Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

961 results found
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Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a sequela of portal vein thrombosis and is the replacement of the normal single channel portal vein with numerous tortuous venous channels. For a discussion of demographics and presentation, please refer to the article on portal vein thrombo...
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Celiac artery dissection

Celiac artery dissection is a type of arterial dissection. It is rarely seen as a primary phenomenon and is most often encountered due to propagation of an aortic dissection. Epidemiology Celiac artery dissection is usually iatrogenic but may also be secondary to: atherosclerosis trauma pre...
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Central artery of the retina

The central artery of the retina or central retinal artery (CRA) arises from the ophthalmic artery.  Gross anatomy The central artery of the retina courses anteriorly and inferior to the optic nerve, It then pierces the dura and the arachnoid of the optic nerve. It then runs in the centre of t...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
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Cephalic vein

The cephalic vein, along with the basilic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm and terminates by draining into the axillary vein.   Summary origin: radial aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum of...
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
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Cerebral cavernous venous malformation

Cerebral cavernous venous malformations, commonly known as cavernous haemangioma or cavernoma, are common cerebral vascular malformations, usually with characteristic appearances on MRI.  Cavernous malformations are found throughout the body. This article focuses on cerebral cavernous venous ma...
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Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain AVM and characterised by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that corresponds to the nidus 1,2. ...
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Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis.  Pathology Cerebral venous infarction is usually the sequelae of cerebral venous thrombosis, complicating both dural venous sinus thrombosis and deep cerebral venous thrombos...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
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Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) is a syndrome encompassing encompassing maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencepha...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary insertion usually inserted via the antecubi...
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Chronic hereditary lymphedema

Chronic hereditary lymphedema or Milroy disease is a condition characterised by lower-limb lymphedema. Patients typically present with pedal oedema at or before birth or soon after. Occasionally, it develops later in life. Pathology Genetics Mutations in the FLT4 gene is thought to be present...
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Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischaemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinic...
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Chronic periaortitis

Chronic periaortitis is an inflammatory condition which typically involves the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. It is a rare disease usually occuring in middle-aged men. It has various clinical presentations: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) perianeurysmal retroperitoneal f...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Chronic venous insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) occurs due to inadequate functioning of venous wall and/or valves in lower limb veins resulting in excessive pooling of blood. Pathology The condition results from venous hypertension which in turn is usually caused by reflux in the superficial venous compart...
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of the brain,...
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Circumaortic left renal vein

Circumaortic left renal vein, also known as circumaortic renal collar is an anomaly of left renal vein when a supernumerary or accessory left renal vein passes posterior to the aorta, apart from the normal renal vein passing anterior to the aorta. This anomaly is potentially hazardous, if unreco...
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Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery is referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (Cx) ramus circumflex artery (RCx) l...
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Circumflex fibular artery

The circumflex fibular artery is a minor artery of the leg. Gross anatomy Origin and course Most often arises from the posterior tibial artery, passes laterally round the neck of the fibula through the soleus to anastomose with the lateral inferior genicular, medial genicular and anterior tib...
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Cirsoid aneurysm

Cirsoid aneurysms are rare arteriovenous malformations of the scalp and extremities.  Clinical presentation Patients often present with a slow-growing pulsatile mass and may also experience bleeding, tinnitus and/or a headache 3.  Pathology Cirsoid aneurysms develop due to an abnormal arteri...
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Cisterna chyli

The cisterna chyli (CC), also known as the receptaculum chyli, is a normal anatomical structure seen as a saccular area of dilatation in the lymphatic channels that is located in the retrocrural space, usually to the immediate right of the abdominal aorta 4. Gross anatomy Location The cistern...
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Classification of endoleaks

