Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,157 results found
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Phleboliths

Phleboliths are literally "vein stones", and represent calcification within venous structures. They are particularly common in the pelvis where they may mimic ureteric calculi, and are also encountered frequently in venous malformations. There is an association with Maffucci syndrome.  Radiogra...
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Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is an uncommon complication of deep venous thrombosis, which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion of the major and collateral veins of an extremity (usually the legs). Epidemiology Left leg is more commonly affected than the right 4. Risk factors Risk f...
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Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterization. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterization with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
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PISAPED criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The PISAPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on perfusion scintigraphy (only the Q portion of the V/Q scan) in combination with chest radiography. The criteria were validated in the Prospective Investigative St...
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Placental chorioangioma

Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumors of placental origin. It is the most common tumor of the placenta and is usually found incidentally. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1% of all pregnancies 3. Clinical presentation In most cases, chorioangiomas are asymptomatic, a...
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Plexogenic arteriopathy

Plexogenic arteriopathy has been a term used to describe a constellation of vascular changes occurring in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is considered the histologic hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; it is seen in approximately 75% of cases 3. The term for t...
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Polo mint sign (venous thrombosis)

The polo mint sign is a description given to a venous thrombosis on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.  When viewed in the axial plane, a thin rim of contrast persists around a central filling defect due to thrombus. This gives an appearance like that of the popular UK mint sweet, the Polo (figure 1)...
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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotizing vasculitis that involves small to medium-sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology PAN is more common in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades. 20-30% of patients are hepatitis B antigen positiv...
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Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition typically affecting elderly people. It is a multisystem disorder but usually affects the musculoskeletal system. It can manifest in various ways, which are best discussed in the separate articles below: polymyalgia rheumatica (mus...
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Polymyositis (pulmonary manifestations)

Lung involvement in polymyositis can have a number of manifestations including those resembling interstitial lung disease. For a general discussion of polymyositis, please refer to the parent article. Radiographic features The lungs may present with a mixture of different fibrotic patterns, e...
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Pontine arteries

The pontine branches are the small arterial branches of the basilar artery that supply the pons and structures adjacent to the pons. There are usually 3-5 paired arterial branches which are located in the mid-basilar region between the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the superior cerebe...
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Popliteal artery

The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery, at the point where it exits the adductor canal at the adductor hiatus, and passes into the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. Summary origin: continuation of the superficial femor...
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Popliteal artery aneurysm

Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common peripheral arterial aneurysm and the second most common aneurysm after abdominal aortic aneurysms. Epidemiology Overall, popliteal artery aneurysms are uncommon. They occur almost exclusively in males (up to 97%) for unknown reasons 8-9. There is ...
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Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) refers to symptomatic compression or occlusion of the popliteal artery due to a developmentally abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery in relation to its surrounding structures such as with the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG) or less commonly ...
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Popliteal fossa

The popliteal fossa (plural: fossae) is a diamond or rhomboid-shaped fat-filled space in the posterior knee. The space is extremely dynamic, allowing for its neurovascular contents to move during the extreme range of motion produced by knee flexion and extension. Gross anatomy Boundaries supe...
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Popliteal vein

The popliteal vein forms from the posterior and anterior tibial veins and ascends through the popliteal fossa to the opening in adductor magnus alongside the popliteal artery where it becomes the femoral vein. Its relationship to the popliteal artery changes as the vein ascends, but it is alway...
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Popliteal venous aneurysm

Popliteal venous aneurysms are rare than those of the popliteal artery and are mostly asymptomatic. However, due to the disturbance of the venous blood flow, they can lead to potentially life-threatening consequences, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Epidemiology ...
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Porcelain aorta

A porcelain aorta refers to circumferential calcification of the ascending aorta. This finding is important to recognize in the preoperative evaluation of cardiac surgery as it complicates cardiac surgeries that require cross-clamping or accessing the aorta (such as open aortic valve replacement...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) greater than 5 mmHg. HVPG is a surrogate for the portosystemic pressure gradient. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as a gradient greater than 10 mmHg and variceal bleeding may occur at a gradient great...
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...
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Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Gross anatomy The portal vein usually measures approximately 8 cm in length in adults with a ...
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Portal vein calcification

