Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,233 results found
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Draped aorta sign

The draped aorta sign is an important imaging feature that can be seen in contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is highly indicative of aortic wall deficiency.  This sign is considered present when the posterior wall of an aortic aneurysm drapes or molds to the anterior surface ...
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Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome

The drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome typically manifests as a skin rash, fever, lymph nodal enlargement with variable internal organ involvement, and represents a hypersensitivity reaction to medication. Clinical presentation  Clinical presentation can be vari...
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Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
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Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta which may be mistaken for an acute aortic injury. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the aortic isthmus, where the ligamentum arteriosum attaches. It is also the sit...
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Duplicated middle cerebral artery

The duplicated middle cerebral artery is an anatomical variant in which there are two middle cerebral arteries originating from the distal end of the internal carotid artery. Supply The duplicated artery supplies the anterior temporal lobe. Differential diagnosis It should not be confused wi...
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Duplication of inferior vena cava

Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognized, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of inferior vena cava duplicati...
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Dural arteriovenous fistula

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) are a heterogeneous collection of conditions that share arteriovenous shunts from dural vessels. They present variably with hemorrhage or venous hypertension and can be challenging to treat. Epidemiology Most dural arteriovenous fistulas present in adulthood...
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Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
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Dural venous sinuses

Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of the dura mater (endosteal layer and meningeal layer). They can be conceptualised as trapped epidural veins. Unlike other veins in the body, they run alone, not parallel to arteries. Furthermore, they are va...
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Dural venous sinus thrombosis

Dural venous sinus thrombosis (plural: thromboses) is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis, often coexisting with cortical or deep vein thrombosis, and presenting in similar fashions, depending mainly on which sinus is involved. As such, please refer to the cerebral venous thrombosis article ...
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Dysphagia lusoria

Dysphagia lusoria is an impairment of swallowing due to compression from an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). Clinical presentation Most patients with aberrant right subclavian arteries do not have symptoms. Some present with mild dysphagia, while a small minority have a seve...
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Eagle syndrome

Eagle syndrome refers to symptomatic elongation of the styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament 1,2. It is often bilateral. In most cases, the cause is unknown; however, the condition is sometimes associated with disorders causing heterotopic calcification such as abnormal calcium/phosph...
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease). Epidemiology There is a recognized male predominance. Clinical presentation Ehlers-Danlos syndrome clinically manifests with skin hyperelasticity and fragility joint hypermo...
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Electrical interference artifact (ultrasound)

Electrical interference artifact is an ultrasound artifact usually caused by the ultrasound machine being too close to the unshielded electrical equipment. The disturbance appears as arc-like moving bands in the ultrasound image.  While the presence of electrical equipment  (e.g unshielded vent...
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Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa

Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa is a rare cause of chronic lymphedema, arising in the setting of chronic nonfilarial lymphedema caused by bacterial or noninfectious obstruction of the lymphatics. Clinical presentation It presents mostly as grossly edematous and disfigured lower extremities, du...
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Elephant trunk repair

An elephant trunk repair is a type of open repair procedure devised to address combined aneurysms, it  is often a two staged procedure wherein the arch repair is facilitated by sternotomy and a second staged procedure is performed via left thoracotomy for the descending or thoracoabdominal aorta...
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Empty delta sign (dural venous sinus thrombosis)

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect, which represents thrombus. It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be note...
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Encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis

Encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis (EDAMS) is a surgical procedure performed most commonly in children with moyamoya disease or less commonly in individuals with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) as a form of indirect revascularization to bypass the occlusive terminal internal carotid ...
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Encephalomyosynangiosis

Encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) is a surgical procedure performed most commonly in children with moyamoya disease as a form of indirect revascularization to bypass the occlusive terminal internal carotid and/or circle of Willis vessels 1.  It entails dissecting strips of vascularized temporalis m...
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End-diastolic velocity (Doppler ultrasound)

End-diastolic velocity (EDV) is an index measured in spectral Doppler ultrasound. On a Doppler waveform, the EDV corresponds to the point marked at the end of the cardiac cycle (just prior to the systolic peak) 1. In some equipment, the timing of cardiac cycle events may be automatically marked ...
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Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
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Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
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Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then the technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as a treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are tha...
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Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
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Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation

Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation is a recently developed minimally invasive alternative for the creation of arteriovenous fistulae for haemodialysis access. Technique Catheter-based technology and image guidance in the form of ultrasound and fluoroscopy is utilized create a side-to-...
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Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
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Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare relatively low grade vascular tumor. It occurs around medium to large venous structures. Pathology It consists of rounded or slightly spindle-shaped eosinophilic endothelial (epitheloid) cells with rounded nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic vacuol...
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Epithelioid hemangioma

Epithelioid hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms made of epithelioid endothelial cell morphology usually seen in cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Terminology Epithelioid hemangiomas were known as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Epidemiology They have been observed in all...
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External carotid artery

The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA. Summary origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery course: under the submandibular gland an...
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External iliac artery

The external iliac artery (EIA) is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery (CIA). Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.  Cou...
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External iliac vein

The external iliac vein (EIV) is located along the pelvic brim between the inguinal ligament and the sacroiliac joint.  Gross anatomy Origin posterior to inguinal ligament within lacuna vasorum 1 as continuation of femoral vein Termination The external iliac vein unites with the internal il...
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External jugular vein

The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the scapular region. Gross anatomy Origin The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite within the parotid gland to form the external jugular vein, at the angle of the mandible. Course ...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used as a modified pulmonary or cardiopulmonary bypass technique in those with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure refractory to conventional ventilatory support and medical intervention 1,3. There are two access paths for extracorporeal life s...
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Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction

Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is the most common cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in children and young adults in developing countries. It may or may not extend into the intrahepatic portal vein. Clinical presentation It usually occurs in children and young adults, presenting ...
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Facial artery

The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual artery, in the carotid triangle of the neck course: passes deep to the poster...
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Facial-cavernous anastomoses

The facial-cavernous anastomoses are the communications of the facial and deep facial veins with the cavernous sinus. Gross anatomy At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally f...
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Facial vein

The facial vein (previously known as the anterior facial vein) is the continuation of the angular vein and joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3. Gross anatomy At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial ...
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Falciform artery

The falciform artery, also known as the hepatic falciform artery (FHA) is an uncommon vascular anatomic variant that most commonly arises as the terminal branch of the middle hepatic artery which courses anteriorly through the falciform ligament into and supplying the supraumbilical anterior abd...
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Falcine sinus

The falcine sinus is a normal fetal structure located within the falx cerebri that drains the deep cerebral venous system to the superior sagittal sinus. Normally, it involutes after birth. Gross anatomy The falcine sinus drains into the superior sagittal sinus and usually arises from the vein...
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False aneurysm

False aneurysms, also known as pseudoaneurysms, are abnormal outpouchings or dilatation of arteries which are bounded only by the tunica adventitia, the outermost layer of the arterial wall. These are distinguished from true aneurysms, which are bounded by all three layers of the arterial wall. ...
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Familial multiple cavernous malformation syndrome

The familial multiple cavernous malformation syndrome, or familial cerebral cavernous malformation syndrome, is uncommon, accounting for only a minority of cavernous malformations. Epidemiology It has been more frequently reported in patients of Hispanic descent 1. Clinical presentation The ...
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Femoral artery

The femoral artery (FA) is the continuation of the external iliac artery (EIA) at the level of the inguinal ligament. As well as supplying oxygenated blood to the lower limb, it gives off smaller branches to the anterior abdominal wall and superficial pelvis.  Terminology The FA is commonly kn...
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Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic, as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Etiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following femoral arterial puncture for endovascular intervention ...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal is the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, an inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the common femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expan...
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Femoral nerve neuropathy

Femoral nerve neuropathy is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy, which most commonly occurs when the femoral nerve is compressed as it passes under the inguinal ligament, anterior to the iliopsoas muscle. Clinical presentation groin pain loss of power of hip flexion and knee extension loss/red...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus mus...
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Femoral sheath