Endoleaks occur when an aneurysmal sac continues to be pressurised despite endoluminal stent placement. Classification There are five types: type I: leak at graft ends (inadequate seal) - most common after repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms 4 Ia: proximal Ib: distal Ic: iliac occluder ty...
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CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their incidenc...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. It can be primarily divided into two types: infantile (pre-ductal) form: is characterised by diffuse hypoplasia or narrowing of the aorta from just distal to the brachiocephalic artery to the level of ductus arteriosus, t...
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Cobweb sign of arterial dissection

The cobweb sign is seen in cases of arterial dissection (usually aortic dissection) on CT angiogram (CTA) examinations and represents strands or ribbons of media crossing the false lumen, and appearing as thin filiform filling defects. Although it is a specific sign for the false lumen, it is i...
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Coeliac artery

Coeliac artery (also known as the coeliac axis or trunk) is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity.  Gross anatomy Origin Arises anteriorly from abdominal aorta at the T12 level, behind the median arcuate ligament, just as the aorta enters the abdomen.  Course It is typically a sho...
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Coeliac artery aneurysm

Coeliac artery aneurysms are a form of visceral artery aneurysm and account for around 4% of such cases (fourth most common visceral arterial aneurysm). Pathology Associations An association with non-visceral arterial aneurysms is considered frequent 2.  Clinical presentation While some pat...
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Coeliac artery compression syndrome

Coeliac artery compression syndrome is also known as coeliac axis syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome and Dunbar syndrome. It is characterised by upper abdominal angina secondary to compression of the coeliac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Pathology The median arcuate ligament is th...
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Cogan syndrome

Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of children and young adults which primarily characterised by 1,4,6: inflammatory eye disease (ocular keratitis, uveitis, scleritis, optic neuritis) 6 audiovestibular symptoms (similar to Meniere disease) 6 However, it can potentially affect a multitude of ...
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Coil herniation

A coil herniation refers to the part of a detachable coil prolapsing out of the aneurysm and into the parent artery. It is an uncommon complication and is typically seen at the end of the embolisation procedure. Contributing factors include 1: wide aneurysm neck instability of the coil in the ...
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COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
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Collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

There are several collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery.  These include gastroduodenal artery (GDA) branch of the common hepatic artery and anastomoses with branches of the inferior pancreatic duodenal artery dorsal pancreatic artery (DPA)  usually a bra...
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Comet tail sign (phleboliths)

Comet tail sign (in urological imaging) is helpful in distinguishing a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith and strongly favours the latter.  The sign refers to a tail of soft tissue extending from a calcification, representing the collapsed/scarred/thrombosed parent vein. When well seen it is s...
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Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired structure that supplies blood to the head and neck.  Summary origin: left: branch of the aortic arch right: branch of the brachiocephalic trunk course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and neck main bran...
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Common facial vein

The common facial vein is formed by the joining of the facial vein and anterior branch of the retromandibular vein. It is part of the venous drainage system of the face. Summary origin and termination: the facial vein (along with the facial artery) pierces the deep investing fascia of the neck...
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Common femoral artery

The common femoral artery is the continuation of the external iliac artery at the level of the inguinal ligament. As well as supplying oxygenated blood to the leg, it gives off smaller branches to the anterior abdominal wall. The artery lies medial to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament, halfw...
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Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is a terminal branch of the coeliac artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The CHA is a terminal branch of the coeliac artery, it passes to the right in the lesser sac, and enters the lesser omentum to pass slightly upwards towards the porta hepatis. It gives ...
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Common iliac artery

The common iliac arteries (CIA) are the large paired terminal branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Origin The abdominal aorta bifurcates anterolateral (to the left side) of the L4 vertebra, into the right and left common iliac arteries.  Course The common iliac arteries enter the ...
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Common iliac vein

The common iliac vein, corresponding with the common iliac artery, drains venous blood from the pelvis, lower limbs and their associated structures. Summary location: pelvis, anterior to the sacroiliac joint origin and termination: union of internal and external iliac veins; into the inferior...
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Common interosseous artery

