta sign. It is really the sa...
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Descending aorta

The descending aorta is the continuation of the aortic arch in the posterior mediastinum. Gross anatomy The descending aorta commences at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra body, on its left, in the plane of Ludwig as the continuation of the aortic arch. It descends in the posterior med...
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Descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery descends from the lateral aspect of the femoral neck and extends as far as the knee where it provides blood to the patellar network (the complex arterial anastomosis around the knee). Summary origin: lateral circumflex femoral arte...
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Descending geniculate artery

The descending geniculate artery arises from the distal portion of the superficial femoral artery before it becomes the popliteal artery. Along with other arterial branches, it provides blood to the patella network and the knee. Summary origin: superficial femoral artery supply: patella netwo...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognized as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) often referred to simply as diabetes, is a group of metabolic conditions characterized by hyperglycemia.  These conditions should not be confused with diabetes insipidus which is clinically distinct and not related to hyperglycemia. Terminology If a patient with diabete...
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Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle. There are usually denoted as D1, D2, D3, etc.   There are termed "diagonal" due to them branching from their parent vessel at acute angles. They ext...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Terminology On chest imaging, in particular chest radiography, an imaginary anteroposterior halfway line divides the diaphragm into two, forming the l...
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Diaphragmatic apertures

The diaphragmatic apertures are a series of apertures that permit the passage of structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are three main apertures: aortic hiatus (T12) (not a true aperture) esophageal hiatus (T10) vena caval foramen (T8) The vertebral levels of these ape...
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Diastolic pseudogating

Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
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Differential diagnosis of vascular calcification

The differential diagnosis of vascular calcification is very wide with many common and uncommon conditions. Differential diagnosis Common aneurysm atherosclerosis end-stage renal failure 3 hemangioma; arteriovenous malformation hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary (renal osteodystrop...
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Dilated mammary veins (differential)

Dilated mammary veins can result from many pathologies. These include: as a secondary but non specific sign of breast malignancy 1 ipsilateral subclavian venous obstruction SVC obstruction Mondor disease: can be dilated as well as being thrombosed
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Disappearing basal ganglia sign

The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic edema at the time of an isc...
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Dog leg sign (popliteal artery)

The "dog leg" sign is a secondary angiographic sign on popliteal angiography, which demonstrates an irregular lumen of the popliteal artery with acute bend in the course of the popliteal artery. It is characteristically seen in popliteal artery aneurysms with mural thrombus. It is an important ...
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Doppler angle

Doppler angle corrects for the usual clinical situation when an ultrasound beam is not parallel to the Doppler signal. For instance, if one wants to evaluate an artery, the best angle for evaluation would be at zero degrees (parallel to the vessel). The strongest signal and best waveforms would...
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Doppler waveforms

Doppler waveforms refer to the morphology of pulsatile blood flow velocity tracings on spectral Doppler ultrasound. Waveforms differ by the vascular bed (peripheral, cerebrovascular, and visceral circulations) and the presence of disease. Radiographic features Ultrasound Doppler Most authori...
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Dorsalis pedis artery

The dorsalis pedis artery is the principal dorsal artery of the foot. Summary location: dorsal surface of the foot, running towards the first dorsal interosseous space origin: direct continuation of the anterior tibial artery termination: as the first dorsal metatarsal artery branches: deep...
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Dorsal nasal artery

The dorsal nasal artery, also known as the dorsonasal artery, is a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery. Gross anatomy Arising as a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery, the dorsal nasal artery exits the orbit after piercing the orbital septum above the medial canthal tendon (medial pa...
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Dorsal pancreatic artery

The dorsal pancreatic artery is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreas. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run along the posterior margin of the pancreas where it divides in to left and right branches. the right branches pass either an...
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Dorsal scapular artery

The dorsal scapular artery is a branch of either the transverse cervical artery (from the thyrocervical trunk off the first part of the subclavian artery) or an independent branch from the third (or less commonly second) part of the subclavian artery. It accompanies the dorsal scapular nerve, c...
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Double aorta artifact (ultrasound)

The double aorta artifact is a relatively common ultrasound artifact, which can appear both on standard B-mode and color Doppler imaging, resulting in an artifactually duplicated abdominal aorta in the transverse plane. Knowledge of this artifact is paramount as potential differential diagnoses ...
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Double aortic arch

Double aortic arches are the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings. Clinical presentation Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to symptoms related to esophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory symp...
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Double barrel sign (disambiguation)

Double barrel sign is an imaging appearance of two lumens adjacent to each other. It can be seen in: dilated bile duct adjacent to portal vein double barrel aorta: aortic dissection double barrel esophagus: esophageal dissection
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Double density sign (berry aneurysm)

Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar caliber. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...
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Double density sign (disambiguation)

The double density sign can refer to several radiological signs: double density sign (left atrial enlargement) double density sign (berry aneurysm) double density sign (osteoid osteoma)
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Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
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Double outlet right ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the morphologically right ventricle. It is reported to account for ~2% of congenital cardiac defects 1. It is usually classed as a conotruncal anomaly. There is almost always ...
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Double retroaortic left renal vein

Double retroaortic left renal vein is a very rare entity that is usually clinically silent and detected incidentally at imaging, surgery, or autopsy. The knowledge of anatomical variations helps the surgeon or interventionist to avoid complications during surgery and interventional procedures 4...
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Double switch procedure

The double switch procedure is a surgical technique used to repair congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA), which is a cardiovascular anomaly with atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance. The procedure consists of any of the following surgical combinations...
Article

Downhill esophageal varix

Downhill esophageal varices are an uncommon type of esophageal varices associated with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction. Epidemiology Downhill oesophagal varices are less frequently seen. It is seen in less than 0.5% of routine upper endoscopies. Most common etiology is superior vena obstr...

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