Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,233 results found
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Griesinger sign (mastoid)

The Griesinger sign refers to edema of the postauricular soft tissues overlying the mastoid process as a result of thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein. It is a complication of acute otomastoiditis and may be associated with dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD). It is said to be a pathognomon...
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Griffiths point

The Griffiths point, also known as Griffiths critical point, refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the tr...
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Hemangioendothelioma

A hemangioendothelioma is a tumor derived from blood vessels.  Pathology Subtypes Subtypes dependent on location include hemangioendothelioma (MSK) hemangioendothelioma of liver See also epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
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Hemangioma

Hemangiomas are benign tumors of vascular origin usually seen in early childhood, divided into: infantile hemangiomas congenital hemangiomas Terminology Unfortunately, the term hemangioma has been widely misused to apply to many non-neoplastic vascular malformations, particularly the common ...
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Hemangiopericytoma

Hemangiopericytoma is a term formerly used to describe a continuum of mesenchymal tumors with elevated cellularity found throughout the body in soft tissue and bone. After many years of controversy, hemangiopericytomas have been shown to not only share histological features similar to solitary f...
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Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Hemangiopericytomas of the spleen are very rare vascular neoplasm with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic hemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are soft tissue vascular neoplasms aris...
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Hematoma

Hematomas (alternative plural: hematomata) are the name given to localized collections of blood and they can form virtually anywhere in the body. They often form secondary to trauma or surgery but spontaneous formation is also not uncommon, especially in those with coagulation disorders or on an...
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Haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula

An acquired arm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a procedure performed for haemodialysis access in those with end stage renal failure. It connects and artery to a vein in the vein. This can either be a native connection or a connection using a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. There ...
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Haemodialysis vascular access

Vascular access for haemodialysis when patients' with end-stage renal failure require renal replacement therapy.  Options include temporary/permanent and non surgical vs surgical methods. This article will focus on surgical arteriovenous fistulae. Types of vascular access Temporary Temporary...
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Hemoptysis

Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology Massive hemoptysis is referred t...
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Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 highl...
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Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along with skull vault. ...
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Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations

Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations is one of the more commonly used systems to describe the wide range of vascular malformations, largely replacing the many various eponymous syndromes traditionally used. It accounts for the underlying anatomical, histological, and pathophys...
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Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy is important when considering pathology affecting the same area. In radiology, the 'head and neck' refers to all the anatomical structures in this region excluding the central nervous system, that is, the brain and spinal cord and their associated vascular structures and en...
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Hemiazygos vein

The hemiazygos vein is the asymmetric counterpart to the azygos vein and forms part of the azygos venous system.  Terminology The spelling hemiazygous when referring to the vein is incorrect, regardless of whether British or American English is used 7. In the context of anatomy, hemiazygos vei...
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Hepatic arterial resistive index

The resistive index (RI) is the commonest Doppler parameter used for hepatic arterial evaluation. The usual range in normal, as well as post-transplant individuals, is between 0.55 and 0.8. It is measured by: Resistive index (RI) = (peak systolic velocity - end-diastolic velocity)/peak systoli...
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Hepatic artery aneurysm

Hepatic artery aneurysms are a type of visceral arterial aneurysm. Epidemiology They are rare representing about 0.01-2% of all arterial aneurysms but are considered the second most common aneurysm of the splanchnic system after splenic artery aneurysms. They may account for 20% of all viscera...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper, also known as the proper hepatic artery (PHA), is the continuation of the common hepatic artery after it gives off the gastroduodenal artery. Just prior to the porta hepatis it divides into the left and right hepatic arteries. Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

Hepatic lymphangiomas are a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  For a general discussion on this topic, please refer to the parental article on lymphatic malformations.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A ly...
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Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders

Hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders are a broad group of conditions that radiologists should be familiar with, as some of them are quite frequently seen in the daily practice. The aim of this article is to be a collection of articles that represent the core knowledge in the matter. Patholo...
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Hepatic veins

