Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

962 results found
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Haemangioma

Haemangiomas are benign tumours of vascular origin usually seen in early childhood, divided into infantile haemangiomas congenital haemangiomas Terminology Unfortunately, the term haemangioma has been widely misused to apply to many non-neoplastic vascular malformations, particularly the com...
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Haemangiopericytoma

Haemangiopericytoma is a term formerly used to describe a continuum of mesenchymal tumours with elevated cellularity found throughout the body in soft tissue and bone. After many years of controversy, haemangiopericytomas have been shown to not only share histological features similar to solitar...
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Haemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Haemangiopericytomas of the spleen are a very rare vascular neoplasm with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic haemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are a soft tissue vascular neoplasm...
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Haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula

An acquired arm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a procedure performed for haemodialysis access in those with end stage renal failure. It connects and artery to a vein in the vein. This can either be a native connection or a connection using a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. There ...
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Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
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Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 high...
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Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations

Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations is one of the more commonly used systems to describe the wide range of vascular malformations, largely replacing the many various eponymous syndromes traditionally used. It accounts for the underlying anatomical, histological, and pathophys...
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Hemiazygos vein

The hemiazygos vein is the asymmetric counterpart to the azygos vein and forms part of the azygos venous system.  Gross anatomy Origin The hemiazygos vein is formed by the confluence of the left ascending lumbar and left subcostal veins.  Course The hemiazygos vein enters the thorax either ...
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Hepatic arterial resistive index

The resistive index (RI) is the commonest Doppler parameter used for hepatic arterial evaluation. The usual range in normal, as well as post-transplant individuals, is between 0.55 and 0.8. It is measured by: RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity Hepati...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper or the proper hepatic artery arises from the common hepatic artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the hepatic artery proper and the gastroduodenal artery.  Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery proper runs anterior to the portal vein and to the left ...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

A hepatic lymphangioma is a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A lymphangioma is a benign lesion that can occur at almost any location in the body. Hepatic involvement is les...
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Hepatic veins

The hepatic veins are three large veins which drain the hepatic parenchyma into the inferior vena cava (IVC), named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and hence defining the segments of the liver. There are sep...
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Hereditary connective tissue disease

Hereditary connective tissue diseases are a group of connective tissue disease that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include :  Marfan syndrome - genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart v...
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Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterised by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevale...
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Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The aetiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related...
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High-attenuation crescent sign

The high attenuating crescent sign represents an acute haematoma within either the mural thrombus or the aneurysm wall, especially when detected on unenhanced CT scans. It is a specific sign of impending abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture or so-called contained rupture. Pathology The hype...
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Histology of blood vessels

The walls of arteries and veins are composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix (including collagen and elastin).  These are arranged into three concentric layers: intima, media and adventitia. The intima is the inner layer abutting the vessel lumen. The adventit...
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Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement where an approximation of the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle is used.​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior ...
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Hughes-Stovin syndrome

Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS) is a vasculitis that predominantly affects large vessels. The disease bears some resemblance to Behcet disease. Epidemiology It predominantly occurs predominantly between the 2nd to 4th decades. There is a recognised male predilection.  Pathology Distribution  T...
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Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve...
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Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign refers to focal increased density of the middle cerebral artery on CT and is direct visualisation of thromboembolic material within the lumen. It is thus the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction seen immediately at the time of embolism.  It is the longitudinal equivale...
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Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy

Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare complication.  Epidemiology Hyperperfusion occurs in ~7.5% (range 1-14%) of patients but only a minority (~1.5%) of patients are symptomatic 1,2, with incidence being reported slightly more af...
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Hyper-reninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumour, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular haemorrhage (Page kidney)
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. systemic hypertension pulmonary hypertension portal hypertension
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
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Hypothenar hammer syndrome

Hypothenar hammer syndrome occurs from trauma to the distal ulnar artery or proximal portion of superficial palmar arch as a result of repetitive trauma to the hypothenar eminence. Originally described in patients using hammers and screwdrivers, it is also seen in various athletes such as basket...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising of pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirma...
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Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis...
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Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (noncirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholog...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the retrope...
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IgA vasculitis

IgA vasculitis (formally known as Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)) is a type of non-thrombocytopaenic immune-mediated small vessel acute leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It tends to occur in the paediatric population (peak incidence 3-10 years) 3. In order to differentiate from other types of vascu...
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Ileocolic artery