Portal vein calcification is a rare radiologic finding which can be seen in long-standing portal venous hypertension. Pathology Calcium may be deposited in a thrombus or in the wall of the portal vein and is more rarely found in the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein. One of the propos...
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Portal vein embolization

Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes, diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, the future liver remnant (FLR). This diversion will increase the size of the post-hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) which imp...
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Portal vein thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis may be seen in a variety of clinical contexts, and when acute can be a life-threatening condition. It is a major cause of non-cirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombus may be either bland and/or malignant (i.e. tumor thrombus), and it is a critical ...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, centr...
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Portal venous system

The portal venous system refers to the vessels involved in the drainage of the capillary beds of the GI tract and spleen into the capillary bed of the liver. Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. As a result, the partial pressure of oxygen...
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Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...
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Portosystemic shunt ratio

The portosystemic shunt ratio is a measure performed using ultrasound to quantify the abnormal flow of portal venous blood that is shunted away from the hepatic sinusoidal circulation in the context of a congenital portosystemic shunt 1. Ultrasound The ratio is determined using the following e...
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Post-embolization syndrome

Post-embolization syndrome (PES) is one of the most common side effects of transarterial embolization and chemoembolization. It comprises of a constellation of fever, nausea/vomiting, and pain. It is often a self-limiting phenomenon and usually occurs within the first 72 hours after embolization...
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Posterior auricular artery

The posterior auricular artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies scalp posterior to the auricle and the auricle itself. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery above digastric and stylohyoid opposite the styloid process course: ascends beneath the parotid t...
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Posterior auricular vein

The posterior auricular vein is tributary of the external jugular vein or retromandibular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course It arises over the mastoid process of the temporal bone draining the skin behind the ear and courses anteriorly into the parotid gland, draining into the external ju...
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Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
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Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarct

Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarcts arise, as the name says, from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery. It is a type of posterior circulation infarction. Clinical presentation Symptoms of posterior cerebral artery stroke include contralateral homonymous haemianopia (due to occipital...
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Posterior cerebral circulation

The posterior cerebral circulation (or simply, posterior circulation) is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain, including the occipital lobes, cerebellum and brainstem. Due to the anastomotic circle of Willis, the posterior circulation connects via the posterior communicating a...
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Posterior choroidal artery

The posterior choroidal artery is not in fact a single artery, although it is commonly referred to as such. The posterior choroidal arteries, often numbering up to 10 or 11 per hemisphere, are divided into medial posterior choroidal artery and lateral posterior choroidal artery groups. They usua...
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Posterior choroidal artery stroke

Posterior choroidal artery occlusion uncommonly presents as an isolated stroke syndrome.  It usually coexists with posterior cerebral artery and often superior cerebellar artery involvement.  When seen in isolation damage is characteristically limited to the: lateral geniculate body pulvinar ...
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Posterior communicating artery

The posterior communicating artery (PCOM or P Comm) makes up the posterior linkage in the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy Course The PCOM originates from the posterior aspect of the C7 (communicating) segment of the internal carotid artery and extends posteriormedially to anastomose with the ...
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Posterior ethmoidal artery

The posterior ethmoidal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses, dura and nasal cavity. Course It passes through the posterior ethmoidal foramen to enter the anterior cranial fossa where it gives off meningeal and nasal branches.
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Posterior external jugular vein

The posterior external jugular vein is a tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course Forms from the confluence of several superficial veins in the posterosuperior neck and posterior scalp. It passes superficially over the posterior triangle to drain into the extern...
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Posterior humeral circumflex artery

The posterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm 1 location: proximal arm supply: glenohumeral joint, teres major and minor, and deltoid 1 main ...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Posterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of anterior and posterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The first two intercostal spaces are supplied by the superior intercostal artery, and the remaining nine are supplied by separate branches from the descending thoracic aorta 1. The right ...
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Posterior interosseous artery

The posterior interosseous artery is one of the two terminal branches of the short common interosseous artery (from the ulnar artery). The artery courses deep in the proximal anterior compartment of the forearm to pierce the upper aspect of the interosseous membrane and enter the posterior compa...
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Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Posterior tibial artery

The posterior tibial artery (PTA) is one of the 2 branches of the tibioperoneal trunk in the lower leg and provides oxygenated blood to the posterior compartments of the leg and plantar surface of the foot. It is accompanied by the posterior tibial vein, along its course. Summary origin: tibio...
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Posterior tibial veins

