The deep femoral vein or the profunda femoris vein lies anterior to its artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the artery. Through these tributaries it connects distally with the popliteal and proximally with the inferior gluteal veins. It sometimes drains the medial a...
The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for those that occur in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in specific section...
The descending aorta is the continuation of the aortic arch in the posterior mediastinum.
The descending aorta commences at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra body, on its left, in the plane of Ludwig as the continuation of the aortic arch. It descends in the posterior med...
The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery descends from the lateral aspect of the femoral neck and extends as far as the knee where it provides blood to the patellar network (the complex arterial anastomosis around the knee).
origin: lateral circumflex femoral arte...
The descending geniculate artery arises from the distal portion of the superficial femoral artery before it becomes the popliteal artery. Along with other arterial branches, it provides blood to the patella network and the knee.
origin: superficial femoral artery
supply: patella netwo...
Atrial situs refers to the relative position of cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline.
Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies.
Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle.
The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture.
The muscular fibres of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
The diaphragmatic apertures are a series of apertures that permit the passage of structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are three main apertures:
aortic hiatus (T12) (not a true aperture)
oesophageal hiatus (T10)
vena caval foramen (T8)
The vertebral levels of these ap...
Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
The differential diagnosis of vascular calcification is very wide with many common and uncommon conditions.
end-stage renal failure 3
hemangioma; arteriovenous malformation
hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary (renal osteodystrop...
Dilated mammary veins can result from many pathologies. These include:
as a secondary but non specific sign of breast malignancy 1
ipsilateral subclavian venous obstruction
Mondor disease: can be dilated as well as being thrombosed
The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic oedema at the time of an is...
The "dog leg" sign is a secondary angiographic sign on popliteal angiography, which demonstrates an irregular lumen of the popliteal artery with acute bend in the course of the popliteal artery. It is characteristically seen in popliteal artery aneurysms with mural thrombus.
It is an important ...
Doppler waveforms are often misinterpreted and/or overlooked. They can provide great deal of information if carefully understood.
The three basic waveforms are 1-2:
triphasic: triphasic waveform
forward flow in systole
reverse flow in late systole ...
The dorsal nasal artery, also known as the dorsonasal artery, is a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery.
Arising as a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery, the dorsal nasal artery exits the orbit after piercing the orbital septum above the medial canthal tendon (medial pa...
The dorsal scapular artery is a branch of either the transverse cervical artery (from the thyrocervical trunk off the first part of the subclavian artery) or an independent branch from the third (or less commonly second) part of the subclavian artery.
It accompanies the dorsal scapular nerve, c...
Double aortic arch is the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings.
Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to of symptoms related to oesophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory sym...
Double barrel sign is an imaging appearance of two lumens adjacent to each other.
It can be seen in:
dilated bile duct adjacent to portal vein
double barrel aorta: aortic dissection
double barrel oesophagus: oesophageal dissection
Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar calibre. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...
The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.
The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the morphologically right ventricle. It is reported to account for ~2% of congenital cardiac defects 1. It is usually classed as a conotruncal anomaly. There is almost always ...
Double retroaortic left renal vein is a very rare entity that is usually clinically silent and detected incidentally at imaging, surgery or autopsy.
The knowledge of anatomical variations helps the surgeon or interventionist to avoid complications during surgery and interventional procedures 4 ...
The double switch procedure is a surgical technique used to repair congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA), which is a cardiovascular anomaly with atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance.
The procedure consists of any of the following surgical combinations...
The draped aorta sign is an important imaging feature that can be seen in contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is highly indicative of aortic wall deficiency.
This sign is considered present when the posterior wall of an aortic aneurysm drapes or moulds to the anterior surface...
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a syndrome reflects a marked hypersensitivity reaction to drugs / medications. It is characterised by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and internal organ involvement. In terms of internal organ involvement, it most commonly in...
The ductus arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at the ao...
Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta.
It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the ligamentum arteriosum, at the aortic isthmus. This is also the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries as the ligamentu...
The duplicated middle cerebral artery is an anatomical variant in which there are two middle cerebral arteries (MCA) originating from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (ICA).
The duplicated artery supplies the anterior temporal lobe.
It should not be...
Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognised, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1-2.
The incidence of inferior vena caval duplicat...
Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with:
sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal
altered conscious st...
Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of dura mater (endosteal layer and meningeal layer). They can be conceptualised as trapped epidural veins. Unlike other veins in the body they run alone, not parallel to arteries. Furthermore, they are valvele...
Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis, often coexisting with cortical or deep vein thrombosis, and presenting in similar fashions, depending mainly on which sinus is involved.
As such, please refer to the cerebral venous thrombosis article for a general discuss...
Dysphagia lusoria is an impairment of swallowing due to compression from an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria).
Most patients with aberrant right subclavian arteries do not have symptoms. Some present with mild dysphagia, while a small minority have a seve...
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease).
There is a recognised male predominance.
Clinically manifests by skin hyperelasticity and fragility, joint hypermobility and blood vessel fr...
An elephant trunk repair is a type of open repair procedure devised to address combined aneurysms, it is often a two staged procedure wherein the arch repair is facilitated by sternotomy and a second staged procedure is performed via left thoracotomy for the descending or thoracoabdominal aorta...
The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect (thrombus). It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI.
The exact mechanism for this appearance i...
Endoleaks are characterised by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac.
An endoleak is a...
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).
The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks.
EVAS was designed by End...
An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph.
Causes for dilatation
There are a number of physiological causes for e...
The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:
may appear prominent in young patients especially women
rotation of the heart
left lower lobe collapse
pulmonary arterial hyp...
Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare relatively low grade vascular tumour. It occurs around medium to large venous structures.
It consists of rounded or slightly spindle-shaped eosinophilic endothelial (epitheloid) cells with rounded nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic vacu...
The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA.
origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery
course: under the submandibular gland an...
The external iliac artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery.
The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.
The external iliac vein (EIV) is located along the pelvic brim between the inguinal ligament and the sacroiliac joint.
posterior to inguinal ligament within lacuna vasorum 1 as continuation of femoral vein
The external iliac vein unites with the internal il...
The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the pectoral region.
Origin and course
The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite to form the external jugular vein at the angle of the mandible. It courses inferiorly in...
A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is:
P: posterior external jugular vein
A: anterior jugular vein
S: suprascapular vein
T: transverse cervical vein
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used as a modified pulmonary or cardiopulmonary bypass technique in those with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure refractory to conventional ventilatory support and medical intervention 1,3. There are two access paths for extracorporeal life s...
Extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction is the most common cause of noncirrhotic portal hypertension in children and young adults in developing countries. It may or may not extend into intrahepatic portal veins.
It usually occurs in children and young adults, presenting as ...
The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face.
origin: branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual artery
course: ascends anteriorly through the cheek with a tortuous route tow...
The facial-cavernous anastomoses are the communications of the facial and deep facial veins with the cavernous sinus.
At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally f...
The facial vein (previously known as the anterior facial vein) is the continuation of the angular vein and joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3.
At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial ...
False aneurysms, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is when there is a breach in the vessel wall such that blood leaks through the wall but is contained by the adventitia or surrounding perivascular soft tissue. A direct communication of blood flow exists between the vessel lumen and the aneurysm l...
Familial multiple cavernous malformation syndrome(s) are uncommon, accounting for only a minority of cavernous malformations.
It has been more frequently reported in patients of Hispanic descent 1.
The presentation is most commonly with seizures (38-55%) 1 ...
Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions.
inadequate compression following endovascular intervention
improper arterial puncture tec...
The femoral canal, or the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is the inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes:
allows the femoral vein to expand ...
The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are:
medial: lacunar ligament
anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament
lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath
posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and...
The femoral sheath is the funnel-shaped fascial space that extends from the abdomen, inferior to the inguinal ligament, into the femoral triangle. It has variable length and terminates by blending in with the adventitia of the femoral vessels. It is formed from the transversalis and psoas fascia...
The femoral vein is the main deep vein of the lower limb, and accompanies the superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery. The term 'superficial femoral vein or its abbreviation, SFV' should not be used as it is a misnomer (i.e. it is not a superficial vein), this is formally stated in ...
The fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) is a key parameter used in fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler assessment. It is calculated by subtracting the end diastolic velocity (EDV) from the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and then dividing by the time averaged (mean) velocit...
A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2.
The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and supplies the bulk of the...
Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium.
Pericardial friction rub may be heard.
acute rheumatic fever
myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome
chronic renal fail...
