Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,052 results found
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as that occurring distal to the ligament of Treitz (i.e. from the jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum or anus) and presenting as either haematochezia (bright red blood/clots or burgundy stools) or melaena. Epidemiology The incidence of LGIB is only o...
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis: diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischaemic colitis vascular malformation vascular ectasia angiodysplasia arteriovenous ...
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Lower limb anatomy

Lower limb anatomy encompasses the anatomy all structures of the lower limb, including the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Luetic aneurysm

Luetic aneurysms (also called syphilitic aneurysms) are a type of aneurysm occurring usually secondary to syphilitic aortitis.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Pathology The responsible organism is a sp...
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Lumbar arteries

The lumbar arteries are paired branches of the abdominal aorta arising in the lumbar region. Gross anatomy Origin There are most commonly four paired lumbar arteries originating as posterolateral branches of the abdominal aorta on either side, at the level of L1-4. Course The paired arterie...
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Lymphangioma

Lymphangiomas are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. It is considered the lymphatic equivalent of a haemangioma of blood vessels.  This article focuses the general features of lymphangiomas. For a specific discussion in other locations, please refer to the ar...
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Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Introduction Lymphocele of the thoracic duct (thoracic duct cyst) is usually asymptomatic or less commonly may present as  left supraclavicular fossa mass 1. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment, whi...
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Lymphoedema

Lymphoedema is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the soft tissues as the result of impaired lymphatic drainage, with resultant inflammation, adipose tissue hypertrophy, and fibrosis. It can be either primary or secondary, due to surgery or disease processes. The condition can cause disfigu...
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Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
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Macaroni sign (arteries)

Macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the common ca...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
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Malignant vascular tumours

Malignant vascular tumours are rare, accounting for <1% of all sarcomas.  Pathology intermediate grade haemangioendothelioma Kaposi sarcoma high grade haemangiopericytoma angiosarcoma
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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of a defect in the fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long, disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic l...
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Marginal artery of Drummond

The marginal artery of Drummond, also known as the marginal artery of the colon, is a continuous arterial circle or arcade along the inner border of the colon formed by the anastomoses of the terminal branches of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Gross a...
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Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularisation, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
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Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transvers...
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Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, at first, it is embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes anterior between ...
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Maximum intensity projection (MIP)

Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) consists of projecting the voxel with the highest attenuation value on every view throughout the volume onto a 2D image 1. Such an algorithm is rather simple: for each XY coordinate, only the pixel with the highest Hounsfield number along the Z-axis is represe...
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May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
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Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises close to its origin. It provides oxygenated blood to the femoral neck and damage to the artery or involvement in pathological processes may result in decreased flow and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. S...
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Medial frontobasal artery

The medial frontobasal artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) which runs forward and basally along the medial surface of the hemisphere towards the frontal pole, suppling the orbital part of the frontal lobe from its medial side.
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Medial lenticulostriate arteries

The medial lenticulostriate arteries are generally considered to arise from the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and supply the globus pallidus and medial portion of the putamen 1,3.  They are shorter, thinner and fewer in number than the lateral lenticulostriate arteries, which ar...
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Medial posterior choroidal artery

The medial posterior choroidal artery is a small branch (often multiple - 40% of hemispheres) usually arising from the P2 segment of the PCA. It may also arise from one of the PCA branches, e.g. parieto-occiptal, calcarine, splenial artery. It ascends deep to the rest of the PCA and supplies sm...
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Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments. The paired folds run from pelvis to umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of foetal umbilical art...
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Median antebrachial vein

The median antebrachial vein is a superficial vein of the anterior forearm that drains the superficial structures of the forearm and wrist between the basilic and cephalic veins. It ascends to the cubital fossa where it usually drains into the medial cephalic and median basilic veins (collective...
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Median cubital vein

The median cubital vein is the superficial vein overlying the bicipital aponeurosis in the roof of the cubital fossa, commonly cannulated for intravenous access. It variably forms as either a H or M type pattern joining the median antebrachial, basilic and cephalic veins. If a M-shaped pattern, ...
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Median prosencephalic vein

The median prosencephalic vein is a precursor to the vein of Galen, and usually regresses before birth. If an arterio-venous fistula exists, it balloons out to become the 'aneurysmal' vein of Galen malformation. This occurs since the vein is thin walled, lies free within the subarachnoid space, ...
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Median sacral artery

The median sacral artery is a small single posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta that descends to supply structures in the pelvis. Summary location: abdomen and pelvis origin and termination: originates as a posterior branch of the distal abdominal aorta just above the level of the b...
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Median umbilical fold

The median umbilical fold is a raised ridge of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the median umbilical ligament. It runs from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. The median umbilical ligament is the anatomical remnant of the foetal urachus. The ...
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Mediastinal haemangioma

