Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,053 results found
Article

Interscalene brachial plexus block

An interscalene brachial plexus block is indicated for procedures involving the shoulder and upper arm.   History Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks (UGNBs) entered the literature in 1989, when Ting et al3 detailed their success with axillary nerve blocks in 10 patients.  Indications proximal hu...
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Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It is characterised on imaging by ascites, caudate hypertrophy, peripheral atrophy, and prominent collateral veins.  Epidemiology Budd-Chiari syndrome is rare. ...
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Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruc...
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Giant cell arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a common granulomatous vasculitis affecting medium- to large-sized arteries. It may also be known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis, given its propensity to involve the extracranial carotid artery branches such as the temporal artery.  Epidemiology Giant ...
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Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, i.e. does the artery run between big pulsating objects - right ventricular outflow tract / ...
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Interarterial course of the left coronary artery

The inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery, also known as the malignant course of the left coronary artery, is defined as the origin of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva with a course between the ascending aorta and the...
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Unilateral pulmonary artery atresia

Unilateral pulmonary artery atresia (UPAA), also known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) or proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery, is a variant of pulmonary artery atresia.  Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is around 1 in 200,000 young adults. The reported frequ...
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Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is one of the less common causes of intestinal ischaemia. Often despite thrombosis of the SMV, small bowel necrosis does not occur, presumably due to persistent arterial supply and some venous drainage via collaterals.   For a general discussion refer t...
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with haemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without haemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemio...
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Adrenal haemangioma

Adrenal haemangiomas are rare benign tumours that are usually incidentally identified (one example of an adrenal incidentaloma). Its significance mainly relates to the difficulty in differentiation from other malignant lesions.  Epidemiology Although these can be found at any age, they are mos...
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Retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

The retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein is a rare vascular variant where the left brachiocephalic vein passes more inferiorly through the superior mediastinum, coursing inferior to the aortic arch and posterior to the ascending aorta to join the right brachiocepahilc vein forming the superior...
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Pulmonary arterial aneurysm

Pulmonary arterial aneurysms refer to a focal dilatation of the pulmonary arterial system. Epidemiology Overall it is considered a rare entity with autopsy prevalence rates of around 1 in 14,000 to 100,000 4,5. Pathology A true pulmonary artery aneurysm results from dilatation of all three l...
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Brachiocephalic vein

Brachiocephalic veins (BCV), previously the innominate veins are large paired valveless asymmetric veins that drain the head, neck, upper limbs and part of the thorax and mediastinum. Gross anatomy Origin In the root of the neck, the internal jugular and subclavian veins unite to form the bra...
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Aortic dissection detection risk score plus d-dimer

The use of the aortic dissection detection risk score plus d-dimer is a proposed standardised strategy of safely ruling out the diagnosis of an acute aortic syndrome. Similar to how the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) negates the need for further workup of a pulmonary embolism.  Int...
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise from the coronary sinuses immediately distal (superior) to the aortic valve and supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood. They branch and encircle the heart to cover its surface with a lacy network resembling perhaps a slightly crooked crown. Gross anatomy The ty...
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Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Tc-99m labeled RBC

Tc-99m labelled RBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in the assessment of GI bleeding. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life:  normal distribution: heart, vessels, spleen miscellaneous facts: threshold for detection is 0....
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Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion, which can then result in an acute mesenteric ischaemia, can be a life-threatening event related to the artery supplying the majority of the small bowel and right side of the colon.  Epidemiology  An acute occlusion is an uncommon event that typically...
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Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical presentation Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterised by veno...
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Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a sequela of portal vein thrombosis and is the replacement of the normal single channel portal vein with numerous tortuous venous channels. For a discussion of demographics and presentation, please refer to the article on portal vein thrombo...
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Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the ligamentum arteriosum, at the aortic isthmus. This is also the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries as the ligamentu...
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Aortic pseudoaneurysm

Aortic pseudoaneurysms typically occur as a result of trauma, a subset of traumatic aortic injury. They can be acute or chronic. Pathology Aortic pseudoaneurysms are contained ruptures of the aorta in which the majority of the aortic wall has been breached, and luminal blood is held in only by...
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease). Epidemiology There is a recognised male predominance. Clinical presentation Clinically manifests by skin hyperelasticity and fragility, joint hypermobility and blood vessel fr...
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Superior mediastinum