The femoral sheath is the funnel-shaped fascial space that extends from the abdomen, inferior to the inguinal ligament, into the femoral triangle. It has variable length and terminates by blending in with the adventitia of the femoral vessels. It is formed from the transversalis and psoas fascia...
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Femoral vein

The femoral vein is the main deep vein of the thigh and accompanies the superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery. Terminology The term "superficial femoral vein" or its abbreviation, "SFV" should not be used as it is a misnomer (i.e. it is not a superficial vein), and can be especi...
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Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair

A fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (often commonly abbreviated as FEVAR)  is a type of endovascular aneurysm repair. They are usually performed for juxtarenal, perirenal, or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. It usually comprises of a custom-made endograft designed to fit individual pati...
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Fetal circulation

Fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation due to the presence of certain vessels and shunts.  These shunts close after birth, and most of the fetal vessels are visible as remnants in the adult circulation. The function of these shunts is to direct oxygen-rich venous blood to the syst...
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Fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility index

The fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) is a key parameter used in fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler assessment. It is calculated by subtracting the end-diastolic velocity (EDV) from the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and then dividing by the time-averaged (mean) velocit...
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Fetal posterior cerebral artery

A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and supplies the bulk of the...
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Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
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Fibrin sheath

Fibrin sheaths are a common complication of central venous catheters in which a proteinaceous film encases the outer wall and endhole of the catheter, which can cause catheter malfunction and thrombosis. Clinical presentation Fibrin sheaths present as catheter malfunction, which may include in...
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Fibroadipose vascular anomaly (FAVA)

Fibroadipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a recently-described intramuscular vascular anomaly consisting of phlebectasia (dilatation of veins) and fibrofatty replacement of muscle. It is in the "provisionally unclassified" category of the ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies. Terminology T...
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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
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Fibromuscular dysplasia classification

Fibromuscular dysplasia is classified into 5 categories according to the vessel wall layer affected: intima   intimal fibroplasia (1%) media  medial dysplasia (70%, the commonest type) perimedial (subadventitial) fibroplasia (15-20%) medial hyperplasia (8-10%) adventitia adventital fibro...
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Fibular artery

The fibular or peroneal artery is one of the three arteries of the leg, along with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Gross anatomy Origin and course arises from the tibioperoneal trunk approximately 2.5 cm distal to popliteus and passes obliquely to the fibula, descending along its ...
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Figure 3 sign (aortic coarctation)

The figure 3 sign is seen in aortic coarctation and is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery, indentation at the coarctation site (also known as the "tuck"), and post-stenotic dilatation of the descending aorta. On barium studies of the esophagus in pati...
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Filling defect

A filling defect is a general term used to refer to any abnormality on an imaging study which disrupts the normal opacification (filling) of a cavity or lumen. The opacification maybe physiological, for example, bile in the gallbladder or blood in a dural venous sinus, or maybe due to the instal...
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Fisher scale

The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.  Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various parameter...
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Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to the displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm...
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Floating viscera sign

The floating viscera sign is an angiographic sign that occurs when there is visualization of branches of the abdominal aorta (e.g. celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries) during aortography with little or no visualization of the aortic lumen. The floating viscera sign indic...
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Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.  It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical a...
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Foix-Alajouanine syndrome

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome refers to presentation of spinal AVMs with progressive neurological deterioration. Initially, patients have a spastic paraplegia which progresses to flaccidity, loss of sphincter control and ascending sensory level. It is thought to be due to venous hypertension.
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Fontan procedure

The Fontan procedure is a repair surgical strategy for congenital cardiac anomalies. It is not usually used in isolation, but in combination with other repair procedures in a staged manner in an attempt to correct the underlying cardiac pathology. Rationale The procedure attempts to bypass the...
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F P Weber syndrome

F P Weber syndrome (FPWS) is a traditional eponymous denomination of a certain type of angiodysplasia, that would nowadays rather be called a mixed hemolymphatic congenital vascular malformation (CVM) with arteriovenous (AV) shunting, based on the Hamburg classification of CVMs. In his original...
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Free-floating thrombus of the internal carotid artery

