Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

961 results found
Article

Carotidynia

Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome, is a rare syndrome characterised by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation. There is confusion in the literature as to what this term actually refers to, with some authors suggesting that the term should be reserved for a pain syndrome with n...
Article

Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Article

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein of Trolard connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than both of t...
Article

Superficial veins of the brain

Superficial veins of the brain predominantly drain the cerebral cortex, and include: superior cerebral veins (or superficial cerebral veins) inferior cerebral veins superficial middle cerebral veins superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard) inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe) Some also inclu...
Article

Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord paired posterior s...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterisation, which is a haemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension in the Dana Point classification system. A resting mean pulmonary arterial p...
Article

Systemic hypertension

Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Pathology Causes essential hypertension: idiopathic (95%) secondary hypertension: underlying cause identified (5%) Causes of secondary hypertension: renal acute glomerulopathies chronic renal failure...
Article

Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. systemic hypertension pulmonary hypertension portal hypertension
Article

Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate arteries  There is, however, some confusion a...
Article

Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The normal lateral wall should be either straight or concave.  ...
Article

Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery branches off the first part of the maxillary artery. It passes vertically through the roots of the auriculotemporal nerve and enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two branches - superior tympanic branch and ganglionic branch - be...
Article

Superior cerebellar artery

The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises from the distal basilar artery, just below the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and typically supplies: whole superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres down to the great horizontal fissure superior vermis dentate nucleus most of the cerebellar ...
Article

Pontine arteries

The pontine branches are the small arterial branches of the basilar artery that supply the pons and structures adjacent to the pons. There are usually 3-5 paired arterial branches which are located in the mid-basilar region between the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the superior cerebe...
Article

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
Article

Basilar artery

The basilar artery is part of the posterior cerebral circulation. It artery arises from the confluence of the left and right vertebral arteries at the base of the pons as they rise towards the base of the brain. Summary origin: vertebral artery confluence course: ventral to pons in the pontin...
Article

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
Article

Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
Article

Posterior communicating artery

The posterior communicating artery (PCOM or P Comm) makes up the posterior linkage in the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy Course The PCOM originates from the posterior aspect of the C7 (communicating) segment of the internal carotid artery and extends posteriormedially to anastomose with the ...
Article

Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sul...
Article

Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
Article

Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
Article

Beak sign (arterial dissection)

The beak sign of arterial dissection represents a wedge of haematoma at the distal end of the false lumen. It is here that false lumen propagation is occurring. It manifests as an acute angle between the dissection flap and the outer wall. It may be filled with contrast-enhanced blood (high atte...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Rasmussen aneurysm

Rasmussen aneurysm (not to be confused with Rasmussen encephalitis) is an uncommon complication of pulmonary tuberculosis and represents a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent or within a tuberculous cavity.  Epidemiology It can be present in up to 5% of patients with chronic cavitary tuberculos...
Article

Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
Article

Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Introduction Lymphocele of the thoracic duct (thoracic duct cyst) is usually asymptomatic or less commonly may present as  left supraclavicular fossa mass 1. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment, whi...
Article

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thrombo-embolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
Article

Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
Article

Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery. Its reported prevalence is highly variable depending on the technique used: ~0.5% (0.3-0.6%) at angiography (presumably ...
Article

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is present in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms and is usually unilateral. In utero the trigeminal artery supplies the basilar artery before development of the posterior communicating an...
Article

Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy and usually visualised on good quality angiography.  It has three branches: inferior ...
Article

Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
Article

Superior hypophyseal artery

The superior hypophyseal artery (or arteries) is a branch from the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually a single trunk which then divides into many small branches, which go on to supply: optic nerve optic chiasm pituitary gland (anterior gland) pituitary stalk It is ofte...
Article

Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification (PC) usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Causes uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location ...
Article

Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
Article

Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery is referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (Cx) ramus circumflex artery (RCx) l...
Article

