Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,023 results found
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Fusiform intracranial aneurysm

Fusiform intracranial aneurysms are a type of intracranial aneurysms with an elongated fusiform shape caused by atherosclerotic disease most common in the vertebrobasilar circulation. Epidemiology 3%-13% of all intracranial aneurysms Clinical presentation They can be incidental or asymptomat...
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Gadofosveset trisodium

Gadofosveset trisodium (also known as AblavarTM or VasovistTM) is an intravenous blood pool contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. The manufacturer discontinued production in 2017 due to poor sales. It was designed as an agent for contrast-enhanced MR angiography since it exhibits s...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...
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Generalised lymphatic anomaly

Generalised lymphatic anomaly, previously known as lymphangiomatosis, is a systemic condition characterized by multifocal lymphatic malformations with systemic distribution. Distribution of lymphatic malformations is variable; there can be cutaneous, thoracic and abdominal viscera, and osseous i...
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Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the small saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy where the small saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chronic ...
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Giant cell arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a common granulomatous vasculitis affecting medium- to large-sized arteries. It may also be known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis, given its propensity to involve the extracranial carotid artery branches such as the temporal artery.  Epidemiology Giant ...
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Giant cerebral aneurysm

Giant cerebral aneurysms are ones that measure >25 mm in greatest dimension.  Epidemiology Giant cerebral aneurysms account for ~5% of all intracranial aneurysms 1,3. They occur in the 5th-7th decades and are more common in females 2. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms ...
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Glenn shunt

The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Rationale In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3. It can be used in a varie...
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Glomangioma

Glomangiomas, also known as glomus tumours, are benign vascular tumours typically seen at the distal extremities.  On imaging, they characteristically present as small hypervascular nodules under the finger nail.  Terminology These tumours should not be confused with paragangliomas, which are...
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Glomus body

The glomus body is a component of the dermis that is involved in thermoregulation.  Gross anatomy It consists of a specialised arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. They are most numerous in the fingers and toes and exist to shunt blood from the skin surface when...
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Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anterior to the ureters. Like the s...
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Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification is one method of classing aneurysmal dilatation of the inferior vena cava, which is an uncommon finding. When present it can be often associated with other caval anomalies. Gradman and Steinburg method classifies them as 1: type I...
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Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.  Gross anatomy It begins on the anterior surface of th...
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Greater pancreatic artery

The greater pancreatic artery, also known as the pancreatica magna artery, is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreatic tail and body. It arises approximately two thirds the way along the splenic artery and descends a short distance to run to the left along the posterior margi...
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Great saphenous vein

The great saphenous vein (GSV) forms part of the superficial venous system of the lower limb.  Terminology Great saphenous vein is the preferred terminology over other variants such as long saphenous vein (LSV), greater saphenous vein or internal saphenous vein 5.  Gross anatomy Origin and c...
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Griesinger sign (mastoid)

Griesinger sign, named after Wilhelm Griesinger, a German psychiatrist and neurologist (1817-1868) refers to oedema of the postauricular soft tissues overlying the mastoid process as a result of thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein. It is a complication of acute otomastoiditis and may be asso...
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Griffiths point

The Griffiths point (or Griffiths critical point) refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the transverse co...
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Haemangioendothelioma

A haemangioendothelioma is a tumour derived from blood vessels.  Pathology Subtypes Subtypes dependent on location include haemangioendothelioma (MSK) haemangioendothelioma of liver See also epithelioid haemangioendothelioma
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Haemangioma

Haemangiomas are benign tumours of vascular origin usually seen in early childhood, divided into infantile haemangiomas congenital haemangiomas Terminology Unfortunately, the term haemangioma has been widely misused to apply to many non-neoplastic vascular malformations, particularly the com...
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Haemangiopericytoma

Haemangiopericytoma is a term formerly used to describe a continuum of mesenchymal tumours with elevated cellularity found throughout the body in soft tissue and bone. After many years of controversy, haemangiopericytomas have been shown to not only share histological features similar to solitar...
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Haemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Haemangiopericytomas of the spleen are very rare vascular neoplasm with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic haemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are soft tissue vascular neoplasms ar...
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Haematoma

Haematomas are the name given to localised collections of blood and they can form virtually anywhere in the body. They often form secondary to trauma or surgery but spontaneous formation is also not uncommon, especially in those with coagulation disorders or on anticoagulant therapy. Haematomas...
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Haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula

An acquired arm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a procedure performed for haemodialysis access in those with end stage renal failure. It connects and artery to a vein in the vein. This can either be a native connection or a connection using a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. There ...
Article

Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration ...
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Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 high...
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Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations

Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations is one of the more commonly used systems to describe the wide range of vascular malformations, largely replacing the many various eponymous syndromes traditionally used. It accounts for the underlying anatomical, histological, and pathophys...
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Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy is important when considering pathology affecting the same area. In radiology, the 'head and neck' refers to all the anatomical structures in this region excluding the central nervous system, that is, the brain and spinal cord and their associated vascular structures and en...
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Hemiazygos vein