Three large intrahepatic veins drain the liver parenchyma, into the inferior vena cava (IVC), and are named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and defining the segments of the liver. There are separate smaller ...
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Hepatic venous pressure gradient

Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement is a safe and minimally invasive method to indirectly measure portal vein pressure in chronic liver disease patients suspected of developing portal vein hypertension.  Indications diagnosis of liver fibrosis and risk stratification identification o...
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Hereditary connective tissue disease

Hereditary connective tissue diseases are an enlarging group of connective tissue diseases that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include:  Marfan syndrome: genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart ...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalen...
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Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
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Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The etiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related d...
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Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access line. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumoth...
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High-attenuation crescent sign

The high attenuating crescent sign represents an acute hematoma within either the mural thrombus or the aneurysm wall, especially when detected on unenhanced CT scans. It is a specific sign of impending abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture or so-called contained rupture. Pathology The hyper...
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High division of the brachial artery

A high division of the brachial artery is an unusually proximal bifurcation of the brachial artery into its ulnar and radial branches in the upper arm. It is an anatomical variant of the arterial branching pattern of the upper limb. Description  In general, the brachial artery bifurcates into...
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High-riding brachiocephalic artery

A high-riding brachiocephalic artery (now preferred to innominate artery) is a rare anomaly of the neck vessels in which the brachiocephalic artery passes much more superiorly than normally. It is a clinically important variant, as mistaking it for a neck lump and sampling it or neck surgery in ...
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Histology of blood vessels

Blood vessels, namely arteries and veins, are composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix (including collagen and elastin). These are arranged into three concentric layers (or tunicae): intima, media and adventitia. the intima (or tunica intima) inner layer abut...
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Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV).​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
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Holodiastolic flow reversal

Holodiastolic flow reversal (HDR) refers to a backward flow typically observed in the descending aorta during the whole diastolic phase and has been observed in the setting of moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Usage It has been found to predict severe aortic regurgitation with high sens...
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Hughes-Stovin syndrome

Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS) is a vasculitis that predominantly affects large vessels. The disease bears some resemblance to Behçet disease. Epidemiology Hughes-Stovin syndrome is very rare 7. It occurs predominantly between the 2nd to 4th decades. There is a recognized male predilection.  Cl...
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Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the clinical severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of an intracerebral aneurysm and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe heada...
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Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign refers to focal hyperdensity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on non-contrast brain CT and is the direct visualization of thromboembolic material within the lumen. It is thus the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction as it is seen within 90 minutes after the event 1....
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Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia is a condition in which elevated levels of lipids circulating in the blood. Clinical presentation Hyperlipidemia is usually asymptomatic. However, certain forms may be associated with types of xanthomas. Pathology Several genetic disorders (e.g. familial hypercholesterolemia) ...
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Hyperreninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyperreninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumor, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular hemorrhage (Page kidney)
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
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Hypothenar hammer syndrome

Hypothenar hammer syndrome occurs from trauma to the distal ulnar artery or proximal portion of superficial palmar arch as a result of repetitive trauma to the hypothenar eminence. Originally described in patients using hammers and screwdrivers, it is also seen in various athletes such as basket...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirmatio...
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Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension

Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is the clinical diagnosis of exclusion featuring portal hypertension without hepatic cirrhosis, vascular obstruction, schistosomiasis, or a variety of other chronic liver diseases. Terminology Prior terms for this entity include noncirrhotic portal f...
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Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis ...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, also known as Ormond disease or occasionally Albarran-Ormond syndrome 6, is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and ...
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IgA vasculitis

IgA vasculitis (formerly known as Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)) is a type of non-thrombocytopenic immune-mediated small vessel acute leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In order to differentiate from other types of vasculitides, the four commonly adopted diagnostic criteria by the American College o...
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IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis

IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis is a form of IgG4-related cardiovascular disease, in which multi-vessel involvement is very common. Epidemiology IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis predominantly affect men above 60 years of age 1. Associations Conditions associated with IgG4-re...
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IgG4-related cardiovascular disease