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compre...
Article

Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
Article

Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
Article

Thoracoacromial artery

The thoracoacromial artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the axilla. Summary origin: first branch of the second part of the axillary artery 1 location: axilla supply: pectoralis major and minor, anterior part of the deltoid, and dermal sensation overlying the clavipectoral ...
Article

Lateral thoracic artery

The lateral thoracic artery is a branch of the second part of the axillary artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The lateral thoracic artery originates from the medial surface of the axillary artery, posterior to the distal part of pectoralis minor. It courses inferomedially along the infe...
Article

Anterior humeral circumflex artery

The anterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. It is smaller in size relative to the posterior humeral circumflex artery.  Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm location: proximal arm...
Article

Posterior humeral circumflex artery

The posterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm 1 location: proximal arm supply: glenohumeral joint, teres major and minor, and deltoid 1 main ...
Article

Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
Article

Descending aorta

The descending aorta is the continuation of the aortic arch in the posterior mediastinum. Gross anatomy The descending aorta commences at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra body, on its left, in the plane of Ludwig as the continuation of the aortic arch. It descends in the posterior med...
Article

Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta is the first part of the aorta, and begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericardium where it becomes the aortic arch, in the plane of Ludwig, a hor...
Article

Aortic arch

The aortic arch represents the direct continuation of the ascending aorta and represents a key area for a review of normal variant anatomy and a wide range of pathological processes that range from congenital anomalies to traumatic injury. Summary origin: continuation of the ascending aorta at...
Article

Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It ...
Article

Stroke

Stroke is a clinical designation that refers to the sudden neurological deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular event. It is divided into two broad categories: ischaemic stroke  (80% 2) haemorrhagic stroke (15%) lobar haemorrhage hypertensive haemorrhage secondary haemorrhages: some intrac...
Article

Superior thoracic artery

The superior thoracic artery is the only branch of the first part of the axillary artery.  It is only a small and highly variable artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The superior thoracic artery originates from the first part of the axillary artery, just inferior to subclavius. It courses...
Article

Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
Article

Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part) L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: subsca...
Article

Subscapular artery

The subscapular artery is the largest branch of the axillary artery. Gross anatomy The subscapular artery originates from the medial surface of the third part of the axillary artery. It passes along the inferior border of the subscapularis muscle and it divides into two branches 1,2: Thoracod...
Article

Axillary artery

The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb. Summary origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib  termination: continues as the brachial ar...
Article

Subcostal artery

The subcostal arteries are bilateral small arteries that arise of the distal descending aorta which courses laterally beneath the 12th rib. They are the last  Gross Anatomy The subcostal arteries are analogous to the posterior intercostal arteries, instead in the subcostal space rather than an...
Article

Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event. It can result from either blunt or penetrating trauma: blunt trauma (more common) rapid deceleration (eg. motor vehicle accident, fall from great height) ...
Article

Suzuki staging system for Moyamoya

The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography.2 Suzuki stage appears t...
Article

Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) or Bean syndrome, is a rare sporadic syndrome characterised by multifocal venous anomalies. Patients often have multiple soft blue skin lesions associated with multiple bowel venous malformations, which could lead to lower gastrointestinal bleeding.  Path...
Article

Westermark sign (lungs)

Westermark sign is a sign of pulmonary embolus (PE) seen on chest radiographs. Along with Fleishner sign and Hampton hump, it makes one of the three described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs. Pathology In one study (PIOPED) this sign was present on ~10% of chest x-rays of pati...
Article

Vena cava filter

Vena cava filter is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. Indications contraindication to...
Article

Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy The muscular fibres of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
Article

Fetal posterior communicating cerebral artery

A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and supplies the bulk of the...
Article

Lumbar arteries

The lumbar arteries are paired branches of the abdominal aorta arising in the lumbar region. Gross anatomy Origin There are most commonly four paired lumbar arteries originating as posterolateral branches of the abdominal aorta on either side, at the level of L1-4. Course The paired arterie...
Article

Posterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of anterior and posterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The first two intercostal spaces are supplied by the superior intercostal artery, and the remaining nine are supplied by separate branches from the descending thoracic aorta 1. The right ...
Article

Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testes and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular veins. Along with the cremaster an...
Article

Double aortic arch

Double aortic arch is the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings. Clinical presentation Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to of symptoms related to oesophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory sym...
Article

Nutcracker syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder and refers to the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walled veins into the collecting system with resultant haem...
Article

Superficial femoral artery

The superficial femoral artery is a continuation of the common femoral artery at the point where the profunda femoris branches. It is the main artery of the lower limb and is, therefore, critical in the supply of oxygenated blood to the leg. Summary origin: continuation of the common femoral a...
Article

Aortic intramural haematoma

Aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to haemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural haematomas are seen in older hypertensive patien...
Article

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAU) is a pathology that involves the aortic wall and along with aortic dissection and aortic intramural haematoma form the spectrum known as acute aortic syndrome.  Epidemiology Typically, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are seen in older male patients w...
Article

Aortoenteric fistula

Aortoenteric fistula is an uncommon catastrophic cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Aortic fistulas can be primary (associated with complicated abdominal aortic aneurysm) or secondary (associated with graft repair). Epidemiology The annual incidence of primary aortoenteric fistulas is thou...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
Article

Profunda femoris artery

The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery or deep artery of thigh) is a branch of the common femoral artery and is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the deep structures of the thigh, including the femora. Summary origin: common femoral artery main branches...
Article

Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
Article

Aortic pseudoaneurysm

Aortic pseudoaneurysms typically occur as a result of trauma, a subset of traumatic aortic injury. They can be acute or chronic. Pathology Aortic pseudoaneurysms are contained ruptures of the aorta in which the majority of the aortic wall has been breached, and luminal blood is held in only by...
Article

Persistent sciatic artery

A persistent sciatic artery is a rare vascular anomaly where there is the continuation of the internal iliac artery into the thigh through the greater sciatic notch. It may be the dominant artery supplying the leg, in which case the superficial femoral artery may be small. Epidemiology Its inc...
Article

Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations

Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy and Systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy of the brain, retina, and other organ systems. Terminology RVCL-S was described by Stam and colleagues in 2016 to encompass several previously described condit...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a sequela of portal vein thrombosis and is the replacement of the normal single channel portal vein with numerous tortuous venous channels. For a discussion of demographics and presentation, please refer to the article on portal vein thrombo...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch occurs when there is failure of normal aortic development. It results in a number of heterogenous anomalies of the aorta and its branch vessels. Gross anatomy Normally, the aorta ascends in the superior mediastinum to the level of the sternal notch before arc...
Article

Vascular anatomical variants

Aorta variants Thoracic aorta Ascending aorta Aortic arch Descending aorta Abdominal SVC & IVC - variants Intracranial arteries - variants
Article

CADASIL

Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy, characterised by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischaemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known ...
Article

Fibular artery

The fibular or peroneal artery is one of the three arteries of the leg, along with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Gross anatomy Origin and course arises from the tibioperoneal trunk approximately 2.5 cm distal to popliteus and passes obliquely to the fibula, descending along its ...
Article

Coral reef aorta

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare disease, described as rock-hard calcifications involving the arterial wall which protrude into the lumen. It predominantly involves the posterior thoracic and abdominal aorta. CRA luminal lesions can cause significant aortic stenosis. Epidemiology Patients usua...
Article

Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the ligamentum arteriosum, at the aortic isthmus. This is also the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries as the ligamentu...
Article

Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
Article

Abdominal aortic injury

Abdominal aortic injuries are a very rare form of traumatic aortic injury and are much less common than thoracic aortic injury.  Epidemiology Aortic injury occurs in <1% of blunt trauma patients, with abdominal aortic injury representing only ~5% of all aortic injuries 1. Males are more freque...
Article

Traumatic aortic injury

Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is most often caused by blunt trauma (refered to as BTAI) and is best described in terms of injury location, type and and severity: abdominal aortic injury aortic pseudoaneurysm thoracic aortic injury minimal aortic injury See traumatic aortic injury in the exam.

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.