Free-floating thrombus of the internal carotid artery is an uncommon entity placing the patient at high risk for acute ischemic stroke. It is characterized by intraluminal thrombus within the internal carotid artery (ICA) and aggressively managed with surgical, medical, or combined therapy.  Ep...
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French gauge

The French gauge (Fr) (also known as the French scale or system) is used to size catheters, and other instruments, in interventional radiology and surgery. In some parts of the world, the Charrière (Ch) is used as the name of the unit, in honor of its inventor.  French sizing The French system...
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Frontopolar artery

The frontopolar artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), commonly arising after the medial frontobasal artery and coursing obliquely across the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere towards the frontal pole.
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Fusiform intracranial aneurysm

Fusiform intracranial aneurysms are a type of intracranial aneurysms with an elongated fusiform shape caused by atherosclerotic disease most common in the vertebrobasilar circulation. Epidemiology 3%-13% of all intracranial aneurysms Clinical presentation They can be incidental or asymptomat...
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Gadofosveset trisodium

Gadofosveset trisodium (also known as AblavarTM or VasovistTM) is an intravenous blood pool contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. The manufacturer discontinued production in 2017 due to poor sales. It was designed as an agent for contrast-enhanced MR angiography since it exhibits s...
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Gastric varix

Gastric varices are an important portosystemic collateral pathway, occurring in ~20% of patients with portal hypertension. They are considered distinct from esophageal varices in that they have a propensity to hemorrhage at comparatively lower portal pressures 1, and are also associated with hig...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the posterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of t...
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GCA (disambiguation)

The abbreviation GCA can refer to: giant cell arteritis global cortical atrophy scale
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Generalized lymphatic anomaly

Generalized lymphatic anomaly, previously known as lymphangiomatosis or cystic angiomatosis, is a systemic condition characterized by multifocal lymphatic malformations with systemic distribution. The distribution of lesions is variable; there can be cutaneous, thoracic and abdominal viscera and...
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Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the small saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy whereby the small saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chroni...
Article

Giant cell arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a common granulomatous vasculitis affecting medium- to large-sized arteries. It is also known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis, given its propensity to involve the extracranial external carotid artery branches such as the superficial temporal artery.  Epi...
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Giant cerebral aneurysm

Giant cerebral aneurysms are ones that measure >25 mm in greatest dimension.  Epidemiology Giant cerebral aneurysms account for ~5% of all intracranial aneurysms 1,3. They occur in the 5th-7th decades and are more common in females 2. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms ...
Article

Glenn shunt

The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Rationale In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3. It can be used in a varie...
Article

Glomangioma

Glomangiomas, also known as glomus tumors, are benign vascular tumors typically seen at the distal extremities. On imaging, they characteristically present as small hypervascular nodules under the fingernail.  Terminology These tumors should not be confused with paragangliomas, which are somet...
Article

Glomus body

The glomus body is a component of the dermis that is involved in thermoregulation.  Gross anatomy It consists of a specialized arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. They are most numerous in the fingers and toes and exist to shunt blood from the skin surface when...
Article

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumor, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumors. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma va...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein (or internal spermatic vein) and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anteri...
Article

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification is one method of classifying aneurysmal dilatation of the inferior vena cava, which is an uncommon finding. When present, it can be often associated with other caval anomalies. Gradman and Steinburg method classifies them as 1: ty...
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Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.  Gross anatomy It begins on the anterior surface of th...
Article

Greater pancreatic artery

The greater pancreatic artery, also known as the pancreatica magna artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises approximately two thirds the way along the splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margi...
Article

Great saphenous vein

The great saphenous vein (GSV) forms part of the superficial venous system of the lower limb.  Terminology The great saphenous vein is the preferred term over other variants such as long saphenous vein (LSV), greater saphenous vein or internal saphenous vein 5. Gross anatomy Origin and cours...
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Grey Turner sign

The Grey Turner sign refers to the clinical finding of atraumatic flank ecchymosis, which is occasionally associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, classically due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis 2. It is thought to occur when blood extravasates from the posterior pararenal space and crosses throu...

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