IgG4-related cardiovascular disease is one of the many manifestations of IgG4-related disease and may present as: aortitis and periaortitis arteritis and periarteritis of small to medium-sized arteries coronary arteritis and periarteritis inflammatory aneurysms pericarditis
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Ileocolic artery

The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) that runs obliquely to the ileocecal junction. It divides into an ileal branch that supplies the terminal ileum and anastomoses with the terminal SMA and a colic branch. It also gives off anterior and posterior cecal arteri...
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Iliac artery aneurysm

Iliac arterial aneurysms are focal dilatations of the iliac artery.  Although the dimensions that define the aneurysm are dependent on the sex of the patient and the portion of the artery involved, a common iliac artery (CIA) with a diameter ≥1.7 cm in males or ≥1.5 cm in females is considered ...
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Iliac artery endofibrosis

Iliac artery endofibrosis is a rare condition that affects young endurance athletes, characterized by a non-atherosclerotic stenosis of the iliac artery. Epidemiology It is a rare entity that affects highly trained endurance athletes, mostly cyclists and long-distance runners 4. The disease ha...
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Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to a variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumor invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Thrun...
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Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus in the iliac vein (common, external or internal) and/or common femoral vein obstructs the venous outflow from the lower limb leading to marked edema. DVT of the IVC or the more distal lower limb veins may also be present. Terminology...
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Iliolumbar artery

The iliolumbar artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary origin: posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: ilium, iliacus muscle, psoas major muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, erector spinae muscle, anterio...
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Implantable port

Implantable ports, also known as chemoports, totally implantable central venous access ports or Port-A-Caths®, are a type of central venous catheter for patients requiring long-term venous access. They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access with some of the advantages over per...
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Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
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Indocyanine green lymphangiography

Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphangiography is an emerging imaging technique used to visualize lymphatic vessels and map their course as they drain to sentinel lymph nodes.  History Indocyanine green is a fluorescent dye discovered by researchers at Kodak working on near-infrared photography in 1...
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Infantile hemangioma

Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms that are the most common head and neck tumors of infancy. They can occur virtually anywhere, but the majority are found in the head and neck regions. This article aims to be a generic discussion of the condition, for detailed and more specific...
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Infarct core

The infarct core denotes the part of an acute ischemic stroke which has already infarcted, or is irrevocably destined to infarct regardless of reperfusion. It is also referred to as established infarct and is in distinction from the penumbra which remains potentially salvageable.  CT perfusion ...
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Inferior adrenal artery

The inferior adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of three adrenal arteries that supplies the adrenal gland. Gross anatomy Origin Ipsilateral renal artery (usually before the terminal division of the renal artery) Location The course of the inferior suprarenal artery depends on its origin. Re...
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Inferior alveolar artery

The inferior alveolar artery is a branch of the maxillary artery. It runs with the inferior alveolar nerve as it descends through the infratemporal fossa and enters the mandibular canal and supplies mandibular teeth. In the region of the first premolar it bifurcates into the incisive and mental ...
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Inferior anastomotic vein

The inferior anastomotic vein, also known as vein of Labbé, is part of the superficial venous system of the brain.  It is the largest venous channel on the lateral surface of the brain that crosses the temporal lobe between the Sylvian fissure and the transverse sinus. It courses posteroinferio...
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Inferior epigastric artery

The inferior epigastric artery arises from the external iliac artery and is an important artery supplying the anterior abdominal wall. If a superficial inferior epigastric artery is present, as seen in about two-thirds of cases, then the inferior epigastric artery is referred to as the deep infe...
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Inferior gluteal artery

The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteal region and thigh. Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, back of thigh supply: buttock...
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Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
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Inferior hypophyseal artery

The inferior hypophyseal artery is a branch from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually single on each side and divides into medial and lateral branches contributing to the inferior hypophyseal arterial circle.  The inferior hypoph...
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Inferior interventricular artery

The inferior interventricular artery (also known as the posterior interventricular artery or posterior descending artery, PDA) is an artery that extends along the inferior interventricular sulcus. The artery supplies the posterior third of the interventricular septum through posterior septal per...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location Located wit...
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Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm

Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are among the rarest of all visceral artery aneurysms. Epidemiology Aneurysms of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) only account for <1% of all visceral artery aneurysms 1,2. These aneurysms are more common in men than in women 3. Clinical presentation ...
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Inferior mesenteric vein

The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal portion of the colon as well as the rectum (i.e. the hindgut).  Gross anatomy Origin and course The inferior mesenteric vein drains the mesenteric arcade of the hindgut (comprising of distal transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon). ...
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Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the first branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It usually arises at the inferior border of the pancreas or with the first jejunal artery as part of the pancreaticoduodenojejunal trunk.  It anastomoses with branches of the superior pancreati...
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Inferior petro-occipital vein

The inferior petro-occipital vein is located immediately inferior to the petro-occipital suture and provides a communication between the internal carotid artery venous plexus of Rektorzik, or less commonly the cavernous sinus, anteromedially and the jugular bulb, or less commonly the inferior pe...
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Inferior petrosal sinus

The inferior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses. It is often a plexus of venous channels rather than a true sinus and drains blood from the cavernous sinus to the jugular bulb through the jugular foramen (pars nervosa) or sometimes via a vein which passes through the hypoglossal c...
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Inferior phrenic artery

The inferior phrenic arteries (IPAs) are paired branches of the abdominal aorta/celiac trunk supplying the diaphragm. Their importance lies with the fact that the right inferior phrenic artery is the most common extrahepatic arterial supply of a hepatocellular carcinoma.  Summary origin: abdom...
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Inferior Rectal Artery

The inferior rectal artery is an artery that supplies the lower anal canal including the external anal sphincter. Summary origin: from internal pudendal artery, just after it enters the pudendal canal course: runs anteromedially through the ischioanal fossa to reach the deep portion of the ex...
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Inferior sagittal sinus

The inferior sagittal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and runs along the inferior (free) edge of the falx cerebri. It runs from anterior to posterior, the same as the superior sagittal sinus, and drains into the straight sinus. It receives tributaries from the falx itself as well as som...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inferior thyroid artery

The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk (85%) or subclavian artery (15%) and ascends to enter the thyroid gland on its posterior surface, as well as supplying both the superior and inferior parathyroid glands 1. If the artery arises from the subclavian artery, it may ...
Article

Inferior ulnar collateral artery

The inferior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the distal-most part of the upper arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery superior to the medial epicondyle 1 location: distal lower arm supply: brachialis, biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis 1 ...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) drains venous blood from the lower trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs to the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The inferior vena cava is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. The IVC has a retroperitoneal cours...
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Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Inferior vena cava filter retrieval

Inferior vena cava filter retrieval is an endovascular procedure whereby a previously placed inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is removed. Procedure The procedure is performed under local anesthesia with fluoroscopic guidance. Venous access is usually gained via the internal jugular vein with di...
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Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma

Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas are the most common type of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma and most common primary malignancy of the inferior vena cava. Epidemiology Three-quarters of cases occur in women, usually aged 40-60 years 2. Clinical presentation When symptomatic, patients most c...
Article

Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumor thrombus. Clinical features A patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal edema Bu...
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Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterized by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
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Inferior vesical artery

The inferior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Some texts state it is only present in males and may be replaced by a vaginal artery in females. Note, the vaginal artery which is most commonly described, is often a branch of the uterine artery. Su...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
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Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a variant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characterized by inflammatory thickening of the aneurysm wall, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and adherence to surrounding structures. Epidemiology They account for  ~5 to 10% of all AAAs. Clinical present...
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Infraorbital artery

The infraorbital artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery. It runs through the inferior orbital fissure, orbit, infraorbital canal then the infraorbital foramen. Here it gives off the anterior superior alveolar artery which supplies the anterior teeth and the anterior part of...
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Infundibulum (artery)

An infundibulum (plural: infundibula) is a conical outpouching from an artery (usually intracranial), with a broad base narrowing to an apex from which a vessel originates. The most common location for an infundibulum is the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) from the supraclino...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...

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