Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

961 results found
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Posterior tibial artery

The posterior tibial artery (PTA) is one of the 2 branches of the tibioperoneal trunk in the lower leg and provides oxygenated blood to the posterior compartments of the leg and plantar surface of the foot. It is accompanied by the posterior tibial vein, along its course. Summary origin: tibio...
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Posterior tibial veins

The posterior tibial veins accompany the posterior tibial artery. They receive tributaries from the calf muscles (especially from the venous plexus in the soleus) and from superficial veins. They join the anterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein and enter the popliteal fossa.
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Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

The posterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the posterior medial aspect of the elbow, posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the superior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to...
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Posterior vein of the left ventricle

The posterior vein of the left ventricle is a vein of the heart which courses over the inferior wall of the left ventricle and drains into the coronary sinus to the left of where the middle cardiac vein drains into the sinus. It drains, not unsurprisingly, the inferior wall of the left ventricle.
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Power Doppler

Power Doppler is a technique that uses the amplitude of Doppler signal to detect moving matter. Power Doppler: is independent of velocity and direction of flow, so there is no possibility of signal aliasing is independent of angle, allowing detection of smaller velocities than colour Doppler, ...
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Princeps pollicis artery

The princeps pollicis artery (also known as the first palmar metacarpal artery) is a branch of the radial artery that supplies the thumb (1st digit). It arises from the radial artery just as it enters the palm and courses distally along the palmar aspect of 1st metacarpal. At the 1st metacarpoph...
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Proatlantal artery

The proatlantal artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses, and can be subdivided into two types depending on its origin: type I: (~55%) also known as the proatlantal intersegmental artery arises from the internal carotid artery corresponds to the first segmental art...
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Profunda femoris artery

The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery or deep artery of thigh) is a branch of the common femoral artery and is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the deep structures of the thigh, including the femora. Summary origin: common femoral artery main branches...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Prostatic artery embolisation

Prostatic artery embolisation (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilised to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic haemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment o...
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Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterised by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
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Proximal brachial artery

The proximal brachial artery represents the initial portion of the brachial artery as it arises as a continuation of the axillary artery at the inferior edge of teres major. There is no anatomic difference between the proximal and more distal brachial artery. However, the functional response to...
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Pseudo vein sign (bowel)

The pseudo vein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudo-vein” persists b...
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Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterised by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congenital origin, and characterised by elongation and ki...
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome is a systemic condition charaterised by degeneration of elastic fibers. It has multi-organ manifestations. Epidemiology Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.  Clinical presentation Patients may prese...
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Puff of smoke sign

The puff of smoke sign describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moyamoya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arteria...
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Pulmonary arterial aneurysm

Pulmonary arterial aneurysms (PAA's) refer a focal dilatation of the pulmonary arterial system. Epidemiology Overall it is considered a rare entity with autopsy prevalence rates of around 1 in 14,000 to 100,000 4-5. Pathology A true pulmonary artery aneurysm results from dilatation of all th...
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Pulmonary arterial atherosclerosis

Pulmonary artery atherosclerosis is less common than systemic arterial atherosclerosis in the thorax.  It has been shown to correlate with the following factors  age right ventricular dilatation right ventricular hypertrophy pulmonary emphysema aortic atherosclerosis pulmonary hypertensio...
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Pulmonary arterial calcification

Pulmonary arterial calcification is the phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension. Pathology The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonar...
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Pulmonary arterial dissection

Pulmonary arterial dissection is extremely rare but can be a fatal situation. Only a handful of cases have been described in live patients. Pathology It is mostly described in those with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  It can progress to a pulmonary artery aneurysm and fatal spontan...
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Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM's) are rare vascular anomalies of the lung, in which abnormally dilated vessels provide a right-to-left shunt between the pulmonary artery and vein. They are generally considered direct high flow, low-resistance fistulous connections between the pulmon...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is one of congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Patholog...
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Pulmonary artery banding

Pulmonary artery banding is a palliative surgical procedure used to decrease excessive pulmonary blood flow. It is usually used for neonates and infants with left-to-right shunts unable to withstand complete surgical correction.   Some indications include: single ventricle multiple ventricula...
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumours that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumours of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.00...
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Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and peripheral stenoses See also congenital pulmonary stenosis
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thrombo-embolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
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Pulmonary epithelioid haemangioendothelioma

