Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms.
Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
Vascular malformations and tumours are a heterogeneous group of lesions that may affect the arterial, capillary, venous or lymphatic system or any combination thereof. They encompass a bewildering range of lesions, syndromes, and masses ranging from the relatively common (e.g. infantile hemangi...
Venous pathology is common and includes:
disorders of vessel wall
Vascular rings and slings refer to the congenital vascular encirclement of the oesophagus and/or trachea by anomalous/aberrant vessels.
Vascular rings are rare, occurring in <1% of patients 1. No gender or ethnic predispositions have been identified 3.
The are numerous vascular syndromes that can occur in the body. There include
Syndromes principally involving the vascular system
coeliac artery compression syndrome
hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)
hypothenar hammer syndrome
thoracic aortic injury
renal pedicle injury
Vasculitis describes generalised inflammation of vessels. Vasculitides carry a broad range of clinical presentations and as a whole can involve almost any organ system.
Some vasculitides are due to direct vessel injury from an infectious agent. However a large proportion show evidenc...
The vein of Galen, also known as the great cerebral vein or great vein of Galen, is a short trunk formed by the union of the two internal cerebral veins and basal veins of Rosenthal. It lies in the quadrigeminal cistern. It curves backward and upward around the posterior border of the splenium o...
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), probably better termed as median prosencephalic arteriovenous fistulas, are uncommon intracranial anomalies that tend to present dramatically during early childhood with features of a left-to-right shunt and high-output cardiac failure.
The vein of Labbé, also known as inferior anastomotic vein, is part of the superficial venous system of the brain.
The vein of Labbé is the largest channel that crosses the temporal lobe between the Sylvian fissure and the transverse sinus and connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to t...
The vein of Marshall, oblique vein of Marshall or the oblique vein of the left atrium is a small vein that descends on and drains the posterior wall of the left atrium. It drains directly into the coronary sinus at the same end as the great cardiac vein, marking the origin of the sinus.
Veins of Sappey are small veins around the falciform ligament that drain the venous blood from the anterior part of the abdominal wall directly into the liver. This flow dilutes the portal perfusion at these sites, causing hepatic pseudolesions.
The superior vein of Sappey drains...
Vena cava filter is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance.
The vena caval foramen is one of the three major apertures in the diaphragm. It is the highest of the three and situated at the level of T8-9. It is quadrilateral and placed at the junction of the right and middle leaflets of the central tendon.
It transmits several structures between the thora...
The venae cordis minimae (smallest cardiac veins or thebesian veins) are a small group of valveless myocardial coronary veins within the walls of each of the 4 cardiac chambers that drain venous blood directly into each of the respective chambers. They are most frequent in the right atrium and t...
The venous drainage of the thoracic wall drains deoxygenated venous blood from the peripheries of the thoracic cage back into systemic circulation.
Anterior thoracic wall
Anterior intercostal veins
The anterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just inferio...
Venous thromboembolism covers a wide spectrum of diseases. Individual conditions and complicating condition include:
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
pulmonary embolism (PE)
dural venous sinus thrombosis
The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply.
origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically.
Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...
Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a dolichoarterial loop (of Danziger).
Symptoms occur due to radicular compression or pathologic fracture (rare) from extensive bone erosion. Generally, patients present ...
Vertebral artery thrombosis results in complete or partial occlusion of the vertebral artery and alteration of blood flow to the posterior cerebral circulation. Ischaemia or infarction to structures supplied by these arteries may result in a range of symptoms.
The vertebral venous plexus is a highly anastomotic network of valveless veins running along the entire length of the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to the sacral hiatus.
The vertebral venous plexus is comprised of three interconnected divisions:
internal vertebral ven...
There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
Virchow triad refers to the factors which can promote thrombosis, and are useful when thinking about the possible causes in a particular situation. They are:
factor V Laden deficiency
protein S deficiency
protein C deficiency
antithrombin III def...
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) are abnormal focal dilatations of arteries supplying an organ in the abdomen. VAAs include both true and pseudoaneurysms.
With different clinical manifestations and a more characteristic pathology, the renal artery aneurysms are discussed separately.
Wells criteria for deep venous thrombosis is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the pretest probability for acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). It is intended to be combined with noninvasive diagnostic tests (e.g. ultrasound or D-dimer) for suspected cases.
Westermark sign is a sign of pulmonary embolus (PE) seen on chest radiographs.
Along with Fleishner sign and Hampton hump, it makes one of the three described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs.
In one study (PIOPED) this sign was present on ~10% of chest x-rays of pati...
The WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) grading system uses the Glasgow Coma Scale and presence of focal neurological deficits to grade the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage. This grading system was proposed in 1988, and this is one of the accepted systems (although not conside...
The white coat effect (WCE), not to be confused with white coat hypertension, is a measure of change that is commonly defined as the difference between in-clinic and out-of-clinic blood pressure readings 1,2.
Alternatively, the white coat effect can be defined as the increase in the arterial b...
White coat hypertension (abbreviated alternatively as WCH or WCHT), not to be confused with the white coat effect (WCE), is commonly defined as typical in-clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements of 140/90 mm Hg or more in the presence of multiple daytime out-of-clinic home or ambulatory BP readi...
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterised by some or all or the following features:
craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies)
short stature (50% of cases)
mild to moderate mental retardation
supravalvular aortic stenosis 2
pulmonary artery stenosis 3
The windsock sign refers to appearances seen in type A thoracic aortic dissections on contrast CT. It results from intimo-intimal intussusception between the true and false dissected lumens of the thoracic aorta. The altering density of contrast between the dissection lumens which taper distally...
Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...
The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).
type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...
The yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is rare disorder principally affecting lymphatic system
It is characterised by
nail discolouration: yellow slow growing dystrophic nails
peripheral / primary lymphoedema
exudative pleural effusions (least common manifestation)
The yin-yang sign is a radiological sign described in both true and false aneurysms on various imaging modalities.
The yin-yang sign indicates bidirectional flow due to swirling of blood within the (true or false) aneurysm.