The hemiazygos vein is the asymmetric counterpart to the azygos vein and forms part of the azygos venous system.  Gross anatomy Origin The hemiazygos vein is formed by the confluence of the left ascending lumbar and left subcostal veins.  Course The hemiazygos vein enters the thorax either ...
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Hepatic arterial resistive index

The resistive index (RI) is the commonest Doppler parameter used for hepatic arterial evaluation. The usual range in normal, as well as post-transplant individuals, is between 0.55 and 0.8. It is measured by: RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity Hepati...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper (or proper hepatic artery) is the continuation of the common hepatic artery after it gives off the gastroduodenal artery. Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery proper runs anteromedial to the portal vein and medial to the common bile duct to form the portal triad w...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

A hepatic lymphangioma is a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A lymphangioma is a benign lesion that can occur at almost any location in the body. Hepatic involvement is les...
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Hepatic veins

The hepatic veins are three large intraparenchymal veins which drain the liver substance into the inferior vena cava (IVC), named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and hence defining the segments of the liver....
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Hereditary connective tissue disease

Hereditary connective tissue diseases are a group of connective tissue disease that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include :  Marfan syndrome - genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart v...
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Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterised by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevale...
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Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The aetiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related...
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Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access device. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumo...
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High-attenuation crescent sign

The high attenuating crescent sign represents an acute haematoma within either the mural thrombus or the aneurysm wall, especially when detected on unenhanced CT scans. It is a specific sign of impending abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture or so-called contained rupture. Pathology The hype...
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Histology of blood vessels

Blood vessels, namely arteries and veins, are composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix (including collagen and elastin). These are arranged into three concentric layers (or tunicae): intima, media and adventitia. the intima (or tunica intima) inner layer abut...
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Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV).​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
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Hughes-Stovin syndrome

Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS) is a vasculitis that predominantly affects large vessels. The disease bears some resemblance to Behcet disease. Epidemiology It predominantly occurs predominantly between the 2nd to 4th decades. There is a recognised male predilection.  Pathology Distribution  T...
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Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve...
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Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign refers to focal increased density of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on CT and is a direct visualisation of thromboembolic material within the lumen. It is thus the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction as it is seen within 90 minutes after the event 1.  It is the long...
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Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy

Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare complication.  Epidemiology Hyperperfusion occurs in ~7.5% (range 1-14%) of patients but only a minority (~1.5%) of patients are symptomatic 1,2, with incidence being reported slightly more af...
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Hyper-reninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumour, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular haemorrhage (Page kidney)
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. systemic hypertension pulmonary hypertension portal hypertension
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
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Hypothenar hammer syndrome

Hypothenar hammer syndrome occurs from trauma to the distal ulnar artery or proximal portion of superficial palmar arch as a result of repetitive trauma to the hypothenar eminence. Originally described in patients using hammers and screwdrivers, it is also seen in various athletes such as basket...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising of pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirma...
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Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis...
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Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholo...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the retrope...
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IgA vasculitis

IgA vasculitis (formerly known as Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)) is a type of non-thrombocytopenic immune-mediated small vessel acute leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It tends to occur in the paediatric population (peak incidence 3-10 years) 3. In order to differentiate from other types of vascul...
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Ileocolic artery

The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) that runs obliquely to the ileocaecal junction. It divides into an ileal branch that supplies the terminal ileum and anastomoses with the terminal SMA and a colic branch that supplies the proximal ascending colon and anast...
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Iliac artery aneurysm

Iliac arterial aneurysms are focal dilatations of the iliac artery.  Although the dimensions that define the aneurysm are dependent on the sex of the patient and the portion of the artery involved, a common iliac artery (CIA) with a diameter ≥1.7 cm in males or ≥1.5 cm in females is considered ...
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Iliac artery endofibrosis

Iliac artery endofibrosis is a rare condition that affects young endurance athletes, characterised by a non-atherosclerotic stenosis of the iliac artery. Epidemiology It is a rare entity that affects highly trained endurance athletes, mostly cyclists and long-distance runners 4. The disease ha...
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Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to the variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumour invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Th...
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Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (iliofemoral DVT) occurs when a thrombus in the iliac vein (common, external or internal) or common femoral vein obstructs the venous outflow from the lower limb leading to marked oedema; DVT of the IVC or the more distal lower limb veins may be present. Termino...
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Iliolumbar artery

The iliolumbar artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary origin: posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: ilium, iliacus muscle, psoas major muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, erector spinae muscle, anterio...
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Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
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Infantile haemangioma

Infantile haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms that are the most common head and neck tumours of infancy. They can occur virtually anywhere, but the majority are found in the head and neck regions. This article aims to be a generic discussion of the condition, for detailed and more specif...
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Infarct core