The posterior tibial veins accompany the posterior tibial artery. They receive tributaries from the calf muscles (especially from the venous plexus in the soleus) and from superficial veins. They join the anterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein and enter the popliteal fossa.
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Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

The posterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the posterior medial aspect of the elbow, posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the superior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to...
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Posterior vein of the left ventricle

The posterior vein of the left ventricle is a vein of the heart which courses over the inferior wall of the left ventricle and drains into the coronary sinus to the left of where the middle cardiac vein drains into the sinus. It drains, not unsurprisingly, the inferior wall of the left ventricle.
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Post-thrombotic syndrome

Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
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Power Doppler

Power Doppler is a technique that uses the amplitude of Doppler signal to detect moving matter. Power Doppler: is independent of velocity and direction of flow, so there is no possibility of signal aliasing is independent of angle, allowing detection of smaller velocities than color Doppler, f...
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Pretzel sign (serpentine aneurysm)

The pretzel sign is seen on DSA and is indicative of a serpentine aneurysm 1. The sign refers to the sinusoid configuration of the intra-aneurysmal vascular channel seen in serpentine aneurysms, giving it the appearance of a pretzel.
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MAP Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior i...
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Princeps pollicis artery

The princeps pollicis artery (also known as the first palmar metacarpal artery) is a branch of the radial artery that supplies the thumb (1st digit). It arises from the radial artery just as it enters the palm and courses distally along the palmar aspect of 1st metacarpal. At the 1st metacarpoph...
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Proatlantal artery

The proatlantal artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses, and can be subdivided into two types depending on its origin: type I: (~55%) also known as the proatlantal intersegmental artery arises from the internal carotid artery corresponds to the first segmental art...
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Profunda femoris artery

The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery or deep artery of the thigh) is a branch of the common femoral artery and is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the deep structures of the thigh, including the femora. Summary origin: common femoral artery main bran...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Prostatic artery embolization

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilized to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic hemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment of...
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Prostatic venous plexus

The prostatic venous plexus is a network of veins around the anterolateral aspect of the prostate and anterior to the bladder. Tributaries include: deep dorsal vein of the penis anterior vesical rami prostatic rami The receipt of blood from the vesical and prostatic rami connect the prostati...
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Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
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Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterized by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
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Proximal brachial artery

The proximal brachial artery represents the initial portion of the brachial artery as it arises as a continuation of the axillary artery at the inferior edge of teres major. There is no anatomic difference between the proximal and more distal brachial artery. However, the functional response to...
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Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterized by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congenital origin, and characterized by elongation and ki...
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Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome, is a systemic condition characterized by the degeneration of elastic fibers. It has multiorgan manifestations. Epidemiology Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.  Clinical presentation Patients may ...
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Psoas sign (abdominal x-ray)

The psoas sign is a classic non-specific finding on the abdominal radiograph, potentially representing retroperitoneal pathology. Normally on an abdominal radiograph, the lateral margins of both the psoas muscles are clearly visible due to adjacent fat. When the lateral edge of one, or both, ps...
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Puff of smoke sign

The puff of smoke sign describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moyamoya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arteria...
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Pulmonary arterial aneurysm

Pulmonary arterial aneurysms refer to a focal dilatation of the pulmonary arterial system. Epidemiology Overall it is considered a rare entity with autopsy prevalence rates of around 1 in 14,000 to 100,000 4,5. Pathology A true pulmonary artery aneurysm results from dilatation of all three l...
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Pulmonary arterial atherosclerosis

Pulmonary artery atherosclerosis is less common than systemic arterial atherosclerosis in the thorax.  It has been shown to correlate with the following factors  age right ventricular dilatation right ventricular hypertrophy pulmonary emphysema aortic atherosclerosis pulmonary hypertensio...
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Pulmonary arterial calcification

Pulmonary arterial calcification is the phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension. Pathology The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonar...
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Pulmonary arterial dissection

