Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,000 results found
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Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of...
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Interosseous recurrent artery

The interosseous recurrent artery is a branch of the posterior interosseous artery just after its origin, within the proximal aspect of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It courses proximally between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and olecranon of the ulna to anastomose with the m...
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Intestinal ischaemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straight forward provided appropriate imaging is obtained. ...
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Intimal hyperplasia

Intimal hyperplasia is not a true disease, but a physiologic healing response to injury to the blood vessel wall.  It is the bane of endovascular intervention and vascular surgery. When the endothelium is injured, endothelial cells release inflammatory mediators that trigger platelet aggregatio...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
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Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fiber...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Intratesticular varicocele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising leiomyoma, in ...
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Investigating limb ischaemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Limb ischaemia is a relatively uncommon, but potentially limb (and life) threatening situation. There are many potential causes. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference articl...
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Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
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Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
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Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
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Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Clinical features pain fever fatigue weight loss anaemia mesenteric arterial ischaemia: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage  renal artery stenosis: renovascular hypertension  vascular impairme...
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Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (IUAPA) is the congenital absence of the left or right pulmonary artery.  When found in combination with other congenital vascular abnormalities it is known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA). Epidemiology Unilateral absence...
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ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
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Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moya moya disease or moya moya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Diffe...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jugular bulb

The jugular bulb is the connection between the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein.  Gross anatomy The sigmoid and inferior petrosal sinuses empty into the jugular bulb, which continues as the internal jugular vein. It lies in the pars vascularis, which occupies the posterolateral aspe...
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Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, haemofiltration and plasma exchange.  Typically, the right internal jugular is used as its vertical course straight down into the superior vena cava via the righ...
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Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as haemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumour is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vascul...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Pathology An autoimmune aetiology has been postulated. It is generally self-limiting but acute fatalities are thoug...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Kiesselbach's plexus

Kiesselbach's plexus (Kiesselbach's area or Little's area) is a vascular region of the anteroinferior nasal septum that comprises four arterial anastomoses: anterior ethmoidal artery a branch of the ophthalmic artery sphenopalatine artery a branch of the maxillary artery greater palatine ar...
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Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intr...
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Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), although it can also branch from the basilar artery (~15%), ...
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Lacrimal artery

The lacrimal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the lacrimal gland. Gross anatomy Course The lacrimal artery travels along the upper border of the lateral rectus muscle with the lacrimal nerve to supply the lacrimal gland as well as the eyelids and conjunctiva. The rec...
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Large vessel vasculitis

The term large vessel vasculitis (LVV) usually denotes the spectrum of primary vasculitides that causes chronic granulomatous inflammation predominantly involving the aorta and its major branches. The two major entities in this group are giant cell arteritis (GCA): affects older individuals (t...
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Lasajunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
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Lateral circumflex femoral artery

The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises soon after the medial circumflex femoral artery. While the medial circumflex runs posteriorly around the femoral neck, the lateral circumflex courses laterally from its origin and anterior to the femoral...
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Lateralised internal carotid artery

The lateralised internal carotid artery is an anatomic variation of the course of the horizontal internal carotid artery (ICA). It can be visualised on CT by its more posterolateral entrance to the skull base and protrusion into the anterior mesotympanum. It may result in pulsatile tinnitus. Ra...
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Lateral lenticulostriate arteries

The lateral lenticulostriate arteries arise from the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and supply the lateral portion of the putamen and external capsule as well as the upper internal capsule. They are longer (almost twice the diameter) and more numerous than the medial lenticulostriate art...
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Lateral posterior choroidal artery

The lateral posterior choroidal artery may be a singular structure or exist as multiple lateral posterior choroidal arteries. In both cases, they arise from the P2 segment of the PCA, just distal (and lateral) to the medial posterior choroidal arteries. In some cases, they may arise from one of ...
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Lateral sacral artery

The lateral sacral artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary location: pelvis origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery in the pelvis branches: superior and inferior sacral arteries supply: sacral meninges, pirifor...
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Lateral thoracic artery

The lateral thoracic artery is a branch of the second part of the axillary artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The lateral thoracic artery originates from the medial surface of the axillary artery, posterior to the distal part of pectoralis minor. It courses inferomedially along the infe...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anterior abdomi...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It descends along the inteventricular groove. It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the nam...
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes superiorly to supply the upper part of the...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the coeliac artery.   It passes superiorly, giving off an oesophageal branch to the distal oesophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along the lesser curvature of the stomach.  Anastomoses along the lesser curvature with the r...
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Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower oesophageal ...
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Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the stomach, approximately 1 cm from the gastric wall before it anastomoses with the ri...
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Left hepatic artery

The left hepatic artery (LHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the left and right hepatic arteries on reaching the porta hepatis. Thes...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve 1-2. ...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to project over the superior vena cava is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: located within a vein left sided superior vena cava left interna...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are surgically implanted devices that aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a transplant candidate. The LVAD acts as a ...
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Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of a myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardiu...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.   Clinical presentation Patients typically present unwell...
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Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate arteries  There is, however, some confusion a...
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Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system Hug...
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Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
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Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal int...
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Lingual artery

The lingual artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies the oral floor and tongue. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the C3 course: towards hyoid bone, then loops down towards the tongue supply: oral floor and tongue terminat...
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Lipohyalinosis