Pulmonary epithelioid haemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of the lung with low malignant potential. Epidemiology Rare tumour, with ~50 cases reported. Patient age at presentation ranges from 25-54 years old. Female predilection. Clinical presentation Often asymptomatic and discove...
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Pulmonary gas embolism

Pulmonary gas emboli are a specific type of pulmonary emboli.  Clinical presentation Presentation can vary dependant on the degree of air emboli where patients with small amount of air can be asymptomatic. Commonly reported clinical manifestations include sudden dyspnoea, chest pain, hypotensi...
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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterisation, which is a haemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension in the Dana Point classification system. A resting mean pulmonary arterial p...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2003 classification)

There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems. In 2003, the Third World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised on the Dana Point classification of pu...
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Pulmonary hypertension (differential)

Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
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Pulmonary infarction

Pulmonary infarction is most commonly caused by pulmonary embolism (PE) in combination with chronic left heart failure. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients are older than those of patients with 'simple' pulmonary embolism (PE) as young patients with no comorbidities are usually ...
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Pulmonary oedema due to air embolism

Pulmonary oedema due to air embolism is one for the uncommon causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.  It usually occurs as an iatrogenic complication of an invasive procedure. Rarely, it may also be associated with open or closed chest trauma.  Pathophysiology Air may enter into the low-p...
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Pulmonary trunk

The pulmonary trunk is the solitary arterial output from the right ventricle, transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Gross anatomy It is approximately 50 mm long and 30 mm wide (most authors use 29 mm width as the cut off of normal 1).  It arises as a direct superior co...
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Pulmonary vein atresia

Pulmonary vein atresia represents a spectrum of disorder where the pulmonary veins fail to form in varying degrees. It can be broadly divided into unilateral pulmonary vein atresia bilateral pulmonary vein atresia -  common pulmonary vein atresia See also anomalous pulmonary venous drainage...
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Pulmonary vein stenosis

Pulmonary vein stenosis refers to a spectrum of condition characterised by narrowing to the pulmonary veins. It can be congenital or acquired. primary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in children secondary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in adults and usually associated with some identifiable...
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Pulmonary vein thrombosis

Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious condition with a number of underlying possible aetiologies. Clinical presentation Often the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and can range from acute (pulmonary infarction) to more insidious (progressive or recurrent pulmonary oedem...
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Pulmonary veins

The pulmonary veins drain oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A small amount of blood is also drained from the lungs by the bronchial veins Gross anatomy There are typically four pulmonary veins, two draining each lung: right superior: drains the right upper and middle lobes ...
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Pulmonary-renal syndromes

Pulmonary-renal syndromes refer to a group of conditions that can affect the lung and kidneys. These conditions are typically characterised by diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.  Diseases that can result in a pulmonary-renal syndrome includes: certain pulmonary vasculitides ...
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Pulsatile tinnitus

The clinical symptom of pulsatile tinnitus can occur from a number of causes. They include vascular  congenital  venous dehiscent jugular bulb high riding jugular bulb laterally placed sigmoid sinus venous diverticulum abnormal mastoid emissary veins arterial aberrant internal carotid ...
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Pulsus bisferiens

Pulsus bisferiens or double pulse refers to a wave pattern where there is the presence of two systolic peaks that can be seen in pressure tracings of the the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the carotid artery. It can occur in patients with aortic valve pathology: aortic regurgitation wit...
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Radial artery

The radial artery is a terminal branch of the brachial artery and arises at the cubital fossa of the forearm. It is one of the two main arteries of the forearm, along with the ulnar artery. Summary origin: terminal branch of the brachial artery location: inferior aspect of the cubital fossa ...
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Radial collateral artery

The radial collateral artery is one of the two terminal branches of the deep brachial artery. As it descends in the distal part of the posterior compartment of the arm, it pierces the lateral intermuscular septum and contributes to the arterial anastomosis of the elbow specifically the radial re...
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Radial recurrent artery

The radial recurrent artery is the largest lateral branch of the radial artery in the forearm, arising just after its origin. It courses proximally on supinator from its origin to form an arterial arcade with the anterior branch (radial collateral artery) of the profunda brachii (deep brachial) ...
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Radial vein

The radial vein is one of the two major deep veins of the forearm, along with the ulnar vein. As is usual in the upper and lower limbs, there are often two veins (venae comitantes) that run on either side of the radial artery and anastomose freely with each other. It forms in the hand from the ...
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Radialis indicis artery