Superior mediastinum is an artificially divided wedge-shaped compartment of the mediastinum located between the thoracic plane inferiorly and the thoracic inlet superiorly. The inferior mediastinum, comprising of the anterior, middle and posterior parts, lies inferiorly. Gross anatomy Boundari...
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Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Gross anatomy The portal vein usually measures approximately 8 cm in length in adults with a ...
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Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of general male population and ~40% of subfertile a...
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Umbilical vein varix

Umbilical vein varix (UVV) refers to a focal dilatation of the umbilical vein. Epidemiology Associations UVVs were initially thought to have a high association with other anomalies which include: chromosomal anomalies: 5-12% with FIUVV 2,3 Down syndrome   underlying congenital cardiovascul...
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Umbilical arterial aneurysm

An umbilical arterial aneurysm (UAA) is an extremely rare but potentially lethal vascular anomaly which is usually detected in utero.  Pathology Location It tends to favour the placental end of the umbilical artery in the cord. Associations Concurrently associated anomalies are thought to b...
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Umbilical artery

The umbilical artery gives rise to both a nonfunctional remnant of the fetal circulation and an active vessel giving supply to the bladder. In the adult, the obliterated area of the vessel is identifiable as the medial umbilical ligament and the patent segment is the superior vesical artery. Su...
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Adrenal lymphangioma

Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign cystic adrenal lesions. Epidemiology Adrenal lymphangiomas are extremely rare; prevalence is estimated at 0.06% 8. They can occur at any age, with a peak incidence between the 3rd and 6th decades of life. Accor...
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Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
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Single umbilical artery

Single umbilical artery (SUA) results when there is a congenital absence of either the right or left umbilical artery. In the usual situation, there are paired umbilical arteries. For unknown reasons, the absence of the left umbilical artery is much more common (~70%). Epidemiology The estimat...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect, which represents thrombus. It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be note...
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Umbilical venous catheters

Umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in neonates for vascular access and should be carefully assessed for position on all neonatal films.  Position An umbilical venous catheter generally passes directly superiorly and remains relatively anterior in the abdomen. It passes through...
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Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
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Glomangioma

Glomangiomas, also known as glomus tumours, are benign vascular tumours typically seen at the distal extremities. On imaging, they characteristically present as small hypervascular nodules under the finger nail.  Terminology These tumours should not be confused with paragangliomas, which are s...
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Ascending pharyngeal artery

The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid artery, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus. Summary origin: a branch of the external carotid artery course: vertical...
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Polymyositis (pulmonary manifestations)

Lung involvement in polymyositis can have a number of manifestations inclusive of that resembling interstitial lung disease (for a general discussion of polymyositis - refer to the parent article). Radiographic features Plain radiograph The frequency of a radiographic parenchymal abnormality ...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (vaginal in female...
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Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) refers to symptomatic compression or occlusion of the popliteal artery due to a developmentally abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery in relation to its surrounding structures such as with the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG) or less commonly ...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery (RPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena ...
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Pulmonary trunk

The pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery is the solitary arterial output from the right ventricle, transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Gross anatomy The pulmonary trunk is approximately 50 mm long and 30 mm wide (most authors use 29 mm width as the cut-off of norm...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large valveless venous channel formed by the union of the brachiocephalic veins. It receives blood from the upper half of the body (except the heart) and returns it to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The SVC begins behind the lower border of the first right co...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) drains venous blood from the lower trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs to the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The IVC is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the ab...
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Caval variants

Many caval variants exist, due to the complex embryology of the venous system. These are important for a number of reasons:  not to confuse them with pathology suggest the presence of frequently associated other abnormalities planning of vascular intervention or surgery Types superior vena ...
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Absent infrarenal inferior vena cava

An absent infrarenal inferior vena cava can be congenital, due to the failure of development of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins, or acquired, as a result of intrauterine or perinatal inferior vena cava thrombosis. Epidemiology It is an extremely rare anomaly. Clinical presentat...
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Chronic venous insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) occurs due to inadequate functioning of venous wall and/or valves in lower limb veins resulting in excessive pooling of blood. Pathology The condition results from venous hypertension which in turn is usually caused by reflux in the superficial venous compart...
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Axillary artery

The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb. Summary origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib  termination: continues as the brachial ar...
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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of a defect in the fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long, disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic l...
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Aortic pseudoaneurysm versus ductus diverticulum

