Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,012 results found
Article

Right marginal artery

The right marginal artery, also known as the right intermediate atrial branch, supplies the surrounding right atrial tissues 1,2 and, in 13.3% of cases, provides the main arterial supply to the sinus node 3,4. Gross Anatomy Origin It arises from the inferior border of the right coronary arter...
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Yin-yang sign

The yin-yang sign (also known as Pepsi sign) is a radiological sign described in both true and false aneurysms on various imaging modalities.  Radiographic features Ultrasound On Doppler ultrasound, the yin-yang sign indicates bidirectional flow due to the swirling of blood within the true or...
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Teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein)

The teardrop sign of the superior mesenteric vein is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic feat...
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Dural venous sinus thrombosis

Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis, often coexisting with cortical or deep vein thrombosis, and presenting in similar fashions, depending mainly on which sinus is involved. As such, please refer to the cerebral venous thrombosis article for a general discuss...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect (thrombus). It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be noted in the transve...
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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non inflammatory, non atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries.  Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, ...
Article

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. It is also sometimes classified as a vasculitis.  Epidemiology There is an overall increased female predilection. In adults, women are affected 9-13 times more than males. In children, this ratio i...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS lupus) describe a wide variety of neuropsychiatric manifestations that are secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the central nervous system (CNS). For a general discussion, and for links to other system spec...
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as that occurring distal to the ligament of Treitz (i.e. from the jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum or anus) and presenting as either haematochezia (bright red blood/clots or burgundy stools) or melaena. Epidemiology The incidence of LGIB is only o...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
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Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
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Varicocele grading on colour Doppler

Varicocele grading on colour Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocoele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the dia...
Article

ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
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Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
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Portal vein thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis may be seen in a variety of clinical contexts, and when acute can be a life-threatening condition. It is a major cause of non-cirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombus may be either bland and/or malignant (i.e. tumour thrombus), and it is a critical...
Article

Great saphenous vein

The great saphenous vein (GSV) forms part of the superficial venous system of the lower limb.  Terminology Great saphenous vein is the preferred terminology over other variants such as long saphenous vein (LSV), greater saphenous vein or internal saphenous vein 5.  Gross anatomy Origin and c...
Article

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
Article

Deep vein thrombosis

The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for those that occur in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate article...
Article

Basilic vein

The basilic vein, along with the cephalic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm, and contributes to the formation of the axillary vein. Summary origin: ulnar aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum ...
Article

Eagle syndrome

Eagle syndrome refers to symptomatic elongation of the styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament 1,2. It is often bilateral. In most cases, the cause is unknown; however, the condition is sometimes associated with disorders causing heterotopic calcification such as abnormal calcium/phosph...
Article

Neurovascular compression syndromes

Neurovascular compression syndromes are a form of vascular compression disorders where there is usually compression or distortion of a cranial nerve due to a redundant or aberrant vascular structure. Clinical presentation Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. Prese...
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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection is the most common form of the acute aortic syndromes and a type of arterial dissection. It occurs when blood enters the medial layer of the aortic wall through a tear or penetrating ulcer in the intima and tracks along the media, forming a second blood-filled channel within th...
Article

Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant and are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) of the population. Their proper identification is of utmost importance for surgical planning prior to live donor transplantation 2,3 and renal artery embolisation for various reasons 5. The term extra renal art...
Article

Type II endoleak

A type II endoleak is a commonest form of endoleak are after an abdominal aortic repair.  Epidemiology They may occur in 10-44% of patients having reparis and can comprise around half of all endoleaks 1. Pathology They may be simple or complex. Simple leak usually occur secondary to backflow...
Article

Vascular compression disorders

Vascular compression disorders are numerous and can be divided into those cases where a vascular structure is the "compress-er" or the "compress-ee" . Some conditions fall into both categories, where one vessel compresses another.  Compression of a vascular structure  Eagle syndrome thoracic ...
Article

Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
Article

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a syndrome reflecting a marked hypersensitivity reaction to drugs or medications. Clinical presentation  Clinical presentation can be variable and symptoms may arise from 2 to 8 weeks after initiating the offending drug. Typical cli...
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Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the main supply of arterial blood to the arm, forearm and hand.  Summary origin: continuation of the axillary artery distal to teres major location: medial upper arm supply: muscles of the arm, forearm and hand main branches: profunda brachii terminal branches: radia...
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Visceral artery aneurysm

Visceral artery aneurysms are abnormal focal dilatations of arteries supplying abdominal organs. Visceral artery aneurysms include both true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Owing to different clinical manifestations and a unique, specific, pathology, renal artery aneurysms are discussed separate...
Article

String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
Article

Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It supplies the 7th, 8th and 9th intercostal spaces with paired anterior intercostal arteries, as well as fine branch...
Article

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Greater pancreatic artery

The greater pancreatic artery, also known as the pancreatica magna artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises approximately two thirds the way along the splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margi...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
Article

Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
Article

Mycotic aneurysm

Mycotic aneurysms are aneurysms arising from infection of the arterial wall, usually bacterial. It is a complication of the haematogenous spread of bacterial infection, classically from the heart.  Epidemiology The epidemiology of mycotic aneurysms mirrors that of identifiable risk factors:  ...
Article

Aortitis

Aortitis refers to a general descriptor that involves a broad category of infectious and non-infectious conditions where there is inflammation (i.e. vasculitis) of the aortic wall. Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific with fever, pain and weight loss.  Pathology  Aetiology ...
Article

Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete obliteration class II: r...
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Cortical vein thrombosis

Cortical vein thrombosis, also known as superficial cerebral vein thrombosis, is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the superficial cerebral veins besides the dural sinus, often coexisting with deep cerebral vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis. It has different clinica...
Article

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
Article

Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location Located wit...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the midgut. Gross anatomy Origin Single vessel arising anteriorly from the abdominal aorta at the level of L1, usually just below ...
Article

Coeliac artery

Coeliac artery, also known as the coeliac axis or coeliac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut, arising from the abdominal aorta and commonly giving origin to three major arteries: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross ...
Article

Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
Article

Acute basilar artery occlusion

Acute occlusion of the basilar artery may cause brainstem or thalamic ischaemia or infarction. It is a true neuro-interventional emergency and, if not treated early, brainstem infarction results in rapid deterioration in the level of consciousness and ultimately death. Epidemiology Occlusions ...
Article

Transverse pancreatic artery

The transverse pancreatic artery, also known as the inferior pancreatic artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margin of the pancreas ne...
Article

Collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

There are several collateral systems between the primary vascular supply of the foregut and midgut.  The collateral between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery include: gastroduodenal artery (GDA) branch of the common hepatic artery and anastomoses with branches of the inferior pa...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper or the proper hepatic artery arises from the common hepatic artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the hepatic artery proper and the gastroduodenal artery.  Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery proper runs to the right anterior to the portal vein and...
Article

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
Article

Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...
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Splenic artery

The splenic artery is one of three branches coeliac trunk and supplies the spleen as well as large parts of the stomach and pancreas. Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the coeliac trunk, passing from the coeliac axis toward the splenic hilum...
Article

Dorsal pancreatic artery

The dorsal pancreatic artery is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreas. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run along the posterior margin of the pancreas where it divides in to left and right branches. the right branches pass either an...
Article

AICA-PICA dominance

AICA-PICA dominance refers to the principle that the cerebellar vascular territory supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery have a reciprocal arrangement. That is the size of the AICA and the subsequent territory it supplies is inversely propor...
Article

Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, supratrochle...
Article

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
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Inferior hypophyseal artery

The inferior hypophyseal artery is a branch from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually single on each side and divides into medial and lateral branches contributing to the inferior hypophyseal arterial circle.  The inferior hypoph...
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Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy and usually visualised on good quality angiography.  It has three branches: inferior ...
Article

Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
Article

Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Article

CADASIL

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy ) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterised by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischaemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known ...
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F. P. Weber syndrome

