Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,053 results found
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Inferior sagittal sinus

The inferior sagittal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and runs along the inferior edge of the falx cerebri. It runs from front to back (same as the superior sagittal sinus) and drains into the straight sinus. It receives tributaries from the falx itself as well as some small veins from ...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inferior thyroid artery

The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk (85%) or subclavian artery (15%) and ascends to enter the thyroid gland on its posterior surface, as well as supplying both the superior and inferior parathyroid glands 1. The nerve is closely related to the ascending limb of the...
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Inferior ulnar collateral artery

The inferior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the distal-most part of the upper arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery superior to the medial epicondyle 1 location: distal lower arm supply: brachialis, biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis 1 ...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) drains venous blood from the lower trunk, abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs to the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The IVC is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the ab...
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Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumour thrombus. Clinical features Patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal oede...
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Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterised by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
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Inferior vesical artery

The inferior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Some texts state it is only present in males and may be replaced by a vaginal artery in females. Note, the vaginal artery which is most commonly described, is often a branch of the uterine artery. Su...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
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Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a variant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characterised by inflammatory thickening of the aneurysm wall, perianeurysmal fibrosis and adherence to surrounding structures. Epidemiology They account for  ~5 to 10% of all AAAs. Clinical presenta...
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Infraorbital artery

The infraorbital artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery. It runs through the inferior orbital fissure, orbit, infraorbital canal then the infraorbital foramen. Here it gives off the anterior superior alveolar artery which supplies the anterior teeth and the anterior part of...
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Infundibulum (artery)

An infundibulum (plural: infundibula) is a conical outpouching from an artery (usually intracranial), with a broad base narrowing to an apex from which a vessel originates. The most common location for an infundibulum is the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) from the supraclino...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.
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Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the paediatric population. Pathology It can only occur in the presence of an aberrantly positioned thymus that forces the aortic arch or innomi...
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Interarterial course of the left coronary artery

An inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery is defined as origination of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, with a course between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery trunk.  Terminology An inter-arterial course...
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Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery

Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery (RCA), also known as a malignant variant, may occur if the right coronary artery has an aberrant origin from the the left coronary sinus. It is an uncommon anomaly with potential risk of cardiac ischaemia. When the right coronary artery arises ...
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Intercavernous sinus

The intercavernous sinus (anterior and posterior) are dural venous sinuses and connect the left and right cavernous sinuses, along with the basilar venous plexus. They lie in the anterior and posterior borders of the diaphragma sellae. Additional small venous sinuses in the base of the pituitary...
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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery (ICA) is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery.  Gross anatomy Origin It arises most frequently between C3 and C5 vertebral level, where the common carotid bifurcates to form the internal carotid and the external carotid artery (ECA). Variations in origin...
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Internal carotid artery dissection

Internal carotid artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima 1 and is a common cause of stroke in younger patients. Epidemiology Dissection may occur at any age, but is a common cause of stroke in young patients (2...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Internal cerebral vein

The internal cerebral veins are paired, paramedian veins which course posteriorly along the roof of the third ventricle, between the two leaves of the velum interpositum. Gross anatomy Each is formed at the foramen of Monro by the confluence of the choroidal vein (draining the choroid plexus o...
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Internal iliac artery

The internal iliac artery (also known as the hypogastric artery) is the smaller terminal branch of the common iliac artery. It supplies the pelvic walls, pelvic viscera, external genitalia, perineum, buttock and medial part of the thigh.  Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcate...
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Internal iliac vein

The internal iliac vein (IIV) represents the union of veins and venous plexuses draining the pelvic viscera, pelvic wall, external genitalia, perineum, buttocks and medial thigh.   Gross anatomy Origin Above the greater sciatic notch. Course and termination Ascends out of pelvis to meet the...
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Internal jugular vein

The internal jugular vein (IJV) is the major venous return from the brain, upper face and neck. Gross anatomy Origin and course It is formed by the union of inferior petrosal and sigmoid dural venous sinuses in or just distal to the jugular foramen (forming the jugular bulb). It descends in t...
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Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
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Internal palpebral artery

The internal palpebral arteries, or medial palpebral arteries, are branches of the ophthalmic artery, with superior and inferior medial palpebral branches arising opposite the trochlear of the superior oblique muscle. Gross anatomy The internal palpebral arteries enter the superior and inferio...
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Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
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Internal pudendal vein

The internal pudendal veins are the set of accompanying veins to the internal pudendal artery draining the perineal region to empty into the internal iliac vein. Gross Anatomy Tributaries inferior rectal veins males penile bulb and scrotum vein females clitoris and posterior labial vein ...
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Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of...
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Interosseous recurrent artery

The interosseous recurrent artery is a branch of the posterior interosseous artery just after its origin, within the proximal aspect of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It courses proximally between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and olecranon of the ulna to anastomose with the m...
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Interscalene brachial plexus block

An interscalene brachial plexus block is indicated for procedures involving the shoulder and upper arm. History Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus nerve blocks entered the literature in 1989, when Ting et al. detailed their success with axillary nerve blocks in 10 patients 3. Indications redu...
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Intestinal ischaemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straight forward provided appropriate imaging is obtained. ...
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Intimal hyperplasia

