Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,069 results found
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Page kidney

Page kidney, or Page phenomenon, refers to systemic hypertension secondary to extrinsic compression of the kidney by a subcapsular collection, e.g. haematoma, seroma, or urinoma. Clinical presentation Patients present with hypertension, which may be recognized acutely after an inciting event o...
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Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
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Pampiniform plexus

The pampiniform plexus (plural: plexuses) is the venous network of approximately 10 veins draining the testis and epididymis. The network surrounds the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies anterior to the ductus deferens. Each network coalesces to form the testicular (internal sperma...
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Paracaval lipoma

Paracaval lipoma (or juxtacaval fat collection) can be a frequent finding on CT and can seen in up to  0.5% of examinations 1. Some even consider this as a normal variation5. It occurs at the medial aspect of the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) above the caudate lobe and rep...
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Paradoxical embolism

Paradoxical embolism is a clinical scenario in which an embolism arising in the venous system crosses into the arterial circulation where it causes tissue infarction. The most common clinically important site of embolisation is the cerebral circulation. Epidemiology The prevalence of paradoxic...
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Parotid infantile haemangioma

Parotid infantile haemangiomas are the most common parotid tumour of childhood. They usually run a characteristically benign course. Epidemiology The median age at diagnosis is 4 months 1. There is female preponderance with a male:female ratio of 1:3. Clinical presentation Presents as en enl...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
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Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAU) are a pathology that involves the aortic wall and along with aortic dissection and aortic intramural haematoma form the spectrum known as acute aortic syndrome.  Epidemiology Typically, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are seen in older male patients ...
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Peri-aneurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis

Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis is a subtype of a spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis. It is characterised by association with an inflammatory aneurysm, adventitial and periadventitial inflammation, medial thinning and chronic retroperitoneal inflammatory process which is associated wit...
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Pericallosal artery

The pericallosal artery is the distal portion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) that courses over the superior surface of the body of the corpus callosum in the pericallosal cistern. It gives off many small branches to the corpus callosum, forming the pericallosal moustache. Some authors de...
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Pericallosal moustache

The pericallosal moustache is formed by small branches from the pericallosal arteries and their accompanying veins. These form what appears to be an upturned poorly groomed moustache (not unlike Salvador Dali) and outline the superior surface of the corpus callosum (pericallosal cistern).
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, the locatio...
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Pericardiophrenic artery

The pericardiophrenic artery, also known as the pericardiacophrenic artery, is a branch of the internal thoracic artery that runs to the diaphragm where it anastamoses with both the musculophrenic and superior phrenic arteries. It runs with the phrenic nerve between the pleura and the pericardiu...
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Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm

Peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm refers to the formation of a pseudoaneurysm around the pancreatic gland. It is a rare but potentially lethal complication 5. Epidemiology Formation of pseudoaneurysm can occur in as many as 10% of cases of pancreatitis. The time interval is variable, ranging from ...
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Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common and debilitating condition. Epidemiology The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is ~12% 3. Pathology Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of occlusive arterial disease of the extremities in patients over 40 years of age with t...
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Peripheral arterial disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Peripheral arterial disease (sometimes less accurately referred to as peripheral vascular disease) is a relatively common progressive disease of arterial degeneration that can result in a variety of symptoms. Reference art...
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Peripherally inserted central catheters

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), often incorrectly termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access without ...
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Peroneal magnus artery

The peroneal magnus artery or peronea arteria magna (PAM) is a congenital variant of the arterial supply of the leg, where both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries are hypoplastic and a large dominant peroneal artery supplies the whole leg and foot. It is seen in up to 5% of people 1,3. ...
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Peroneal veins

The peroneal veins, running with the peroneal artery, receive tributaries from soleus and from superficial veins.
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Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses

The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are variant anatomical arterial communications between the anterior and posterior circulations due to abnormal embryological development of the vertebrobasilar system. They are named, with the exception of the proatlantal artery, using the crani...
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Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
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Persistent falcine sinus

The falcine sinus is a normal structure in the fetus and is located within the falx cerebri draining the deep cerebral venous system to the superior sagittal sinus. Normally it involutes after birth. If the straight sinus is absent or thrombosed then the falcine sinus may recanalise or persist. ...
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Persistent hypoglossal artery

A persistent hypoglossal artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is second in frequency to the trigeminal artery which is present approximately six times as often.  It arises from the distal cervical ICA, usually between C1 and C3. After passing through an enlarg...
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Persistent median artery of the forearm