The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) that runs obliquely to the ileocaecal junction. It divides into an ileal branch that supplies the terminal ileum and anastomoses with the terminal SMA and a colic branch that supplies the proximal ascending colon and anast...
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Iliac artery aneurysm

Iliac arterial aneurysms are focal dilatations of the iliac artery.  Although the dimensions that define the aneurysm are dependent on the sex of the patient and the portion of the artery involved, a common iliac artery (CIA) with a diameter ≥1.7 cm in males or ≥1.5 cm in females is considered ...
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Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to the variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumour invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Th...
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Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus in the iliac vein (common, external or internal) or common femoral vein obstructs the venous outflow from the lower limb leading to marked oedema. Clinical presentation To be added Radiographic appearance To be added Pathology To be a...
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Iliolumbar artery

The iliolumbar artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary origin: posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: ilium, iliacus muscle, psoas major muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, erector spinae muscle, anterio...
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Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
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Infarct core

The infarct core denotes the part of an acute ischaemic stroke which has already infarcted, or is irrevocably destined to infarct regardless of reperfusion. It is also referred as established infarct and is in distinction from the penumbra which remains potentially salvageable.  CT perfusion O...
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Inferior adrenal artery

The inferior adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of three adrenal arteries that supplies the adrenal gland. Gross anatomy Origin Ipsilateral renal artery (usually before the terminal division of the renal artery) Location The course of the inferior suprarenal artery depends on its origin. Re...
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Inferior alveolar artery

The inferior alveolar artery is a branch of the maxillary artery. It runs with the inferior alveolar nerve as it descends through the infratemporal fossa and enters the mandibular canal and supplies mandibular teeth. In the region of the first premolar it bifurcates into the incisive and mental ...
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Inferior epigastric artery

The inferior epigastric artery arises from the external iliac artery and is an important artery supplying the anterior abdominal wall. If a superficial inferior epigastric artery is present, as seen in about two-thrids of cases, then the inferior epigastric artery is referred to as the deep infe...
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Inferior gluteal artery

The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteal region and thigh. Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, back of thigh supply: buttock...
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Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
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Inferior interventricular artery

The inferior interventricular artery (also known as the posterior interventricular artery or posterior descending artery, PDA) is an artery that extends along the inferior interventricular sulcus. The artery supplies the posterior third of the interventricular septum through posterior septal per...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is an anterior branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location within the mesentery of the hindgut Origin unpaired vessel from the anterior aspect o...
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Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm

Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are among the rarest of all visceral artery aneurysms. Epidemiology Aneurysms of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) only account for <1% of all visceral artery aneurysms 1,2. These aneurysms are more common in men than in women 3. Clinical presentation ...
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Inferior mesenteric vein

The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal portion of the colon as well as the rectum (i.e. the hindgut).  Gross anatomy Origin and course The inferior mesenteric vein drains the mesenteric arcade of the hindgut (comprising of distal transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon). ...
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Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the first branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), though it often arises from the first jejunal branch. It anastomoses with branches of the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (from the gastroduodenal artery) and it supplies the head of the pan...
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Inferior petrosal sinus

The inferior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses. It is often a plexus of venous channels rather than a true sinus and drains blood from the cavernous sinus to the jugular foramen (pars nervosa) or sometimes via a vein which passes through the hypoglossal canal to the suboccipital ...
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Inferior phrenic artery

The inferior phrenic arteries (IPA) are paired branches of the abdominal aorta / coeliac trunk supplying the diaphragm. Its importance lies in that the right IPA is the most common extrahepatic arterial supply of hepatocellular carcinoma.  Summary origin: abdominal aorta or coeliac trunk at th...
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Inferior sagittal sinus

The inferior sagittal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and runs along the inferior edge of the falx cerebri. It runs from front to back (same as the superior sagittal sinus) and drains into the straight sinus. It receives tributaries from the falx itself as well as some small veins from ...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inferior thyroid artery

The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk (85%) or subclavian artery (15%) and ascends to enter the thyroid gland on its posterior surface, as well as supplying both the superior and inferior parathyroid glands 1. The nerve is closely related to the ascending limb of the...
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Inferior ulnar collateral artery

The inferior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the distal-most part of the upper arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery superior to the medial epicondyle 1 location: distal lower arm supply: brachialis, biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis 1 ...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) drains venous blood from the lower trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs to the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The IVC is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the ab...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumour thrombus. Clinical features Patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal oede...
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Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterised by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
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Inferior vesical artery

