Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,233 results found
Article

Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the pediatric population. Radiographic features The brachiocephalic artery usually takes its origin to the left of the trachea. The artery subs...
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Interarterial course of the left coronary artery

An interarterial course of the left coronary artery is defined as origination of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, with a course between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery trunk.  Terminology An interarterial course i...
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Interarterial course of the right coronary artery

Interarterial course of the right coronary artery, may occur if the right coronary artery (RCA) has an aberrant origin from the left coronary sinus. The interarterial course occurs because the artery passes between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. It is an uncommon anatomic variant ...
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Intercavernous sinus

The intercavernous sinuses (anterior, posterior, and inferior) are variable dural venous sinuses that connect the left and right cavernous sinuses. Some authors also include in this group the basilar venous plexus (basilar sinus) and sinus of the dorsum sellae 2. The anterior, posterior, and inf...
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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery (ICA) is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery.  Gross anatomy Origin It arises most frequently between C3 and C5 vertebral level, where the common carotid bifurcates to form the internal carotid and the external carotid artery (ECA). Just superior to its ...
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Internal carotid artery dissection

Internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima 1 and is a common cause of stroke in younger patients. Epidemiology Dissection may occur at any age but is a common cause of stroke in young patien...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Internal carotid artery venous plexus of Rektorzik

Internal carotid artery venous plexus of Rektorzik (also known as the petro-occipital venous plexus) is a plexus of small veins that surrounds the petrous segment internal carotid artery proximal to the cavernous sinus as it passes through the base of skull.  It is believed that the plexus serv...
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Internal cerebral vein

The internal cerebral veins are paired, paramedian veins which course posteriorly along the roof of the third ventricle, between the two leaves of the velum interpositum. Gross anatomy Each is formed at the foramen of Monro by the confluence of the choroidal vein (draining the choroid plexus o...
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Internal iliac artery

The internal iliac artery (also known as the hypogastric artery, but internal iliac is the accepted term in the TA) is the smaller terminal branch of the common iliac artery. It supplies the pelvic walls, pelvic viscera, external genitalia, perineum, buttock and medial part of the thigh.  Gross...
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Internal iliac vein

The internal iliac vein (IIV) represents the union of veins and venous plexuses draining the pelvic viscera, pelvic wall, external genitalia, perineum, buttocks, and medial thigh.   Gross anatomy Origin Above the greater sciatic notch. Course and termination Ascends out of pelvis to meet th...
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Internal jugular vein

The internal jugular vein (IJV) is the major venous return from the brain, upper face and neck. Gross anatomy Origin and course It is formed by the union of inferior petrosal and sigmoid dural venous sinuses in or just distal to the jugular foramen (forming the jugular bulb). It descends in t...
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Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
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Internal palpebral artery

The internal palpebral arteries, or medial palpebral arteries, are branches of the ophthalmic artery, with superior and inferior medial palpebral branches arising opposite the trochlear of the superior oblique muscle. Gross anatomy The internal palpebral arteries enter the superior and inferio...
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Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
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Internal pudendal vein

The internal pudendal veins are the set of accompanying veins to the internal pudendal artery draining the perineal region to empty into the internal iliac vein. Gross Anatomy Tributaries inferior rectal veins males penile bulb and scrotum vein females clitoris and posterior labial vein ...
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Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus. Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of ...
Article

Internal thoracic vein

The internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) arises from the superior epigastric vein. It drains the chest wall and breasts.  Gross anatomy The internal thoracic vein arises from the superior epigastric vein. It forms venae comitantes to the internal thoracic arte...
Article

Interosseous recurrent artery

The interosseous recurrent artery is a branch of the posterior interosseous artery just after its origin, within the proximal aspect of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It courses proximally between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and olecranon of the ulna to anastomose with the m...
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Interrupted aortic arch

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is an uncommon congenital cardiovascular anomaly where there is a separation between the ascending and descending aorta. It can either be complete or connected by a remnant fibrous band. An accompanying large ventricular septal defect (VSD) and/or patent ductus arte...
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Interscalene brachial plexus block

An interscalene brachial plexus block is indicated for procedures involving the shoulder and upper arm. History Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus nerve blocks entered the literature in 1989, when Ting et al. detailed their success with axillary nerve blocks in 10 patients 3. Indications redu...
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Intestinal ischemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intestinal ischemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straight forward provided appropriate imaging is obtained. T...
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Intestinal trunk