Mediastinal haemangioma is a location specific subtype of a haemangioma. Epidemiology There incidence account for less than 0.5% among all mediastinal masses 1. Clinical presentation Up to half of patients may be asymptomatic 1. Others may present with non-specific symptoms, such as cough, c...
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Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
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Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
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Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy and usually visualised on good quality angiography.  It has three branches: inferior ...
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Mental artery

The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery which itself is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It emerges onto the face from the mandibular canal with the mental nerve at the mental foramen, and supplies muscles and skin in the chin region. The mental ...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outline by these intimal flaps belong to the false ...
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Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1. Clinical presentation There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome: hyperinsulinaemia impaired glucose tolerance dys...
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Mickey Mouse appearance

In medical imaging literature, a Mickey Mouse appearance has been given to imaging features that depict that of Mickey Mouse when viewed from the front. It has been described in the following: anencephaly 2 progressive supranuclear palsy 1 synonymously with a finger in glove sign the flared ...
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Mickey Mouse sign (ultrasound)

The Mickey Mouse sign is said to represent the normal anatomy of the common femoral artery, common femoral vein and great saphenous vein on ultrasound at the level just inferior the inguinal crease.  See also Mickey Mouse appearance
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Microscopic polyangiitis

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is small vessel non-granulomatous necrotising vasculitis. It most often affects venules, capillaries, arterioles, and small arteries, although it occasionally involves medium-sized arteries 9. Epidemiology It typically affects middle aged individuals. Distributi...
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Midaortic syndrome

Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterised by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Clinical presentation The onset of symptoms is usually during young adulthood or childhood 2: hypertension (most comm...
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Middle adrenal artery

The middle adrenal (suprarenal) artery is one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. Gross Anatomy Origin The middle suprarenal arteries arise from the aorta on each side between the inferior phrenic artery and the renal artery. They run laterally across the diaphragmati...
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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
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Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sul...
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Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct

The middle cerebral artery territory is the most commonly affected territory in a cerebral infarction, due to the size of the territory and the direct flow from internal carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery, providing the easiest path for thromboembolism. Clinical presentation The ne...
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Middle colic artery

The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It passes in the layers of the transverse mesocolon to the transverse colon. The middle colic artery divides into right and left branches. The right branch supplies the right portion of the transverse colon and anastom...
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Middle collateral artery

The middle collateral artery is one of the two terminal branches of the deep brachial artery. As it descends in the distal part of the posterior compartment of the arm, it contributes to the arterial anastomosis of the elbow specifically the interosseous recurrent artery which is the proximal co...
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Middle hepatic artery

The middle hepatic artery (MHA) is an intrahepatic hilar arterial branch, usually arising from the left hepatic artery, which supplies segments IVa and IVb. It runs towards the right side of the umbilical fissure. Variant anatomy it may arise from the right hepatic artery 1,2 it may arise as ...
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Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery branches off the first part of the maxillary artery. It passes vertically through the roots of the auriculotemporal nerve and enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two branches - superior tympanic branch and ganglionic branch - be...
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Middle rectal artery

The middle rectal artery, also known as the middle haemorrhoidal artery, is a branch from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery supplying the rectum. Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: inferior rectum, seminal vesicles, prosta...
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Middle thyroid vein

The middle thyroid vein is a tributary of the internal jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course The middle thyroid vein arises from the lateral surface of the thyroid. It traverses laterally to the internal jugular vein, passing anterior to the common carotid artery and posterior to the ...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Mixed vascular malformation

A mixed vascular malformation is a relatively common congenital cerebral vascular malformation, most frequently composed of a developmental venous anomaly and a cavernous malformation. As developmental venous anomalies seldom bleed, the risk of a mixed vascular malformation is determined by the ...
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Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is characterised by calcific deposits within the media of medium and small muscular arteries that do not cause luminal narrowing. The calcification is typically diffuse and circumferential along the vessel and is readily visible on plain film. Vascular calcif...
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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non inflammatory, non atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries.  Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, ...
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Moyamoya syndrome

Moyamoya syndrome, also termed the moyamoya pattern or phenomenon, is due to numerous conditions that can cause arterial occlusion of the circle of Willis, with resultant collaterals, and appearances reminiscent of moyamoya disease. These conditions include 1-4 : vessel wall abnormalities athe...
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Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischaemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischaemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomening...
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Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It supplies the 7th, 8th and 9th intercostal spaces with paired anterior intercostal arteries, as well as fine branch...
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Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumours, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically ...
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Mycotic aneurysm

Mycotic aneurysms are aneurysms arising from infection of the arterial wall, usually bacterial. It is a complication of the haematogenous spread of bacterial infection, classically from the heart.  Epidemiology The epidemiology of mycotic aneurysms mirrors that of identifiable risk factors:  ...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. Incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15%. Pathology Norma...
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Necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis

Necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare systemic disease, characterised by sarcoid-like granuloma formation, vasculitis and variable degrees of necrosis. It is sometimes classified under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatois. Epidemiology It typically affects middle-aged...
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Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
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Neurosyphilis

Neurosyphilis results from infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. The disease has a heterogeneous spectrum of early and late manifestations. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer ...
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Neurovascular compression syndromes