The infarct core denotes the part of an acute ischaemic stroke which has already infarcted, or is irrevocably destined to infarct regardless of reperfusion. It is also referred as established infarct and is in distinction from the penumbra which remains potentially salvageable.  CT perfusion O...
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Inferior adrenal artery

The inferior adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of three adrenal arteries that supplies the adrenal gland. Gross anatomy Origin Ipsilateral renal artery (usually before the terminal division of the renal artery) Location The course of the inferior suprarenal artery depends on its origin. Re...
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Inferior alveolar artery

The inferior alveolar artery is a branch of the maxillary artery. It runs with the inferior alveolar nerve as it descends through the infratemporal fossa and enters the mandibular canal and supplies mandibular teeth. In the region of the first premolar it bifurcates into the incisive and mental ...
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Inferior epigastric artery

The inferior epigastric artery arises from the external iliac artery and is an important artery supplying the anterior abdominal wall. If a superficial inferior epigastric artery is present, as seen in about two-thrids of cases, then the inferior epigastric artery is referred to as the deep infe...
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Inferior gluteal artery

The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteal region and thigh. Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, back of thigh supply: buttock...
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Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
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Inferior hypophyseal artery

The inferior hypophyseal artery is a branch from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually single on each side and divides into medial and lateral branches contributing to the inferior hypophyseal arterial circle.  The inferior hypoph...
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Inferior interventricular artery

The inferior interventricular artery (also known as the posterior interventricular artery or posterior descending artery, PDA) is an artery that extends along the inferior interventricular sulcus. The artery supplies the posterior third of the interventricular septum through posterior septal per...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location Located wit...
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Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm

Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are among the rarest of all visceral artery aneurysms. Epidemiology Aneurysms of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) only account for <1% of all visceral artery aneurysms 1,2. These aneurysms are more common in men than in women 3. Clinical presentation ...
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Inferior mesenteric vein

The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal portion of the colon as well as the rectum (i.e. the hindgut).  Gross anatomy Origin and course The inferior mesenteric vein drains the mesenteric arcade of the hindgut (comprising of distal transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon). ...
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Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the first branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), though it often arises from the first jejunal branch. It anastomoses with branches of the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (from the gastroduodenal artery) and it supplies the head of the pan...
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Inferior petrosal sinus

The inferior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses. It is often a plexus of venous channels rather than a true sinus and drains blood from the cavernous sinus to the jugular foramen (pars nervosa) or sometimes via a vein which passes through the hypoglossal canal to the suboccipital ...
Article

Inferior phrenic artery

The inferior phrenic arteries (IPA) are paired branches of the abdominal aorta / coeliac trunk supplying the diaphragm. Their importance lies with the fact that the right IPA is the most common extrahepatic arterial supply of a hepatocellular carcinoma.  Summary origin: abdominal aorta or coel...
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Inferior Rectal Artery

The inferior rectal artery is an artery that supplies the lower anal canal including the external anal sphincter. Summary origin: from internal pudendal artery, just after it enters the pudendal canal course: runs anteromedially through the ischioanal fossa to reach the deep portion of the ex...
Article

Inferior sagittal sinus

The inferior sagittal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and runs along the inferior edge of the falx cerebri. It runs from front to back (same as the superior sagittal sinus) and drains into the straight sinus. It receives tributaries from the falx itself as well as some small veins from ...
Article

Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
Article

Inferior thyroid artery

The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk (85%) or subclavian artery (15%) and ascends to enter the thyroid gland on its posterior surface, as well as supplying both the superior and inferior parathyroid glands 1. The nerve is closely related to the ascending limb of the...
Article

Inferior ulnar collateral artery

The inferior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the distal-most part of the upper arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery superior to the medial epicondyle 1 location: distal lower arm supply: brachialis, biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis 1 ...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) drains venous blood from the lower trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs to the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The IVC is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the ab...
Article

Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumour thrombus. Clinical features Patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal oede...
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Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterised by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
Article

Inferior vesical artery

The inferior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Some texts state it is only present in males and may be replaced by a vaginal artery in females. Note, the vaginal artery which is most commonly described, is often a branch of the uterine artery. Su...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
Article

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a variant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characterised by inflammatory thickening of the aneurysm wall, perianeurysmal fibrosis and adherence to surrounding structures. Epidemiology They account for  ~5 to 10% of all AAAs. Clinical presenta...
Article

Infraorbital artery

The infraorbital artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery. It runs through the inferior orbital fissure, orbit, infraorbital canal then the infraorbital foramen. Here it gives off the anterior superior alveolar artery which supplies the anterior teeth and the anterior part of...
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Infundibulum (artery)

An infundibulum (plural: infundibula) is a conical outpouching from an artery (usually intracranial), with a broad base narrowing to an apex from which a vessel originates. The most common location for an infundibulum is the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) from the supraclino...

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