The intestinal trunk (TA: truncus intestinalis) is an unpaired lymphatic trunk which drains lymph (and chyle) from those portions of the GI tract which receive their blood supply from the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In the majority of individuals, the intestinal trunk drains into t...
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Intimal hyperplasia

Intimal hyperplasia is not a true disease, but a physiologic healing response to injury to the blood vessel wall.  It is the bane of endovascular intervention and vascular surgery. When the endothelium is injured, endothelial cells release inflammatory mediators that trigger platelet aggregatio...
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Intima-media thickness

Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an indirect sonographic assessment of the degree of atheromatous vascular disease of end organs. The thickness of the media and the intima of the vessels changes following many conditions and it can be easily and reliably assessed with ultrasound on B mode in the ...
Article

Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide hemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via a femoral artery sheath, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descendi...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronary artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is the most common intracavitary (in...
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Intracranial aneurysm (overview)

Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are aneurysms of the intracranial arteries. The most common morphologic type is the saccular aneurysm. Pathology There is not a universal classification for the types of intracranial aneurysms, resulting in a heterogeneous mix of terms ba...
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Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have a unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fib...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Intracranial atherosclerotic disease

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the term applied to atherosclerosis of the large intracranial arteries and is a cause of ischemic stroke. Epidemiology ICAD is an important cause of stroke in certain racial groups particularly Asians, but also Hispanics and Black people. ICAD is ...
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Intracranial mycotic aneurysm

Intracranial mycotic aneurysms, or intracranial infectious aneurysms, describe aneurysms arising from infection of the arterial wall of intracranial vessels. See mycotic aneurysm for a general discussion on infectious aneurysms. Epidemiology The epidemiology of intracerebral mycotic aneurysms...
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Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt

Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts, also referred to as intrahepatic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or hepatic arteriosystemic venous shunts, represent a spectrum of abnormal communications between the hepatic arterial system and the hepatic veins.  Please note that arterioportal shunts, whi...
Article

Intrapelvic cup migration

Intrapelvic cup migration is a serious complication after total hip arthroplasty, in which the prosthetic acetabular cup migrates or drifts into the pelvic inlet. Epidemiology Fortunately, this complication is very rare. There seems to be a female predisposition 1-3. Risk factors Factors inc...
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Intratesticular varicocele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterized by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumor arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Terminology Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasizing le...
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Investigating limb ischemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Limb ischemia is a relatively uncommon, but potentially limb (and life) threatening situation. There are many potential causes. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article...
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Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
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Ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and i...
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Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
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Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Clinical features pain fever fatigue weight loss anemia mesenteric arterial ischemia: abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage  renal artery stenosis: renovascular hypertension  vascular impairment ...
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Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (IUAPA) is the congenital absence of the left or right pulmonary artery.  When found in combination with other congenital vascular abnormalities it is known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA). Epidemiology Unilateral absence...
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ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies encompasses all vascular malformations and tumors in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature.  ISSVA is the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. It is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moyamoya disease or moyamoya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Differe...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jet hematoma

A jet hematoma or flame hemorrhage is a term used to describe an intraparenchymal hematoma adjacent to a ruptured intracranial berry aneurysm caused when the ruptured aneurysm abuts a lobe of the brain and the pressure of the blood leaving the aneurysm dissects into the brain parenchyma. Pathol...
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Jugular bulb

The jugular bulb is the connection between the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein.  Gross anatomy The sigmoid and inferior petrosal sinuses empty into the jugular bulb, which continues as the internal jugular vein. It lies in the pars vascularis, which occupies the posterolateral aspe...
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Jugular trunk

The jugular trunks are small short paired lymphatic trunks, each one draining one side of the head and neck, forming an important terminal part of the lymphatic system 1-3. Gross anatomy Location the left and right jugular trunks are found in the root of the neck Origin the organs of the he...
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Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange. These are commonly referred to as (internal) jugular venous (IJV) catheters. Typically, the right internal jugular is used as...
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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare, locally invasive vascular tumor that often presents in infancy, most commonly as an enlarging cutaneous mass 1,2.  Epidemiology Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare disease of childhood. The exact incidence and prevalence has not been accurately ...
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Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis

Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) is a rare lymphatic anomaly associated with a poor prognosis. Disease hallmarks include multifocal, intra- and extra-thoracic lymphatic malformations, thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. Epidemiology The exact prevalence and incidence of kaposiform...
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Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumor is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vascular t...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Kiesselbach plexus

Kiesselbach plexus (Kiesselbach area or Little's area) is a vascular region of the anteroinferior nasal septum that comprises four arterial anastomoses: anterior ethmoidal artery a branch of the ophthalmic artery sphenopalatine artery a branch of the maxillary artery greater palatine artery...
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Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intrase...
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Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It also vascularizes the VII and VIII cranial nerves. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), althou...
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Lacrimal artery

The lacrimal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the lacrimal gland. Gross anatomy Course The lacrimal artery travels along the upper border of the lateral rectus muscle with the lacrimal nerve to supply the lacrimal gland as well as the eyelids and conjunctiva. The rec...
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Large vessel vasculitis

The term large vessel vasculitis (LVV) usually denotes the spectrum of primary vasculitides that causes chronic granulomatous inflammation predominantly involving the aorta and its major branches. Pathology The two major entities in this group are giant cell arteritis (GCA): affects older ind...
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Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
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Lateral circumflex femoral artery

The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises from its lateral aspect just after the medial circumflex femoral artery. While the medial circumflex runs posteriorly around the femoral neck, the lateral circumflex courses laterally from its origin and anter...
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Lateralized internal carotid artery

The lateralized internal carotid artery is an anatomic variation of the course of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It can be visualized on CT by its more posterolateral entrance to the skull base and protrusion into the anterior mesotympanum. Clinical presentation It m...
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Lateral lenticulostriate arteries

The lateral lenticulostriate arteries arise from the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), usually from M1 segment, more rarely from the postbifurcation or M2 segment. They supply the lateral portion of the putamen and external capsule as well as the upper internal capsule. They are longer (al...
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Lateral marginal vein

The lateral marginal vein (also known as the vein of Servelle or the Klippel-Trenaunay vein) is one of two known persisting embryonic veins of the leg, the persistent sciatic vein being the other. The lateral marginal vein is the principle tributary forming the small saphenous vein. Development...
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Lateral posterior choroidal artery

The lateral posterior choroidal artery may be a singular vessel or exist as multiple lateral posterior choroidal arteries. In either case, they usually arise from the P2 segment of the PCA, just distal (and lateral) to the medial posterior choroidal arteries. In some cases, they may arise from o...
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Lateral sacral artery

The lateral sacral artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary location: pelvis origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery in the pelvis branches: superior and inferior sacral arteries supply: sacral meninges, pirifor...
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Lateral tentorial artery

The lateral tentorial artery also known as lateral tentorial arcade, is a branch of the meningohypophyseal trunk (MHT) which arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The lateral tentorial artery runs along the lateral edge of the tentorium cerebelli. Radiographic appear...
Article

Lateral thoracic artery

The lateral thoracic artery is a branch of the second part of the axillary artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The lateral thoracic artery originates from the medial surface of the axillary artery, posterior to the distal part of pectoralis minor. It courses inferomedially along the infe...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is one of the two branches of the left coronary artery (the other branch being the circumflex (Cx) artery). Gross anatomy It descends along the interventricular groove. It can be divided into proxim...
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery and supplies the marginal artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally to the left, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes s...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the celiac artery.   It passes superiorly over the left crus of the diaphragm, approaching the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, giving off an esophageal branch to the distal esophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along t...
Article

Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower esophageal v...
Article

Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA arises from the splenic artery, and runs within the gastrosplenic ligament. It then runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the...
Article

Left hepatic artery

The left hepatic artery (LHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The proper hepatic artery bifurcates into the left and right hepatic arteries at or before reac...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic val...
Article

Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...
Article

Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
Article

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Article

Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
Article

Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are mechanical circulatory support device that are surgically implanted to aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a trans...
Article

Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...
Article

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardium,...
Article

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumor and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumors 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyosarcomas...
Article

Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome (also known as postanginal septicemia) refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemio...
Article

Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries, also known as anterolateral central arteries, are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate...
Article

Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994 1.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system H...
Article

Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
Article

Ligamentum teres (abdomen)

The ligamentum teres or round ligament is the fibrous cord formed by the obliterated fetal umbilical vein that runs in the free edge of the falciform ligament from the umbilicus into the left lobe of the liver.  

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