The common interosseous artery is a branch of the proximal part of the ulnar artery at the level of the pronator teres in the distal part of the cubital fossa. It is a short vessel that dives laterally and deeply before bifurcating into anterior and posterior interosseous arteries.
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Concentric ring sign

The concentric ring sign is a pathognomonic sign for a subacute haematoma on MRI. A subacute haematoma may show 3 characteristic layers of signal intensity: a thin peripheral rim of low signal intensity on all pulse sequences corresponding to haemosiderin. an inner peripheral high-signal inte...
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Confluence of sinuses

The confluence of sinuses, also known as the torcula or torcular Herophili is the site of the confluence of: superior sagittal sinus straight sinus occipital sinus transverse sinuses The anatomy is highly variable and three types can be distinguished: type 1: superior sagittal sinus drains...
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Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...
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Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Pathology These defects as a group have a heterogeneous aetiology w...
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Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, namely, does the artery run between big pulsating objects - RVOT and pulmonary artery on on...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the Inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hepa...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare anatomical abnormalities linked to abnormal embryological venous development. They can be extrahepatic or intrahepatic. In either case, the underlying abnormality is shunting of blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system thus avoid...
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Congenital vascular anomalies

Congenital vascular anomalies may be: congenital cardiac abnormalities  vascular malformations
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Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, also known as levo- or L-loop transposition (L-TGA), is a rare cardiovascular anomaly with inversion of the ventricles and great arteries. Epidemiology This anomaly comprises less than 1% of all congenital heart diseases 1,2,7.  Clin...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
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Contrast enhanced MR angiography

Contrast enhanced MR angiography is a technique involving 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GE) sequences, with administration of Gd-based contrast. It can be utilised to assess vascular structures of almost any part of the body. It's key features are as follows: T1- weighted spoiled gradient-echo sequ...
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Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; It is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complications are rare given the low vo...
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Contrast-induced nephropathy

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third most common cause of all hospital-acquired acute renal failure and accounts for ~10% of all cases. There is still an ongoing debate regarding its occurrence after intravenous contrast medium administration because most of the cases occur after intr...
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Conus artery

The conus artery is a small early branch off the right coronary artery (RCA) circulation. Gross anatomy Supply The artery has a variable distribution, but usually supplies a region of the anterior interventricular septum and the conus of the main pulmonary artery (hence its name). Variant an...
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Coral reef aorta

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare disease, described as rock-hard calcifications involving the arterial wall which protrude into the lumen. It predominantly involves the posterior thoracic and abdominal aorta. CRA luminal lesions can cause significant aortic stenosis. Epidemiology Patients usua...
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Corona mortis

Corona mortis, Latin for "crown of death", is a common variant vascular anastomosis between the external iliac artery or deep inferior epigastric artery with the obturator artery. It is reported to be present in a third of patients on routine multi-detector CT examination 1. Knowledge of this va...
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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise from the coronary sinuses immediately distal (superior) to the aortic valve and supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood. They branch and encircle the heart to cover its surface with a lacy network resembling perhaps a slightly crooked crown. Gross anatomy The ty...
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Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA's) are an uncommon, predominantly incidental finding. Epidemiology CAA is most common in men 3, likely reflecting the increased rates of atherosclerosis in men compared to women. Prevalence varies in the literature between 0.1-5% 4. Clinical presentation Most c...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation CAD is asymptomatic in most of the population. When severe enough it can cause angina, or an acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction. CAD may also present with heart failure or sudd...
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Coronary microvascular obstruction

Microvascular obstruction (MVO), also known as no reflow phenomenon, is an established complication encountered in coronary angioplasty for prolonged acute myocardial infarction.  Pathology The phenomenon results from obstruction of the myocardial microcirculation, which is composed of vessel...
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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the major coronary vein. It returns the majority of the left ventricular blood flow to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains into the right atrium. T...
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Coronary veins