The inferior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Some texts state it is only present in males and may be replaced by a vaginal artery in females. Note, the vaginal artery which is most commonly described, is often a branch of the uterine artery. Su...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
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Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a variant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characterised by inflammatory thickening of the aneurysm wall, perianeurysmal fibrosis and adherence to surrounding structures. Epidemiology They account for  ~5 to 10% of all AAAs. Clinical presenta...
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Infraorbital artery

The infraorbital artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery. It runs through the inferior orbital fissure, orbit, infraorbital canal then the infraorbital foramen. Here it gives off the anterior superior alveolar artery which supplies the anterior teeth and the anterior part of...
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Infundibulum (artery)

An infundibulum is a conical outpouching from an artery (usually intracranial), with a broad base narrowing to an apex from which a vessel originates. The most common location for an infundibulum is the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) from the supraclinoid internal carotid ar...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.
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Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the paediatric population. Pathology It can only occur in the presence of an aberrantly positioned thymus that forces the aortic arch or innomi...
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Inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery

The inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery, also known as the malignant course of the left coronary artery, is defined as the origin of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva with a course between the ascending aorta and the...
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Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery

Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery (RCA), also known as a malignant variant, may occur if the right coronary artery has an aberrant origin from the the left coronary sinus. It is an uncommon anomaly with potential risk of cardiac ischaemia. When the right coronary artery arises ...
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Intercavernous sinus

The intercavernous sinus (anterior and posterior) are dural venous sinuses and connect the left and right cavernous sinuses, along with the basilar venous plexus. They lie in the anterior and posterior borders of the diaphragma sellae. Additional small venous sinuses in the base of the pituitary...
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Internal carotid artery dissection

Internal carotid artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima 1 and is a common cause of stroke in younger patients. Epidemiology Dissection may occur at any age, but is a common cause of stroke in young patients (2...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Internal cerebral vein

The internal cerebral veins are paired, paramedian veins which course posteriorly along the roof of the third ventricle, between the two leaves of the velum interpositum. Gross anatomy Each is formed at the foramen of Monro by the confluence of the choroidal vein (draining the choroid plexus o...
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Internal iliac artery

The internal iliac artery (also known as the hypogastric artery) is the smaller terminal branch of the common iliac artery. It supplies the pelvic walls, pelvic viscera, external genitalia, perineum, buttock and medial part of the thigh.  Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcate...
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Internal iliac vein

The internal iliac vein (IIV) represents the union of veins and venous plexuses draining the pelvic viscera, pelvic wall, external genitalia, perineum, buttocks and medial thigh.   Gross anatomy Origin Above the greater sciatic notch. Course and termination Ascends out of pelvis to meet the...
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Internal jugular vein

The internal jugular vein (IJV) is the major venous return from the brain, upper face and neck. Gross anatomy Origin and course It is formed by the union of inferior petrosal and sigmoid dural venous sinuses in or just distal to the jugular foramen (forming the jugular bulb). It descends in t...
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Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
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Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
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Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of...
Article

Interosseous recurrent artery

The interosseous recurrent artery is a branch of the posterior interosseous artery just after its origin, within the proximal aspect of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It courses proximally between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and olecranon of the ulna to anastomose with the m...
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Intestinal ischaemia (summary)

Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straight forward provided appropriate imaging is obtained. The disease can be arbitrarily classified into broad groups according to ...
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Intimal hyperplasia

Intimal hyperplasia is not a true disease, but a physiologic healing response to injury to the blood vessel wall.  It is the bane of endovascular intervention and vascular surgery. When the endothelium is injured, endothelial cells release inflammatory mediators that trigger platelet aggregatio...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
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Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fiber...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising leiomyoma, in ...
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Investigating limb ischaemia (summary)

Limb ischaemia is a relatively uncommon, but potentially limb (and life) threatening situation. There are many potential causes. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary questions are symptoms new? does exercise trigger pain? i...
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Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Article

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Pathology Periaortitis may be a local immune response to antigens like oxidized-low density lipoproteins and ceroid found in the atherosclerotic plaques of the abdominal aorta. The disease tends primarily to involve the va...
Article

Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (IUAPA) is the congenital absence of the left or right pulmonary artery.  When found in combination with other congenital vascular abnormalities it is known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA). Epidemiology Unilateral absence...
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ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...

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