Lipohyalinosis is a disease affecting the small cerebral arteries associated with lacunar infarction and deep white matter changes related to small vessel chronic ischaemia. Pathology The histopathological landmarks of lipohyalinosis are irregular fibrosis and hyaline of small cerebral arterie...
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Lipomatous hypertrophy of the inter-atrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterised by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
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Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
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Loeys-Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which has many features similar to Marfan syndrome. The disease is characterised by skeletal manifestations and vasculopathies. Although Loeys-Dietz syndrome shares many similarities with Marfan syndrome, the course ...
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as that occurring distal to the ligament of Treitz (i.e. from the jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum or anus) and presenting as either haematochezia (bright red blood/clots or burgundy stools) or melaena. Epidemiology The incidence of LGIB is only o...
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis: diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischaemic colitis vascular malformation vascular ectasia angiodysplasia arteriovenous ...
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Lower limb anatomy

Lower limb anatomy encompasses the anatomy all structures of the lower limb, including the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Luetic aneurysm

Luetic aneurysms (also called syphilitic aneurysms) are a type of aneurysm occurring usually secondary to syphilitic aortitis.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Pathology The responsible organism is a sp...
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Lumbar arteries

The lumbar arteries are paired branches of the abdominal aorta arising in the lumbar region. Gross anatomy Origin There are most commonly four paired lumbar arteries originating as posterolateral branches of the abdominal aorta on either side, at the level of L1-4. Course The paired arterie...
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Lymphangioma

Lymphangiomas are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. It is considered the lymphatic equivalent of a haemangioma of blood vessels.  This article focuses the general features of lymphangiomas. For a specific discussion in other locations, please refer to the ar...
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Lymphedema

Lymphedema is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the soft tissues as the result of impaired lymphatic drainage, with resultant inflammation, adipose tissue hypertrophy, and fibrosis. It can be either primary or secondary, due to surgery or disease processes. The condition can cause disfigur...
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Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Introduction Lymphocele of the thoracic duct (thoracic duct cyst) is usually asymptomatic or less commonly may present as  left supraclavicular fossa mass 1. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment, whi...
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Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
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Macaroni sign (arteries)

Macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the common ca...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
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Malignant vascular tumours

Malignant vascular tumours are rare, accounting for <1% of all sarcomas.  Pathology intermediate grade haemangioendothelioma Kaposi sarcoma high grade haemangiopericytoma angiosarcoma
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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic lens dis...
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Marginal artery of Drummond

The marginal artery of Drummond, also known as the marginal artery of the colon, is a continuous arterial circle or arcade along the inner border of the colon formed by the anastomoses of the terminal branches of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Gross a...
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Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularisation, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
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Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transvers...
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Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, at first, it is embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes anterior between ...
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Maximum intensity projection (MIP)

Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) consists of projecting the voxel with the highest attenuation value on every view throughout the volume onto a 2D image 1. Such an algorithm is rather simple: for each XY coordinate, only the pixel with the highest Hounsfield number along the Z-axis is represe...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
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Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises close to its origin. It provides oxygenated blood to the femoral neck and damage to the artery or involvement in pathological processes may result in decreased flow and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. S...
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Medial frontobasal artery

The medial frontobasal artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) which runs forward and basally along the medial surface of the hemisphere towards the frontal pole, suppling the orbital part of the frontal lobe from its medial side.
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Medial lenticulostriate arteries

The medial lenticulostriate arteries are generally considered to arise from the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and supply the globus pallidus and medial portion of the putamen 1,3.  They are shorter, thinner and fewer in number than the lateral lenticulostriate arteries, which ar...
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Medial posterior choroidal artery

The medial posterior choroidal artery is a small branch (often multiple - 40% of hemispheres) usually arising from the P2 segment of the PCA. It may also arise from one of the PCA branches, e.g. parieto-occiptal, calcarine, splenial artery. It ascends deep to the rest of the PCA and supplies sm...
Article

Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments. The paired folds run from pelvis to umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of foetal umbilical art...
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Median antebrachial vein

The median antebrachial vein is a superficial vein of the anterior forearm that drains the superficial structures of the forearm and wrist between the basilic and cephalic veins. It ascends to the cubital fossa where it usually drains into the medial cephalic and median basilic veins (collective...
Article

Median cubital vein

The median cubital vein is the superficial vein overlying the bicipital aponeurosis in the roof of the cubital fossa, commonly cannulated for intravenous access. It variably forms as either a H or M type pattern joining the median antebrachial, basilic and cephalic veins. If a M-shaped pattern, ...
Article

Median prosencephalic vein

The median prosencephalic vein is a precursor to the vein of Galen, and usually regresses before birth. If an arterio-venous fistula exists, it balloons out to become the 'aneurysmal' vein of Galen malformation. This occurs since the vein is thin walled, lies free within the subarachnoid space, ...
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Median sacral artery

The median sacral artery is a small single posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta that descends to supply structures in the pelvis. Summary location: abdomen and pelvis origin and termination: originates as a posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta just above the level of the b...
Article

Median umbilical fold

The median umbilical fold is a raised ridge of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the median umbilical ligament. It runs from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. The median umbilical ligament is the anatomical remnant of the foetal urachus. The ...
Article

Mediastinal haemangioma

Mediastinal haemangioma is a location specific subtype of a haemangioma. Epidemiology There incidence account for less than 0.5% among all mediastinal masses 1. Clinical presentation Up to half of patients may be asymptomatic 1. Others may present with non-specific symptoms, such as cough, c...

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