Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,157 results found
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 (cavernous) segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy. However, due to its small size, the meningohypophyseal trunk is seen only ...
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Mental artery

The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery which itself is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It emerges onto the face from the mandibular canal with the mental nerve at the mental foramen, and supplies muscles and skin in the chin region. The mental ...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outline by these intimal flaps belong to the false ...
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Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1. Clinical presentation There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome: hyperinsulinemia impaired glucose tolerance dysl...
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Mickey Mouse appearance

In medical imaging literature, a Mickey Mouse appearance has been given to imaging features that depict that of Mickey Mouse when viewed from the front. It has been described in the following: anencephaly 2 progressive supranuclear palsy 1 synonymously with a finger in glove sign the flared ...
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Mickey Mouse sign (ultrasound)

The Mickey Mouse sign is said to represent the normal anatomy of the common femoral artery, common femoral vein and great saphenous vein on ultrasound at the level just inferior the inguinal crease.  See also Mickey Mouse appearance
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Microscopic polyangiitis

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is small vessel non-granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis. It most often affects venules, capillaries, arterioles, and small arteries, although it occasionally involves medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology It typically affects middle-aged individuals. Distribution...
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Midaortic syndrome

Midaortic syndrome is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterized by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Clinical presentation The onset of symptoms is usually during childhood or young adulthood 2: hypertension (most common) i...
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Middle adrenal artery

The middle adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. Gross Anatomy Origin The middle suprarenal arteries arise from the aorta on each side between the inferior phrenic artery and the renal artery. They run laterally across the diaphragmati...
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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
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Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sulcus wh...
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Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct

The middle cerebral artery territory is the most commonly affected territory in a cerebral infarction, due to the size of the territory and the direct flow from internal carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery, providing the easiest path for thromboembolism. Clinical presentation The ne...
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Middle colic artery

The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It passes in the layers of the transverse mesocolon to the transverse colon. The middle colic artery divides into right and left branches. The right branch supplies the right portion of the transverse colon and anastom...
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Middle collateral artery

The middle collateral artery is one of the two terminal branches of the deep brachial artery. As it descends in the distal part of the posterior compartment of the arm, it contributes to the arterial anastomosis of the elbow specifically the interosseous recurrent artery which is the proximal co...
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Middle hepatic artery

The middle hepatic artery (MHA) is an intrahepatic hilar arterial branch, usually arising from the left hepatic artery, which supplies segments IVa and IVb. It runs towards the right side of the umbilical fissure. Variant anatomy it may arise from the right hepatic artery 1,2 it may arise as ...
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Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery branches off the first part of the maxillary artery. It passes vertically through the roots of the auriculotemporal nerve and enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two branches - superior tympanic branch and ganglionic branch - be...
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Middle rectal artery

The middle rectal artery, also known as the middle hemorrhoidal artery, is a branch from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery supplying the rectum. Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: inferior rectum, seminal vesicles, prostat...
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Middle thyroid vein

The middle thyroid vein is a tributary of the internal jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course The middle thyroid vein arises from the lateral surface of the thyroid. It traverses laterally to the internal jugular vein, passing anterior to the common carotid artery and posterior to the ...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognized more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Mixed vascular malformation

A mixed vascular malformation is a relatively common congenital cerebral vascular malformation, most frequently composed of a developmental venous anomaly and a cavernous malformation. As developmental venous anomalies seldom bleed, the risk of a mixed vascular malformation is determined by the ...
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Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is characterized by calcific deposits within the media of medium and small muscular arteries that do not cause luminal narrowing. The calcification is typically diffuse and circumferential along the vessel and is readily visible on plain film. Vascular calcif...
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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the terminal supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis.   Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, c...
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Moyamoya syndrome

Moyamoya syndrome, also termed the moyamoya pattern or phenomenon, is due to numerous conditions that can cause arterial occlusion of the circle of Willis, with resultant collaterals, and appearances reminiscent of moyamoya disease. These conditions include 1-4 : vessel wall abnormalities athe...
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Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
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Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It supplies the 7th, 8th and 9th intercostal spaces with paired anterior intercostal arteries, as well as fine branch...
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Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumors, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumors are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology The name is derived fro...
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Mycotic aneurysm

