Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,157 results found
Article

Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moyamoya disease or moyamoya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Differe...
Article

Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
Article

Jet hematoma

A jet hematoma or flame hemorrhage is a term used to describe an intraparenchymal hematoma adjacent to a ruptured intracranial berry aneurysm caused when the ruptured aneurysm abuts a lobe of the brain and the pressure of the blood leaving the aneurysm dissects into the brain parenchyma. Pathol...
Article

Jugular bulb

The jugular bulb is the connection between the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein.  Gross anatomy The sigmoid and inferior petrosal sinuses empty into the jugular bulb, which continues as the internal jugular vein. It lies in the pars vascularis, which occupies the posterolateral aspe...
Article

Jugular trunk

The jugular trunks are small short paired lymphatic trunks, each one draining one side of the head and neck, forming an important terminal part of the lymphatic system 1-3. Gross anatomy Location the left and right jugular trunks are found in the root of the neck Origin the organs of the he...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange. These are commonly referred to as (internal) jugular venous (IJV) catheters. Typically, the right internal jugular is used as...
Article

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare, locally invasive vascular tumor that often presents in infancy, most commonly as an enlarging cutaneous mass 1,2.  Epidemiology Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare disease of childhood. The exact incidence and prevalence has not been accurately ...
Article

Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis

Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) is a rare lymphatic anomaly associated with a poor prognosis. Disease hallmarks include multifocal, intra- and extra-thoracic lymphatic malformations, thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. Epidemiology The exact prevalence and incidence of kaposiform...
Article

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumor is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vascular t...
Article

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
Article

Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
Article

Kiesselbach plexus

Kiesselbach plexus (Kiesselbach area or Little's area) is a vascular region of the anteroinferior nasal septum that comprises four arterial anastomoses: anterior ethmoidal artery a branch of the ophthalmic artery sphenopalatine artery a branch of the maxillary artery greater palatine artery...
Article

Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intrase...
Article

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
Article

Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
Article

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
Article

Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It also vascularizes the VII and VIII cranial nerves. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), althou...
Article

Lacrimal artery

The lacrimal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the lacrimal gland. Gross anatomy Course The lacrimal artery travels along the upper border of the lateral rectus muscle with the lacrimal nerve to supply the lacrimal gland as well as the eyelids and conjunctiva. The rec...
Article

Large vessel vasculitis

The term large vessel vasculitis (LVV) usually denotes the spectrum of primary vasculitides that causes chronic granulomatous inflammation predominantly involving the aorta and its major branches. The two major entities in this group are giant cell arteritis (GCA): affects older individuals (t...
Article

Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral circumflex femoral artery

The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises from its lateral aspect just after the medial circumflex femoral artery. While the medial circumflex runs posteriorly around the femoral neck, the lateral circumflex courses laterally from its origin and anter...
Article

Lateralized internal carotid artery

The lateralized internal carotid artery is an anatomic variation of the course of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It can be visualized on CT by its more posterolateral entrance to the skull base and protrusion into the anterior mesotympanum. Clinical presentation It m...
Article

Lateral lenticulostriate arteries

The lateral lenticulostriate arteries arise from the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), usually from M1 segment, more rarely from the postbifurcation or M2 segment. They supply the lateral portion of the putamen and external capsule as well as the upper internal capsule. They are longer (al...
Article

Lateral marginal vein

The lateral marginal vein (also known as the vein of Servelle or the Klippel-Trenaunay vein) is one of two known persisting embryonic veins of the leg, the persistent sciatic vein being the other.  Development As an embryonic vein it usually undergoes regression before birth. It is part of the...
Article

Lateral posterior choroidal artery

The lateral posterior choroidal artery may be a singular structure or exist as multiple lateral posterior choroidal arteries. In both cases, they arise from the P2 segment of the PCA, just distal (and lateral) to the medial posterior choroidal arteries. In some cases, they may arise from one of ...
Article

Lateral sacral artery

The lateral sacral artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary location: pelvis origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery in the pelvis branches: superior and inferior sacral arteries supply: sacral meninges, pirifor...
Article

Lateral tentorial artery

The lateral tentorial artery also known as lateral tentorial arcade, is a branch of the meningohypophyseal trunk (MHT) which arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The lateral tentorial artery runs along the lateral edge of the tentorium cerebelli. Radiographic appear...
Article

Lateral thoracic artery

The lateral thoracic artery is a branch of the second part of the axillary artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The lateral thoracic artery originates from the medial surface of the axillary artery, posterior to the distal part of pectoralis minor. It courses inferomedially along the infe...
Article

Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
Article

Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is one of the two branches of the left coronary artery (the other branch being the circumflex (Cx) artery). Gross anatomy It descends along the interventricular groove. It can be divided into proxim...
Article

Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes superiorly to supply the upper part of the...
Article

Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the celiac artery.   It passes superiorly over the left crus of the diaphragm, approaching the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, giving off an esophageal branch to the distal esophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along t...
Article

Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower esophageal v...
Article

Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the stomach, approximately 1 cm from the gastric wall before it anastomoses with the ri...
Article

Left hepatic artery

The left hepatic artery (LHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the left and right hepatic arteries at or before reaching the porta hep...
Article

Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic val...
Article

Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...
Article

Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
Article

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Article

Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
Article

Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are mechanical circulatory support device that are surgically implanted to aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a trans...
Article

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardium,...
Article

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumor and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumors 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyosa...
Article

Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome (also known as postanginal septicemia) refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemio...
Article

Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate arteries  There is, however, some confusion a...
Article

Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system Hug...
Article

Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
Article

Ligamentum teres (abdomen)

The ligamentum teres or round ligament is the fibrous cord formed by the obliterated fetal umbilical vein that runs in the free edge of the falciform ligament from the umbilicus into the left lobe of the liver.  
Article

Ligamentum teres (disambiguation)

The term ligamentum teres can refer to the: ligamentum teres of the abdomen (round ligament) ligamentum teres of the hip
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Light bulb sign (pheochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is an MRI feature of this tumor. It refers to marked hyperintensity on T2 weighted sequences, however, this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and pheochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal intensit...
Article

Lingual artery

The lingual artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies the oral floor and tongue. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the C3 course: towards hyoid bone, then loops down towards the tongue supply: oral floor and tongue terminat...
Article

Lipohyalinosis

Lipohyalinosis is a disease affecting the small cerebral arteries associated with lacunar infarction and deep white matter changes related to small vessel chronic ischemia. Pathology The histopathological landmarks of lipohyalinosis are irregular fibrosis and hyaline of small cerebral arteries...
Article

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
Article

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
Article

Loeys-Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which has many features similar to Marfan syndrome. The disease is characterized by skeletal manifestations and vasculopathies. Although Loeys-Dietz syndrome shares many similarities with Marfan syndrome, the course is oft...
Article

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as that occurring distal to the ligament of Treitz (i.e. from the jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum or anus) and presenting as either hematochezia (bright red blood/clots or burgundy stools) or melena. Epidemiology The incidence of lower gastrointe...
Article

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis: diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischemic colitis vascular malformation vascular ectasia angiodysplasia arteriovenous m...
Article

Lower limb anatomy

Lower limb anatomy encompasses the anatomy all structures of the lower limb, including the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the international standard of anatomical nomenclature. 
Article

Luetic aneurysm

Luetic aneurysms (also called syphilitic aneurysms) are a type of aneurysm occurring usually secondary to syphilitic aortitis.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Pathology The responsible organism is a sp...
Article

Lumbar arteries

The lumbar arteries are paired branches of the abdominal aorta arising in the lumbar region. Gross anatomy Origin There are most commonly four paired lumbar arteries originating as posterolateral branches of the abdominal aorta on either side, at the level of L1-4. Course The paired arterie...
Article

Lymph

Lymph (also known as lymphatic fluid) is the name given to the interstitial fluid once it has passed into the lymphatic vessels. Formation As blood passes through capillary beds a significant proportion of the plasma is filtered into the extracellular space. Most of this filtered tissue fluid ...
Article

Lymphangioma

Lymphangiomas are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. It is considered the lymphatic equivalent of a hemangioma of blood vessels.  This article focuses on the general features of lymphangiomas. For a specific discussion in other locations, please refer to the ...
Article

Lymphangiosarcoma

Lymphangiosarcomas are rare malignant soft tissue neoplasms represent a vascular tumor (angiosarcoma) that occurs in patients with chronic lymphedema. Epidemiology It affects females more than males, as it is commonly associated with post-mastectomy lymphedema.  Clinical presentation Chronic...
Article

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system (also known as the lymphoid system or systema lymphoideum in Terminologia Anatomica) is the collective term given to the lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissues in the body 1,4. Terminology Occasionally the lymphatic system is considered with the reticuloendothelial system ...
Article

Lymphocele

Lymphoceles are collections of lymphatic fluid that happen most frequently in the postoperative setting. Although they can occur in potentially any part of the body where lymphatic tissue is resected (e.g. lymphadenectomy) or injured in trauma, they are most commonly seen in the retroperitoneum....
Article

Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Lymphoceles of the thoracic duct, also known as thoracic duct cysts, are lymph-filled collections/dilatations that can arise from any portion of the thoracic duct. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment...
Article

Lymphedema

Lymphedema is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the soft tissues as the result of impaired lymphatic drainage, with resultant inflammation, adipose tissue hypertrophy, and fibrosis. It can be either primary or secondary, due to surgery or disease processes. The condition can cause disfigur...
Article

Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumor. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
Article

Macaroni sign (arteries)

The macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents the smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the ...
Article

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
Article

Malignant vascular tumors

Malignant vascular tumors are rare, accounting for <1% of all sarcomas.  Pathology intermediate grade hemangioendothelioma Kaposi sarcoma high grade hemangiopericytoma angiosarcoma
Article

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease caused by a defect in the protein fibrillin 1, encoded for by the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular involvement with aortic root dilatation and dissection is the most feared complication of the disease. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is...
Article

Marginal artery of Drummond

The marginal artery of Drummond, also known as the marginal artery of the colon, is a continuous arterial circle or arcade along the inner border of the colon formed by the anastomoses of the terminal branches of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Gross a...
Article

Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularization, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
Article

Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transvers...
Article

Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, at first, it is embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes anterior between ...
Article

Maximum intensity projection

Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) consists of projecting the voxel with the highest attenuation value on every view throughout the volume onto a 2D image 1. Such an algorithm is rather simple: for each XY coordinate, only the pixel with the highest Hounsfield number along the Z-axis is represe...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
Article

McConnell’s capsular arteries

McConnell’s capsular arteries (MCCA) are one of the three major branches of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Gross anatomy They arise from the medial wall of the cavernous ICA distal to both the meningohypophyseal trunk and the inferolateral trunk. The McConnell’s c...
Article

Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is usually a branch of the profunda femoris that arises close to its origin, usually before the origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. It provides blood to the femoral neck and damage to the artery or involvement of it in pathological processes may ...
Article

Medial frontobasal artery

The medial frontobasal artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) which runs forward and basally along the medial surface of the hemisphere towards the frontal pole, suppling the orbital part of the frontal lobe from its medial side.
Article

Medial lenticulostriate arteries

The medial lenticulostriate arteries are generally considered to arise from the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and supply the globus pallidus and medial portion of the putamen 1,3.  They are shorter, thinner and fewer in number than the lateral lenticulostriate arteries, which ar...
Article

Medial posterior choroidal artery

The medial posterior choroidal artery is a small branch (often multiple - 40% of hemispheres) usually arising from the P2 segment of the PCA. It may also arise from one of the PCA branches, e.g. parieto-occiptal, calcarine, splenial artery. It ascends deep to the rest of the PCA and supplies sm...
Article

Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments running from the pelvis to the umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of the obliterated ...
Article

Median antebrachial vein

The median antebrachial vein is a superficial vein of the anterior forearm that drains the superficial structures of the forearm and wrist between the basilic and cephalic veins. It ascends to the cubital fossa where it usually drains into the median cephalic and median basilic veins (collective...
Article

Median cubital vein

The median cubital vein is the superficial vein overlying the bicipital aponeurosis in the roof of the cubital fossa, commonly cannulated for intravenous access. It variably forms as either a H or M type pattern joining the median antebrachial, basilic and cephalic veins. If a M-shaped pattern, ...
Article

Median prosencephalic vein

The median prosencephalic vein of Markowski is a precursor to the vein of Galen; typically before birth, its anterior portion regresses with formation of the internal cerebral veins and its posterior portion persists as the vein of Galen. If an arterio-venous fistula exists, it balloons out to b...
Article

Median sacral artery

The median sacral artery is a small single posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta that descends to supply structures in the pelvis. Summary location: abdomen and pelvis origin and termination: originates as a posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta just above the level of the b...
Article

Median umbilical fold

The median umbilical fold is a raised ridge of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the median umbilical ligament representing the anatomical remnant of the foetal urachus. It is one of the 5 umbilical folds and should not be confused with the bilateral...
Article

Mediastinal hemangioma

Mediastinal hemangioma is a location specific subtype of a hemangioma. Epidemiology There incidence account for less than 0.5% among all mediastinal masses 1. Clinical presentation Up to half of patients may be asymptomatic 1. Others may present with non-specific symptoms, such as cough, che...
Article

Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
Article

Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck into the chest and stomach or ascend to/into the head. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) ...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.