The radialis indicis artery is a branch of the radial artery in the hand that supplies the radial aspect of the index finger (2nd digit). It arises from the radial artery in the plam just after the origin of the princeps pollicis artery. The artery courses distally along the radial (lateral) pal...
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Ramus intermedius artery

The ramus intermedius is a variant coronary artery resulting from trifurcation of the left main coronary artery 1. It is present in ~20% (range 15-30%) 2-3 of the population. It can have a course similar to the obtuse marginal branches of the left circumflex artery or the diagonal branches of t...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
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Rasmussen aneurysm

Rasmussen aneurysm (not to be confused with Rasmussen encephalitis) is an uncommon complication of pulmonary tuberculosis and represents a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent or within a tuberculous cavity.  Epidemiology It can be present in up to 5% of patients with chronic cavitary tuberculos...
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Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is a surgical procedure to correct certain combinations of cardiovascular defects in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Rationale The operation is based on a redirection of ventricular outflows using an intracardiac baffle that tunnels the left ventricle to...
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Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale, modified Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete ...
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Raynaud phenomenon

Raynaud phenomenon (RP) describes a localised vasculopathy whereby there is an exaggerated vascular response to cold temperature or emotional stresses. Terminology Raynaud phenomenon is classified as being either 'primary' or idiopathic, or 'secondary' to another underlying condition (as discu...
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Recurrent artery of Heubner

Recurrent artery of Heubner, also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, is the largest perforating branch from the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and is the only one routinely seen on angiography. Gross anatomy Origin and course Its origin is near the A1-ACOM-A2...
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Recurrent tibial arteries

Posterior tibial recurrent artery Origin and course Inconstant branch that arises before the anterior tibial reaches the extensor compartment Ascends anterior to popliteus with the recurrent nerve to that muscle, anastomosing with the inferior genicular branches of the popliteal artery Suppl...
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Renal arterial cut-off sign

Renal arterial cut-off sign  as the name suggests is an abrupt termination of the vascular contrast opacified renal arterial lumen. It may be associated with or without any contrast extravasation It is seen in a vascular injury like segmental or main renal artery thrombosis or occlusion.
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Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index to assess for renal arterial disease. It is measured as  RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity ) / peak systolic velocity the normal value is ≈ 0.60 with 0.70 being around the upper limits of normal Technique M...
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Renal arteriovenous fistula

Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in ren...
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Renal arteriovenous malformation

Renal arteriovenous malformations (renal AVMs) are an uncommon vascular anomaly, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous fistula (renal AVF). Pathology Like arteriovenous malformations elsewhere in the body, a renal AVM is formed by a connection between the arterial and venous structu...
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Renal artery

The renal arteries originate from the abdominal aorta  and enter the renal hila to supply the kidneys.  Any variant in arterial supply is important to clinicians undertaking surgery or other interventional renal procedures. Gross anatomy Origin Arises from the abdominal aorta at the L1-2 vert...
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Renal artery aneurysm

Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are considered the second most common visceral aneurysm (15-22%), most common being splenic artery aneurysm (60%). They are more common in females. Most of the lesions are saccular and tend to occur at the bifurcation of main renal artery. Epidemiology RAAs occur i...
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Renal artery dissection

Renal artery dissection may occur as a result of the following processes 1: aortic dissection extending to involve the renal artery iatrogenic (e.g. catheterisation) trauma atherosclerosis fibromuscular dysplasia
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Renal artery occlusion (acute)

Renal artery occlusion can happen acutely due to in-situ thrombus, embolism, or dissection. Unless immediately treated, it can lead to renal infarction 1. Epidemiology The condition is more common in the elderly, however, it may be seen in a younger age group if they have risk factors (describ...
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Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are uncommon vascular finding, with the majority occuring after a renal intervention. Pathology A renal artery pseudoaneurysm differs from a renal artery true aneurysm (as might occur in fibromuscular dysplasia) in that it does not involve all three layers of the a...
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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
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Renal infarction

Renal infarction results from interruption of the normal blood supply to part of, or to the whole kidney. The main imaging differential diagnosis includes pyelonephritis and renal tumours. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients will depend on the underlying cause, although as most ...
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Renal sympathetic denervation

Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN), also known as renal denervation, is an interventional procedure that uses radiofrequency ablation to destroy the nerve endings in the wall of the renal arteries. Endovascular (trans-catheter) techniques are an alternative to surgical sympathectomy.  Indicat...
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Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
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Renal vein