Mycotic aneurysms are aneurysms arising from infection of the arterial wall, usually bacterial. It is a complication of the haematogenous spread of bacterial infection, classically from the heart.  Epidemiology The epidemiology of mycotic aneurysms mirrors that of identifiable risk factors:  ...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. The incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15% and can be eas...
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Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare systemic disease, characterized by sarcoid-like granuloma formation, vasculitis and variable degrees of necrosis. It is sometimes classified under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatois. Epidemiology It typically affects middle-aged...
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Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
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Neurosyphilis

Neurosyphilis results from infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. The disease has a heterogeneous spectrum of early and late manifestations. For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer ...
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Neurovascular compression syndromes

Neurovascular compression syndromes are a form of vascular compression disorders where there is usually compression or distortion of a cranial nerve due to a redundant or aberrant vascular structure. Clinical presentation Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. Prese...
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Non-AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma

Non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a localized process which rarely involves lymph nodes or organs. For a discussion of Kaposi sarcoma in general, please refer to Kaposi sarcoma.  Epidemiology Sporadic (non-AIDS associated) Kaposi sarcoma is mostly seen in elderly males from the Mediterr...
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Norwood procedure

The Norwood procedure is a palliative procedure that is the first of three stages in the surgical treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure consists of three components: constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, suc...
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Nutcracker phenomenon

The nutcracker phenomenon (NCP), also known as left renal vein entrapment refers to a situation of impeded outflow from the left renal vein (LRV) into the inferior vena cava (IVC) as a result of compression and is often accompanied by demonstrable lateral (hilar) dilatation and mesoaortic narrow...
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Nutcracker syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder that refers to the compression of the left renal vein most commonly between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta, although other variations can exist 1. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walle...
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Obturator artery

The obturator artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It provides vascular supply within the pelvis and lower limb.  Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis and lower limb supply: pelvic muscles, ilium, head of femur, ...
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Obturator vein

The obturator vein travels between the adductor region of thigh and internal iliac vein entering the pelvis through the obturator foramen (along with the obturator artery and obturator nerve).  Course and termination Along the pelvic side wall the vein travels between the ureter and the intern...
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Occipital artery

The occipital artery, a posterior branch of the external carotid artery, opposite the external maxillary, near the lower margin of the posterior belly of the digastic muscle, and ends in the posterior part of the scalp. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the ...
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Occipital sinus

The occipital sinus is the smallest of the dural venous sinuses and lies, as its name suggests, on the inner surface of the occipital bone. Tributaries from the margins of the foramen magnum, some of which connect with both the sigmoid sinus and internal vertebral plexus, coalesce to pass in the...
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Esophageal hiatus

The esophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes from the thoracic to abdominal cavity. It is one of three apertures in the diaphragm and is located in the right crus. It is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of T10 and is ellipti...
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Esophageal varix

Esophageal varices describe dilated submucosal veins of the esophagus, and are an important portosystemic collateral pathway. They are considered distinct from gastric varices, which are less common. Epidemiology Esophageal varices are present in ~50% of patients with portal hypertension 1,2. ...
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Onyx

OnyxTM is the trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology for the occlusion of blood vessels in embolization therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Micronised tantalum powder is also added ...
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Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery is a branch of the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Gross anatomy Origin The ophthalmic artery arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the ICA exits the cavernous sinus. It originates from the antero- or supero-medial surface of the ICA. Course ...
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Orbital venous varix

Orbital venous varix (OVV) is an uncommon vascular malformation that is composed of enlarged single or multiple tubular venous channels with direct communication to the systemic venous system.  Terminology Orbital venous varices are divided into primary and secondary. Primary orbital varices a...
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Orbitofrontal artery

The orbitofrontal arteries, or frontobasal arteries, supply the orbitofrontal cortex. They consist of both medial and lateral orbitofrontal arteries. Gross anatomy The medial orbitofrontal artery (MOFA) is most commonly the first branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. It ari...
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Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery (between L2 and L3). Course Descends caudally ...
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Ovarian vein embolization