F. P. Weber syndrome (FPWS) is a traditional eponymous denomination of a certain type of angiodysplasia, that would nowadays rather be called a mixed haemolymphatic congenital vascular malformation (CVM) with arteriovenous (AV) shunting, based on the Hamburg classification of CVMs. In his origi...
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Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
Article

Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
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Sulcal artery

Sulcal arteries are penetrating branches from the anterior spinal artery and extend posteriorly through the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord. The sulcal arteries supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord at any cross-sectional level. Successive sulcal arteries generally altern...
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Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It is characterised on imaging by ascites, caudate hypertrophy, peripheral atrophy, and prominent collateral veins.  Epidemiology Budd-Chiari syndrome is rare. ...
Article

Femoral vein

The femoral vein is the main deep vein of the thigh and accompanies the superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery. Terminology The term "superficial femoral vein" or its abbreviation, "SFV" should not be used as it is a misnomer (i.e. it is not a superficial vein), and can be especi...
Article

Popliteal vein

The popliteal vein forms from the posterior and anterior tibial veins and ascends through the popliteal fossa to the opening in adductor magnus where it becomes the femoral vein. Its relationship to the popliteal artery changes as the vein ascends, but it is always between the popliteal artery ...
Article

Post thrombotic syndrome

Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
Article

Chronic venous insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) occurs due to inadequate functioning of venous wall and/or valves in lower limb veins resulting in excessive pooling of blood. Pathology The condition results from venous hypertension which in turn is usually caused by reflux in the superficial venous compart...
Article

Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the small saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy where the small saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chronic ...
Article

Small saphenous vein

The small saphenous vein (SSV) forms part of the superficial venous drainage of the lower limb. Terminology Small saphenous vein is the preferred terminology over other terms such as short saphenous vein, external saphenous vein or lesser saphenous vein 5.  Gross anatomy Origin and course T...
Article

Common femoral vein

The common femoral vein (CFV) forms from the confluence of the femoral vein and the deep femoral vein, and continues as the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament. It accompanies the common femoral artery. Terminology "Common femoral vein" is not listed in Terminologia Anatomica, however...
Article

Aortic intramural haematoma

Aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to haemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural haematomas are seen in older hypertensive patien...
Article

Infundibulum (artery)

An infundibulum (plural: infundibula) is a conical outpouching from an artery (usually intracranial), with a broad base narrowing to an apex from which a vessel originates. The most common location for an infundibulum is the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) from the supraclino...
Article

Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery is a branch off the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Gross anatomy Origin The ophthalmic artery arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the ICA exits the cavernous sinus. It originates from the antero- or supero-medial surface of the ICA. Course...
Article

Carotid body tumour

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumour that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, ca...
Article

Thyrocervical trunk

The thyrocervical trunk is one of the 3 branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives off numerous branches to supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles and the scapular anastomosis. The trunk arises lateral to the vertebral artery from the anterosuperior wal...
Article

Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
Article

Stroke

Stroke is a clinical diagnosis that refers to a sudden onset focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin. It is divided into two broad categories: ischaemic stroke  (80% 2) haemorrhagic stroke (15%) Haemorrhage may be due to hypertension or other secondary causes such as vascular ...
Article

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign refers to focal increased density of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on CT and is a direct visualisation of thromboembolic material within the lumen. It is thus the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction as it is seen within 90 minutes after the event 1.  It is the long...
Article

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation CAD is asymptomatic in most of the population. When severe enough it can cause angina, or an acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction. CAD may also present with heart failure or sudd...
Article

Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA)

Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a recently-described intramuscular vascular anomaly consisting of phlebectasia (dilatation of veins) and fibrofatty replacement of muscle. Terminology Though the term FAVA has recently been advocated, patients with similar clinical and radio-pathologica...
Article

Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterisation. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterisation with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
Article

Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) 1 was a pioneering Portuguese neurologist that is notable in radiology history for his development of cerebral angiography in 1927. He is also known as the developer of prefrontal leucotomy (now better known as a lobotomy) ​for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1...

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