The renal veins are asymmetric paired veins that drain the kidneys.  Gross anatomy Course The renal vein is formed by the union of two-to-three renal parenchymal veins in the renal sinus. It emerges from the renal hilum anterior to the renal artery and drains into the inferior vena cava at th...
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Renal vein anomalies

There are several variations in renal venous anatomy. Some of these are specific to the left renal vein. Left renal vein anomalies are generally classified into four types 2: type I  ventral pre-aortic limb of the left renal vein is obliterated, but the dorsal retro-aortic limb persists and j...
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Renal vein thrombosis

Renal vein thrombosis can be either from "bland" thrombus or tumour thrombus (extension of tumor into the vein). There are numerous aetiologies for bland thrombus, but it most commonly occurs in the hypercoagulable nephrotic syndrome. Renal vein thrombus is commoner on the left side, presumably ...
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Renal vein varices

Renal vein varices develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic. Clinical presentation Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or haematuria. Pathology Aetiology chronic renal vein thrombosis nutcracker syndrome retroaortic ...
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Renovascular hypertension

Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a type of secondary hypertension, where high blood pressure develops secondary to renal artery disease.  Epidemiology Approximately 2.5% (range 0.5-5%) of hypertensive patients will have RVH as a cause 2,3.  Pathology Aetiology There are a number of condit...
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Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms

When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include 1-2: size and shape sac dimensions (outer sur...
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Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations

Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy and Systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy of the brain, retina, and other organ systems. Terminology RVCL-S was described by Stam and colleagues in 2016 to encompass several previously described condit...
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Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is an anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional procedures 2....
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Retromandibular vein

The retromandibular vein runs through the substance of the parotid gland. It lies deep to the facial nerve and superficial to the external carotid artery. The retromandibular vein is formed, usually within the parotid, by the confluence of the maxillary vein and the superficial temporal vein. B...
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), is a condition that has previously been described as chronic periaortitis. It is an uncommon fibrotic reaction in the retroperitoneum that typically presents with ureteric obstruction. The disease is part of a spectrum of entities that have a common pathogenic pr...
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Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
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Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on CXR. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarctation site (or "tuck"...
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Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides

Following months of preparation, experts in the field of vasculitis from 12 different countries proposed an update to the 1994 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides. This 2012 update at the time of writing (mid-2016) remains the most widely used system for d...
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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction following group A beta haemolytic streptococcus pharyngeal infection. Cross reaction of antibodies against protein M with other cells glycoproteins leads to involvement of other organs such as he...
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Right colic artery

The right colic artery may arise directly from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) but often arises from a common trunk with the ileocolic artery or middle colic artery. It courses to the right to the ascending colon and divides into a descending branch that supplies the lower portion of the a...
Article

Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the right aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve Course The RCA courses to th...
Article

Right gastric artery

The right gastric artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach. Gross Anatomy Course The right gastric artery branches off from the common hepatic artery as it turns into the lesser omentum. It runs along the lesser curvature of the stomac...
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Right gastroepiploic artery

The right gastroepiploic artery (RGA) arises from the gastroduodenal artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Gross Anatomy Course The RGA passes between the first part of the duodenum and the pancreas, ...
Article

Right hepatic artery

The right hepatic artery (RHA) is formed when the proper hepatic artery (PHA) bifurcates. The hepatic arteries provide 25% of the blood supply and 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver. Gross anatomy The PHA bifurcates into the right and left hepatic arteries on reaching the porta hepatis. The...
Article

Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery (RPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena ...
Article

Right sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterised by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
Article

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise is seen in major renal vascular compromise. It can be seen in: renal artery obstruction from embolism, thrombosis or dissection renal vein thrombosis acute tubular necrosis Radiographic features At contrast enhanced CT or MR imaging, a thin (1-3 mm) ri...
Article

Rotational occlusion of the vertebral artery

Rotational occlusion of the vertebral artery, also known as Bowhunter syndrome, is a rare form of posterior cerebral circulation ischemia secondary to dynamic compromise of the dominant vertebral artery. It has many aetiologies, but is most often due to large osteophytes or atlanto-axial hyperm...
Article

Saccular cerebral aneurysm

Saccular cerebral aneurysms, also known as berry aneurysms, are intracranial aneurysms with a characteristic rounded shape and account for the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms. They are also the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Terminology When larger than 25...
Article

Sano shunt

The Sano shunt is a palliative surgical technique sometimes used as a step in Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure involves placement of an extracardiac conduit between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery stump. This technique prevents the reduced diast...

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