Intimal hyperplasia is not a true disease, but a physiologic healing response to injury to the blood vessel wall.  It is the bane of endovascular intervention and vascular surgery. When the endothelium is injured, endothelial cells release inflammatory mediators that trigger platelet aggregatio...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
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Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fiber...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Intratesticular varicocele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Terminology Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising l...
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Investigating limb ischaemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Limb ischaemia is a relatively uncommon, but potentially limb (and life) threatening situation. There are many potential causes. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference articl...
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Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
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Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
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Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
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Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Clinical features pain fever fatigue weight loss anaemia mesenteric arterial ischaemia: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage  renal artery stenosis: renovascular hypertension  vascular impairme...
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Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (IUAPA) is the congenital absence of the left or right pulmonary artery.  When found in combination with other congenital vascular abnormalities it is known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA). Epidemiology Unilateral absence...
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ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
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Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moya moya disease or moya moya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Diffe...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jugular bulb

The jugular bulb is the connection between the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein.  Gross anatomy The sigmoid and inferior petrosal sinuses empty into the jugular bulb, which continues as the internal jugular vein. It lies in the pars vascularis, which occupies the posterolateral aspe...
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Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, haemofiltration and plasma exchange.  Typically, the right internal jugular is used as its vertical course straight down into the superior vena cava via the righ...
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Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as haemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumour is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vascul...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Kiesselbach's plexus

Kiesselbach's plexus (Kiesselbach's area or Little's area) is a vascular region of the anteroinferior nasal septum that comprises four arterial anastomoses: anterior ethmoidal artery a branch of the ophthalmic artery sphenopalatine artery a branch of the maxillary artery greater palatine ar...
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Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intr...
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Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), although it can also branch from the basilar artery (~15%), ...
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Lacrimal artery

The lacrimal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the lacrimal gland. Gross anatomy Course The lacrimal artery travels along the upper border of the lateral rectus muscle with the lacrimal nerve to supply the lacrimal gland as well as the eyelids and conjunctiva. The rec...
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Large vessel vasculitis

The term large vessel vasculitis (LVV) usually denotes the spectrum of primary vasculitides that causes chronic granulomatous inflammation predominantly involving the aorta and its major branches. The two major entities in this group are giant cell arteritis (GCA): affects older individuals (t...
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Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
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Lateral circumflex femoral artery

The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises soon after the medial circumflex femoral artery. While the medial circumflex runs posteriorly around the femoral neck, the lateral circumflex courses laterally from its origin and anterior to the femoral...
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Lateralised internal carotid artery

The lateralised internal carotid artery is an anatomic variation of the course of the horizontal internal carotid artery (ICA). It can be visualised on CT by its more posterolateral entrance to the skull base and protrusion into the anterior mesotympanum. It may result in pulsatile tinnitus. Ra...
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Lateral lenticulostriate arteries

The lateral lenticulostriate arteries arise from the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and supply the lateral portion of the putamen and external capsule as well as the upper internal capsule. They are longer (almost twice the diameter) and more numerous than the medial lenticulostriate art...
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Lateral posterior choroidal artery

The lateral posterior choroidal artery may be a singular structure or exist as multiple lateral posterior choroidal arteries. In both cases, they arise from the P2 segment of the PCA, just distal (and lateral) to the medial posterior choroidal arteries. In some cases, they may arise from one of ...
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Lateral sacral artery

The lateral sacral artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary location: pelvis origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery in the pelvis branches: superior and inferior sacral arteries supply: sacral meninges, pirifor...
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Lateral thoracic artery

The lateral thoracic artery is a branch of the second part of the axillary artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The lateral thoracic artery originates from the medial surface of the axillary artery, posterior to the distal part of pectoralis minor. It courses inferomedially along the infe...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anterior abdomi...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It descends along the inteventricular groove. It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the nam...
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes superiorly to supply the upper part of the...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the coeliac artery.   It passes superiorly, giving off an oesophageal branch to the distal oesophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along the lesser curvature of the stomach.  Anastomoses along the lesser curvature with the r...
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Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower oesophageal ...
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Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the stomach, approximately 1 cm from the gastric wall before it anastomoses with the ri...
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Left hepatic artery

The left hepatic artery (LHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the left and right hepatic arteries at or before reaching the porta hep...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve 1-2. ...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to project over the superior vena cava is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: located within a vein left sided superior vena cava left interna...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are surgically implanted devices that aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a transplant candidate. Principle The LVAD...
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Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of a myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardiu...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemiology Since the advent of antibiotics, the inciden...
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Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate arteries  There is, however, some confusion a...
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Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system Hug...
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Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
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Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from porta hepatic of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein to ...
Article

Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal int...
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Lingual artery

The lingual artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies the oral floor and tongue. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the C3 course: towards hyoid bone, then loops down towards the tongue supply: oral floor and tongue terminat...
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Lipohyalinosis

Lipohyalinosis is a disease affecting the small cerebral arteries associated with lacunar infarction and deep white matter changes related to small vessel chronic ischaemia. Pathology The histopathological landmarks of lipohyalinosis are irregular fibrosis and hyaline of small cerebral arterie...
Article

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the inter-atrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterised by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
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Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...

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