Pulmonary arterial dissection is extremely rare but can be a fatal situation. Only a handful of cases have been described in live patients. Pathology It is mostly described in those with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  It can progress to a pulmonary artery aneurysm and fatal spontan...
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Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are rare vascular anomalies of the lung, in which abnormally dilated vessels provide a right-to-left shunt between the pulmonary artery and vein. They are generally considered direct high flow, low-resistance fistulous connections between the pulmona...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is a congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Pathology Th...
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Pulmonary artery banding

Pulmonary artery banding is a palliative surgical procedure used to decrease excessive pulmonary blood flow. It is usually used for neonates and infants with left-to-right shunts unable to withstand complete surgical correction.   Some indications include: single ventricle multiple ventricula...
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Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient. Historically they were widely used to measure right heart hemodynam...
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm refers to a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary arteries. Pathology Unlike a true aneurysm, it does not involve all three layers of the arterial wall.  They can arise from a number of causes including infection, associated neoplasms, and trauma.  Locatio...
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumors that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumors of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.001–...
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Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and peripheral stenoses See also congenital pulmonary stenosis
Article

Pulmonary capillaritis

Pulmonary capillaritis is a general term given to inflammation of the pulmonary capillaries. It is essentially a histopathological diagnosis 3. Pathology The underlying inflammation leads to the disruption alveolar-capillary basement membrane integrity with resultant flooding of the alveoli wi...
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
Article

Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of the lung with low malignant potential. Epidemiology Rare tumor, with ~50 cases reported. Patient age at presentation ranges from 25-54 years old. Female predilection. Clinical presentation Often asymptomatic and discovere...
Article

Pulmonary gas embolism

Pulmonary gas emboli are a specific type of pulmonary emboli.  Clinical presentation Presentation can vary depending on the volume of gas emboli whereby patients with small amounts of gas can be asymptomatic. Commonly reported clinical manifestations include sudden dyspnea, chest pain, hypoten...
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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterization, which is a hemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension. A resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 20 mmHg or less is considered ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2003 classification)

There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems. In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
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Pulmonary hypertension (differential)

Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
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Pulmonary infarction

Pulmonary infarction is one of the key complications of pulmonary embolism (PE).  Epidemiology Pulmonary infarction occurs in the minority (10-15%) of patients with PE 2. Although in a necropsy study of those with lethal PE, 60% of cases developed infarction 7. Until recently it was felt that...
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Pulmonary edema due to air embolism

Pulmonary edema due to air embolism is one for the uncommon causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It usually occurs as an iatrogenic complication of an invasive procedure. Rarely, it may also be associated with open or closed chest trauma.  Pathology Air may enter into the low-pressure ve...
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Pulmonary-renal syndromes

Pulmonary-renal syndromes refer to a group of conditions that can affect the lung and kidneys. These conditions are typically characterized by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.  Diseases that can result in a pulmonary-renal syndrome includes: certain pulmonary vasculitides c...
Article

Pulmonary trunk

The pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery is the solitary arterial output from the right ventricle, transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Gross anatomy The pulmonary trunk is approximately 50 mm long and 30 mm wide (most authors use 29 mm width as the cut-off of norm...
Article

Pulmonary vasculitis

Pulmonary vasculitis refers to vasculitides that affect the lung or pulmonary vessels. If this definition is used, a large group of conditions can fall into this category. The respiratory system may be potentially involved in all systemic vasculitides, although to a variable degree. Pathology ...
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Pulmonary vein atresia

Pulmonary vein atresia represents to a spectrum of disorders where the pulmonary veins fail to form to varying degrees. It can be broadly divided into: unilateral pulmonary vein atresia bilateral pulmonary vein atresia - common pulmonary vein atresia See also anomalous pulmonary venous drai...
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Pulmonary veins

The pulmonary veins drain oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A small amount of blood is also drained from the lungs by the bronchial veins Gross anatomy There are typically four pulmonary veins, two draining each lung: right superior: drains the right upper and middle lobes ...
Article

Pulmonary vein stenosis

Pulmonary vein stenosis refers to a spectrum of conditions characterized by narrowing of the pulmonary veins. It can be congenital or acquired. primary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in children secondary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in adults and usually associated with some identifiabl...
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Pulmonary vein thrombosis

Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious condition with a number of underlying possible etiologies. Clinical presentation Often the signs and symptoms are non-specific and can range from acute (pulmonary infarction) to more insidious (progressive or recurrent pulmonary edema...

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