Neurovascular compression syndromes are a form of vascular compression disorders where there is usually compression or distortion of a cranial nerve due to a redundant or aberrant vascular structure. Clinical presentation Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. Prese...
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Non-AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma

Non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a localized process which rarely involves lymph nodes or organs. For a discussion of Kaposi sarcoma in general, please refer to Kaposi sarcoma.  Epidemiology Sporadic (non-AIDS associated) Kaposi sarcoma is mostly seen in elderly males from the Mediterr...
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Norwood procedure

The Norwood procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure consists of constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. A modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is placed to provide ...
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Nutcracker syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder and refers to the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walled veins into the collecting system with resultant haem...
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Obturator artery

The obturator artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It provides vascular supply within the pelvis and lower limb.  Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis and lower limb supply: pelvic muscles, ilium, head of femur, ...
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Obturator vein

The obturator vein travels between the adductor region of thigh and internal iliac vein entering the pelvis through the obturator foramen (along with the obturator artery and obturator nerve).  Course and termination Along the pelvic side wall the vein travels between the ureter and the intern...
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Occipital artery

The occipital artery, a posterior branch of the external carotid artery, opposite the external maxillary, near the lower margin of the posterior belly of the digastic muscle, and ends in the posterior part of the scalp. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the ...
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Occipital sinus

The occipital sinus is the smallest of the dural venous sinuses and lies, as its name suggests, on the inner surface of the occipital bone. Tributaries from the margins of the foramen magnum, some of which connect with both the sigmoid sinus and internal vertebral plexus, coalesce to pass in the...
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Oesophageal hiatus

The oesophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the oesophagus passes from the thoracic to abdominal cavity. It is one of three apertures in the diaphragm and is located in the right crus. It is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of T10 and is ellip...
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Onyx

OnyxTM is the trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology for the occlusion of blood vessels in embolisation therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Micronised tantalum powder is also added ...
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Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery is a branch off the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Gross anatomy Origin The ophthalmic artery arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the ICA exits the cavernous sinus. It originates from the antero- or supero-medial surface of the ICA. Course...
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Orbital venous varix

Orbital venous varix (OVV) is an uncommon vascular malformation which is composed of enlarged single or multiple tubular venous channels with direct communication to the systemic venous system.  Terminology Orbital venous varices are divided into primary and secondary. Primary orbital varices ...
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Orbitofrontal artery

The orbitofrontal arteries, or frontobasal arteries, supply the orbitofrontal cortex. They consist of both medial and lateral orbitofrontal arteries. Gross anatomy The medial orbitofrontal artery (MOFA) is most commonly the first branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. It ari...
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Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery. Course Descends caudally in the retroperitone...
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Ovarian vein embolisation

Ovarian vein embolisation is an interventional technique primarily used towards the treatment of varicosities. Indications The main indications are: as part of management of pelvic congestion syndrome 1-4 to treat pelvic varicosities diagnosed by imaging to treat labial and/or perineal vari...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
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Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
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Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
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Paediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of paediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting paediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle ...
Article

Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
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Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus (plural: plexuses) is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testis and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular veins. Along wi...
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Paracaval lipoma

Paracaval lipoma (or juxtacaval fat collection) can be a frequent finding on CT and can seen in up to  0.5% of examinations 1. Some even consider this as a normal variation5. It occurs at the medial aspect of the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) above the caudate lobe and rep...
Article

Paradoxical embolism

Paradoxical embolism is a clinical scenario in which an embolism arising in the venous system crosses into the arterial circulation where it causes tissue infarction. The most common clinically important site of embolisation is the cerebral circulation. Epidemiology The prevalence of paradoxic...
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Parotid infantile haemangioma

Parotid infantile haemangiomas are the most common parotid tumour of childhood. They usually run a characteristically benign course. Epidemiology The median age at diagnosis is 4 months 1. There is female preponderance with a male:female ratio of 1:3. Clinical presentation Presents as en enl...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
Article

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAU) are a pathology that involves the aortic wall and along with aortic dissection and aortic intramural haematoma form the spectrum known as acute aortic syndrome.  Epidemiology Typically, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are seen in older male patients ...
Article

Peri-aneurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis

Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis is a subtype of a spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis. It is characterised by association with an inflammatory aneurysm, adventitial and periadventitial inflammation, medial thinning and chronic retroperitoneal inflammatory process which is associated wit...
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Pericallosal artery

The pericallosal artery is the continuation of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and is named after the origin of the callosomarginal artery. As it courses over the superior surface of the corpus callosum in the pericallosal cistern, it gives off many small branches to the corpus callosum, form...
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Pericallosal moustache

The pericallosal moustache is formed by small branches from the pericallosal arteries and their accompanying veins. These form what appears to be an upturned poorly groomed moustache (not unlike Salvador Dali) and outline the superior surface of the corpus callosum (pericallosal cistern).
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...

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