The coronary veins return deoxygenated blood from the myocardium back to the right atrium. Most venous blood returns via the coronary sinus. Coronary venous anatomy is highly variable, but is generally comprised of 3 groups of veins: cardiac veins which drain into the coronary sinus: great car...
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Cortical vein thrombosis

Cortical vein thrombosis, also known as superficial cerebral vein thrombosis, is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the superficial cerebral veins besides the dural sinus, often coexisting with deep cerebral vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis. It has different clinica...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the interscalene space, and distally thr...
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Coup de poignard of Michon

Coup de poignard of Michon refers to spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, usually as a result of a spinal AVM. Presentation is with sudden excruciating back pain, akin to being stabbed with a dagger (poignard = french for dagger). It is the corollary of the thunderclap headache.
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Cremasteric artery

The cremasteric artery is a small branch of the inferior epigastric artery that enters the deep inguinal ring of the inguinal canal and supplies the layers of the spermatic cord and also the skin of the scrotum.
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Crescent sign of arterial dissection

The crescent sign refers to the high signal crescent seen in the wall of a vessel when dissected. This may be seen both on T1 or T2 sequences depending on the age of the blood (see ageing blood on MRI). It is classically referred to in internal carotid artery dissection. It should not be confus...
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Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Terminology There are three main types of cryoglobulinaemia which are grouped, as per the Br...
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CT abdomen (summary)

CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis performed 60 seconds after pump-injection of iodinated contrast intro a peripheral vein. However, dependin...
Article

CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
Article

CT cerebral venography

CT cerebral venography is a rapid technique which provides an accurate detailed depiction of the cerebral venous system. Indications Rapid diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. Contraindications general CT contraindications such as pregnancy, claustrophobia, etc. iodinated contrast contr...
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CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke has become established in most centres with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging.  It enables differentiation of salvageable ischaemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from irrevocably d...
Article

Cubital fossa

The cubital fossa is a triangular space which forms the transition between the arm and the forearm. It is located anterior to the elbow joint. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: the line joining the medial and lateral humeral epicondyles lateral: medial border of brachioradialis medial: lat...
Article

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis is a form of vasculitis that affect the skin. This is considered the most common of vasculitis affecting the skin and usually results from deposition of immune complexes at the vessel wall. Patients usually have a palpable purpura.
Article

Cystic adventitial disease

Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an uncommon vascular pathology predominantly affecting peripheral vessels. The vast majority of cases occur in arteries with venous involvement being an even extremely rare occurrence 8. Epidemiology It typically affects young to middle-aged individuals with...
Article

Cystic artery

The cystic artery represents the main blood supply to the gallbladder. It most commonly arises from the right hepatic artery within Calots triangle 1. Gross anatomy The cystic artery passes posterior to the cystic duct to reach the neck of the gallbladder. At this point, it gives off two-to-fo...
Article

Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma, also known as cystic or nuchal lymphangioma, refers to the cystic variety of congenital lymphangioma which, most commonly, occur in the cervicofacial regions, particularly at the posterior cervical triangle.  Epidemiology  They usually occur in the fetal/infantile and paediatri...
Article

DeBakey classification

Along with the Stanford classification, the DeBakey classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asce...
Article

DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta(type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
Article

Deep brachial artery

The deep brachial artery or profunda brachii artery is a large branch of the brachial artery, located in the arm. Summary origin: brachial artery location: posterior aspect of the arm supply: triceps brachii main branches: middle collateral and radial collateral arteries Gross anatomy Ori...
Article

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the internal cerebral veins, often coexisting with cortical vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis, and with different clinical presentations relying on which segment is involved. As such please refer to...
Article

Deep circumflex iliac artery

The deep circumflex iliac artery arises from the external iliac artery. Gross anatomy origin: lateral aspect of the external iliac artery above the inguinal ligament, almost opposite to the inferior epigastric artery course: travels superiorly parallel to the inguinal ligament towards the ant...

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