Ovarian vein embolization is an interventional technique primarily used towards the treatment of varicosities. Indications The main indications are: as part of management of pelvic congestion syndrome 1-4 to treat pelvic varicosities diagnosed by imaging to treat labial and/or perineal vari...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein (ovarian venous varix) causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein...
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Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis (actually most often thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein throm...
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Ovarian venous varix

Ovarian venous varix is a situation where there is variceal dilatation of the ovarian vein (usually left). It can be associated with pelvic congestion syndrome. Radiographic features May be seen as a serpinginous structure adjacent to the aorta along the course of the ovarian vein.  
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Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
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Pediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of pediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting pediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle to...
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Page kidney

Page kidney, or Page phenomenon, refers to systemic hypertension secondary to extrinsic compression of the kidney by a subcapsular collection, e.g. hematoma, seroma, or urinoma. Clinical presentation Patients present with hypertension, which may be recognized acutely after an inciting event or...
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Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
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Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus (plural: plexuses) is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testis and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular (internal sperma...
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Pancreaticoduodenal veins

The pancreaticoduodenal veins accompany their corresponding arteries and act to drain the head of the pancreas and duodenum. Gross anatomy There are four small pancreaticoduodenal veins: posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein posterior inferio...
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Pancreatic veins

The pancreatic veins drain blood from the body and tail of the pancreas. Gross anatomy The pancreatic veins comprise several small vessels that together act to drain the body and tail of the pancreas, and open into the great pancreatic vein. This subsequently drains into the splenic vein 1.
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Paracaval lipoma

Paracaval lipoma (juxtacaval fat collection or pseudolipoma of the inferior vena cava) can be a frequent finding on CT and can be seen in up to 0.5% of examinations 1. Some even consider this as a normal variation 5. It occurs at the medial aspect of the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena...
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Paradoxical embolism

Paradoxical embolism is a clinical scenario in which an embolism arising in the venous system crosses into the arterial circulation where it causes tissue infarction. The most common clinically important site of embolization is the cerebral circulation. Epidemiology The prevalence of paradoxic...
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Paraumbilical veins

The paraumbilical veins are small veins around the falciform ligament that drain venous blood from the anterior part of the abdominal wall and diaphragm directly into the liver, and communicate with other anterior abdominal wall veins. This flow is considered the cause of focal fatty infiltratio...
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Parotid infantile hemangioma

Parotid infantile hemangiomas are the most common parotid tumor of childhood. They usually run a characteristically benign course. Epidemiology The median age at diagnosis is 4 months 1. There is a female preponderance with a male: female ratio of 1:3. Clinical presentation Presents as an en...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
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PELVIS syndrome

PELVIS or LUMBAR syndrome is the combination of pelvic hemangiomas with other extracutaneous abnormalities. The syndrome may be incomplete.   Pathology PELVIS perineal hemangiomas external genital malformations lipomyelomeningocele vesicorenal anomalies imperforate anus skin tag LUMBAR ...
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Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAU) are a pathology that involves the aortic wall. Along with aortic dissection and aortic intramural hematoma they can form the spectrum known as acute aortic syndrome.  Epidemiology Typically, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are seen in older male pati...
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Perforating veins of the lower limb

The perforating veins of the lower limb (PV or “perforators”) are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial venous systems of the lower extremity to the deep veins where they drain. There are numerous veins that are variable in arrangement, connectio...
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Perforators of the leg and calf (venae perforantes cruris)

The perforators of the leg (venae perforantes cruris; PV; or “perforating veins”) are a subset of, and not to be confused with, the larger overarching group of perforating veins of the lower limb. This group of veins connects the superficial venous systems and deep veins in the calf and are div...
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Peri-aneurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis

Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis is a subtype of a spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis. It is characterized by association with an inflammatory aneurysm, adventitial and periadventitial inflammation, medial thinning and chronic retroperitoneal inflammatory process which is associated wit...
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Pericallosal artery

The pericallosal artery is the distal portion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) that courses over the superior surface of the body of the corpus callosum in the pericallosal cistern. It gives off many small branches to the corpus callosum, forming the pericallosal moustache. Some authors de...
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Pericallosal moustache