Fibromuscular dysplasia is classified into 5 categories according to the vessel wall layer affected:
intimal fibroplasia (1%)
medial dysplasia (70%, the commonest type)
perimedial (subadventitial) fibroplasia (15-20%)
medial hyperplasia (8-10%)
The fibular or peroneal artery is one of the three arteries of the leg, along with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Origin and course
arises from the tibioperoneal trunk approximately 2.5 cm distal to popliteus and passes obliquely to the fibula, descending along its ...
The figure 3 sign is seen in aortic coarctation and is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery, indentation at the coarctation site (also known as the "tuck"), and post-stenotic dilatation of the descending aorta.
On barium studies of the oesophagus in pat...
The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.
Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various paramete...
The floating aorta sign refers to displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column.
It is a radiographic/CT sign of retroperitoneal masses.
On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm ...
The floating viscera sign is an angiographic sign that occurs when there is visualisation of branches of the abdominal aorta (e.g. coeliac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries) during aortography with little or no visualisation of the aortic lumen.
it indicates the presence of a...
Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.
It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical ...
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome refers to presentation of spinal AVMs with progressive neurological deterioration.
Initially, patients have a spastic paraplegia which progresses to flaccidity, loss of sphincter control and ascending sensory level. It is thought to be due to venous hypertension.
The Fontan procedure is a repair surgical strategy for congenital cardiac anomalies. It is not usually used in isolation, but in combination with other repair procedures in a staged manner in an attempt to correct the underlying cardiac pathology.
The procedure attempts to bypass the...
F. P. Weber syndrome (FPWS) is a traditional eponymous denomination of a certain type of angiodysplasia, that would nowadays rather be called a mixed haemolymphatic congenital vascular malformation (CVM) with arteriovenous (av) shunting, based on the Hamburg classification of CVMs.
In his origi...
The frontopolar artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), commonly arising after the medial frontobasal artery and coursing obliquely across the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere towards the frontal pole.
Fusiform intracranial aneurysms are a type of intracranial aneurysms with an elongated fusiform shape caused by atherosclerotic disease most common in the vertebrobasilar circulation.
3%-13% of all intracranial aneurysms
They can be incidental or asymptomat...
Gadofosveset trisodium (also known as AblavarTM or VasovistTM) is an intravenous blood pool contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging.
It was designed as an agent for contrast-enhanced MR angiography since it exhibits strong binding to plasma proteins, thus remaining in the blood stream...
The gastroduodenal artery is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of the most important sour...
The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the short saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy where the short saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch.
The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chronic ...
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a common granulomatous vasculitis affecting medium- to large-sized arteries. It may also be known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis, given its propensity to involve the extra-cranial carotid artery branches such as the temporal artery.
Giant cerebral aneurysms are ones that measure >25 mm in greatest dimension.
Giant cerebral aneurysms account for ~5% of all intracranial aneurysms 1,3. They occur in the 5th-7th decades and are more common in females 2.
Patients can present with symptoms ...
The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases.
In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3.
It can be used in a varie...
Glomangiomas, also known as glomus tumours, are benign vascular tumours typically seen at the distal extremities.
On imaging, they characteristically present as small hypervascular nodules under the finger nail.
These tumours should not be confused with paragangliomas, which are...
The glomus body is a component of the dermis that is involved in thermoregulation.
It consists of a specialised arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. They are most numerous in the fingers and toes and exist to shunt blood from the skin surface when...
Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours.
The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...
The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately:
The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anterior to the ureters. Like the s...
Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification is one method of classing aneurysmal dilatation of the inferior vena cava, which is an uncommon finding. When present it can be often associated with other caval anomalies. Gradman and Steinburg method classifies them as 1:
The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.
It begins on the anterior surface of th...
The great saphenous vein (GSV) forms part of the superficial venous system of the lower limb.
Origin and course
The GSV lies within the subcutaneous tissues of the leg in the thigh in the saphenous compartment, which is bounded posteriorly by the deep fascia and superficially b...
Griesinger sign, named after Wilhelm Griesinger, a German psychiatrist and neurologist (1817-1868) refers to oedema of the postauricular soft tissues overlying the mastoid process as a result of thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein. It is a complication of acute otomastoiditis and may be asso...
The Griffiths point (or Griffiths critical point) refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the transverse co...
A haemangioendothelioma is a tumour derived from blood vessels.
Sub types dependent on location include
haemangioendothelioma of liver
This article is intended to be the general article on haemagi...