Differentiation of aortic pseudoaneurysm from ductus diverticulum is critical, particularly in the trauma setting. The following may be helpful to differentiate the two. Aortic pseudoaneurysm location: often seen along the inferior surface of the aortic isthmus 1 angle with the aortic wall: a...
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Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle/rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical presen...
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Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischaemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinic...
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Mixed vascular malformation

A mixed vascular malformation is a relatively common congenital cerebral vascular malformation, most frequently composed of a developmental venous anomaly and a cavernous malformation. As developmental venous anomalies seldom bleed, the risk of a mixed vascular malformation is determined by the ...
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Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Aetiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following endovascular intervention improper arterial puncture tec...
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Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
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Aberrant right subclavian artery

Aberrant right subclavian arteries (ARSA), also known as arteria lusoria, are the commonest of the aortic arch anomalies 2.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.5-2%. Clinical presentation They are often asymptomatic, but around 10% of people may complain of tracheo-oesophageal symptom...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...
Article

Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Subarachnoid haemorrhage

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the types of extra-axial intracranial haemorrhage and denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Patients tend to be older middle age, typically less than 60 years old 2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage accounts for 3% of stroke ...
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
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Coeliacomesenteric trunk

The coeliacomesenteric trunk represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. A coelia...
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Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, is a subset of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. It is characterised by a history of thunderclap headache with subsequent beaded appearance of the circle of Willis on angiography (as seen in RCVS), but with no identifiable cause. Hi...
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Internal pudendal vein

The internal pudendal veins are the set of accompanying veins to the internal pudendal artery draining the perineal region to empty into the internal iliac vein. Gross Anatomy Tributaries inferior rectal veins males penile bulb and scrotum vein females clitoris and posterior labial vein ...
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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery (ICA) is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery.  Gross anatomy Origin It arises most frequently between C3 and C5 vertebral level, where the common carotid bifurcates to form the internal carotid and the external carotid artery (ECA). Variations in origin...
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Aberrant internal carotid artery

Aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the ICA 5. There is consequent enlargement of the usually small collaterals which course t...
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Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation. Radiographic features CT may present as a lobulated hyperattenuating structure anterior to the mid brain rupture of a basil...
Article

Pulmonary capillaritis

Pulmonary capillaritis is a general term given to inflammation of the pulmonary capillaries. It is essentially a histopathological diagnosis 3. Pathology The underlying inflammation leads to the disruption alveolar-capillary basement membrane integrity with resultant flooding of the alveoli wi...
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Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. Epidemiology It is seen ...
Article

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

An upper gastrointestinal bleed usually refers to bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Pathology Causes peptic ulcer gastritis oesophagitis duodenitis Mallory-Weiss tear varices tumour vascular abnormality vascular ectasia angiodysplasia Dieulafoy lesion vascular malformati...
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Dural arteriovenous fistula

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) are a heterogeneous collection of conditions that share arteriovenous shunts from dural vessels. They present variably with haemorrhage or venous hypertension, and can be challenging to treat. Epidemiology Most dural arteriovenous fistulas present in adultho...
Article

Valsalva manoeuvre

The Valsalva manoeuvre is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
Article

Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena-cava (also known as left sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided IVC is important for planning of vascular procedures l...
Article

Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord sizable and formed...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from porta hepatic of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein to ...
Article

Umbilical arterial catheters

Umbilical arterial catheters (UACs) are used in neonatal care for arterial sampling and need to be carefully assessed on all neonatal films.  Position The catheter should pass through the umbilicus, travel inferiorly through the umbilical artery, then in the anterior division of the internal i...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
Article

Umbilical vein

The umbilical vein is the conduit for blood returning from the placenta to the fetus until it involutes soon after birth. The umbilical vein arises from multiple tributaries within the placenta and enters the umbilical cord, along with the (usually) paired umbilical arteries. Once it enters the...
Article

Plexogenic arteriopathy

Plexogenic arteriopathy has been a term used to describe a constellation of vascular changes occurring in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is considered the histologic hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; it is seen in approximately 75% of cases 3. The term for t...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterised by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
Article

Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis

Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) is the most common type of dural venous sinus thrombosis and is potentially devastating. This article focuses on the specific features related to the superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, please refer to the dural venous sinus thrombosis article for a gen...
Article

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
Article

Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
Article

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System - SCCT/ACR/NASCI (2016)

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
Article

Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
Article

Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Deep vein thrombosis

The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for clots occuring in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate articles....

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