The pericallosal moustache is formed by small branches from the pericallosal arteries and their accompanying veins. These form what appears to be an upturned poorly groomed moustache (not unlike Salvador Dali) and outline the superior surface of the corpus callosum (pericallosal cistern).
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Etiology uremia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) post-radiotherapy 5 On chest radio...
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Pericardiophrenic artery

The pericardiophrenic artery, also known as the pericardiacophrenic artery, is a branch of the internal thoracic artery that runs to the diaphragm where it anastamoses with both the musculophrenic and superior phrenic arteries. It runs with the phrenic nerve and pericardiophrenic vein between th...
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Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm

Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm refers to the formation of a pseudoaneurysm around the pancreatic gland. It is a rare but potentially lethal complication 5. Epidemiology Formation of pseudoaneurysm can occur in as many as 10% of cases of pancreatitis. The time interval is variable, ranging from ...
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Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common and debilitating condition. Epidemiology The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is ~12% 3. Pathology Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of occlusive arterial disease of the extremities in patients over 40 years of age with t...
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Peripheral arterial disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Peripheral arterial disease (sometimes less accurately referred to as peripheral vascular disease) is a relatively common progressive disease of arterial degeneration that can result in a variety of symptoms. Reference art...
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Peripherally inserted central catheter

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...
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Peroneal magnus artery

The peroneal magnus artery or peronea arteria magna (PAM) is a congenital variant of the arterial supply of the leg, where both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries are hypoplastic and a large dominant peroneal artery supplies the whole leg and foot. It is seen in up to 5% of people 1,3. ...
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Peroneal veins

The peroneal or fibular veins are the venae comitantes that run with the peroneal artery in the lateral compartment of the leg and receive tributaries from soleus and from superficial veins. They terminate in the posterior tibial vein.
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Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses

The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are variant anatomical arterial communications between the anterior and posterior circulations due to abnormal embryological development of the vertebrobasilar system. They are named, with the exception of the proatlantal artery, using the crani...
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Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
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Persistent falcine sinus

The falcine sinus is a normal structure in the fetus and is located within the falx cerebri draining the deep cerebral venous system to the superior sagittal sinus. Normally it involutes after birth. If the straight sinus is absent or thrombosed then the falcine sinus may recanalize or persist. ...
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Persistent hypoglossal artery

A persistent hypoglossal artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is second in frequency to the trigeminal artery which is present approximately six times as often.  It arises from the distal cervical ICA, usually between C1 and C3. After passing through an enlarg...
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Persistent median artery of the forearm

The persistent median artery of the forearm is an accessory artery that arises from the ulnar artery in the proximal forearm and is a persistent embryological remnant of the axial artery that usually regresses by eight weeks gestation. Epidemiology It is present in ~10% (range 2.2-23%) of the ...
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Persistent otic artery

The persistent otic artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses, although there is considerable controversy in regards to its existence. It is said to arise from the internal carotid artery within the carotid canal, emerges from the internal acoustic meatus, and joins the...
Article

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is present in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms and is usually unilateral. In utero the trigeminal artery supplies the basilar artery before the development of the posterior communicatin...
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Persistent proatlantal intersegmental artery

The proatlantal intersegmental artery is also known as the type I proatlantal artery, and is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It arises from the internal carotid artery (similar to the hypoglossal artery) but instead of heading for the hypoglossal canal, it joins the ve...
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Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
Article

Persistent sciatic artery

A persistent sciatic artery is a rare vascular anomaly where there is the persistence of the embryological axial limb artery, representing a continuation of the internal iliac artery into the thigh through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle and down the thigh alongside to th...
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Persistent stapedial artery

The persistent stapedial artery (PSA) is an abnormal small vessel arising from the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery and crossing through the middle ear. It results from the failure of regression of the embryonic stapedial artery.  Epidemiology The prevalence is thought to range f...
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Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS)

Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) is a procedure is where a computer designed mesh sleeve is manufactured to match the aortic root and aortic morphology of the individual patient and then placed to repair pathological aortic morphology such as those with Marfan syndrome. It was i...
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PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: hemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Article

Phase contrast imaging

Phase contrast imaging is an MRI technique that can be used to visualize moving fluid. It is typically used for MR venography as a non-IV-contrast requiring technique.  Spins that are moving in the same direction as a magnetic field gradient develop a phase shift that is proportional to the vel...

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