The persistent median artery of the forearm is an accessory artery that arises from the ulnar artery in the proximal forearm and is a persistent embryological remnant of the axial artery that usually regresses by eight weeks gestation. Epidemiology It is present in ~10% (range 2.2-23%) of the ...
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Persistent otic artery

The persistent otic artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses, although there is considerable controversy in regards to its existence. It is said to arise from the internal carotid artery within the carotid canal, emerges from the internal acoustic meatus, and joins the...
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Persistent primitive trigeminal artery

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is present in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms and is usually unilateral. In utero the trigeminal artery supplies the basilar artery before development of the posterior communicating an...
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Persistent proatlantal intersegmental artery

The proatlantal intersegmental artery is also known as the type I proatlantal artery, and is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It arises from the internal carotid artery (similar to the hypoglossal artery) but instead of heading for the hypoglossal canal, it joins the ve...
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Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
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Persistent sciatic artery

A persistent sciatic artery is a rare vascular anomaly where there is the continuation of the internal iliac artery into the thigh through the greater sciatic notch. It may be the dominant artery supplying the leg, in which case the superficial femoral artery may be small. Epidemiology Its inc...
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Persistent stapedial artery

The persistent stapedial artery (PSA) is an abnormal small vessel arising from the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery and crossing through the middle ear. It results from the failure of regression of the embryonic stapedial artery.  Epidemiology The prevalence is thought to range f...
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PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous haemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: haemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ...
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Phase contrast imaging

Phase contrast imaging is an MRI technique that can be used to visualise moving fluid. It is typically used for MR venography as a non-IV-contrast requiring technique.  Spins that are moving in the same direction as a magnetic field gradient develop a phase shift that is proportional to the vel...
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Phleboliths

Phleboliths are literally "vein stones", and represent calcification within venous structures. They are particularly common in the pelvis where they may mimic ureteric calculi, and are also encountered frequently in venous malformations. There is an association with Maffucci syndrome.  Radiogra...
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Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is an uncommon complication of deep venous thrombosis, which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion of the major and collateral veins of an extremity (usually the legs). Epidemiology Left leg is more commonly affected than the right 4. Risk factors Risk f...
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Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterisation. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterisation with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
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Placental chorioangioma

Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours of placental origin. It is the most common tumour of the placenta and is usually found incidentally. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1% of all pregnancies 3. Clinical presentation In most cases, chorioangiomas are asymptomatic,...
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Plexogenic arteriopathy

Plexogenic arteriopathy has been a term used to describe a constellation of vascular changes occurring in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is considered the histologic hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; it is seen in approximately 75% of cases 3. The term for t...
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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotising vasculitis that involves small to medium-sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology PAN is more common in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades. 20-30% of patients are hepatitis B antigen positiv...
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Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition typically affecting elderly people. It is a multisystem disorder but usually affects the musculoskeletal system. It can manifest in various ways, which are best discussed in the separate articles below: polymyalgia rheumatica: mus...
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Polymyositis (pulmonary manifestations)

Lung involvement in polymyositis can have a number of manifestations inclusive of that resembling interstitial lung disease (for a general discussion of polymyositis - refer to the parent article). Radiographic features Plain radiograph The frequency of a radiographic parenchymal abnormality ...
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Pontine arteries

The pontine branches are the small arterial branches of the basilar artery that supply the pons and structures adjacent to the pons. There are usually 3-5 paired arterial branches which are located in the mid-basilar region between the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the superior cerebe...
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Popliteal artery

The popliteal artery represents the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery in the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. Summary origin: continuation of the superficial femoral artery main branch: anterior tibial artery termination: continues as the...
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Popliteal artery aneurysm

Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common peripheral arterial aneurysm and the second most common aneurysm after abdominal aortic aneurysms. Epidemiology Overall, popliteal artery aneurysms are uncommon. They occur almost exclusively in males (up to 97%) for unknown reasons 8-9. There is ...
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Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) refers to symptomatic compression or occlusion of the popliteal artery due to a developmentally abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery in relation to its surrounding structures such as with the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG) or less commonly ...
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Popliteal fossa

The popliteal fossa is a diamond or rhomboid-shaped fat-filled space in the posterior knee. The space is extremely dynamic, allowing for its neurovascular contents to move during the extreme range of motion produced by knee flexion and extension. Gross anatomy Boundaries superolateral: medial...
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Popliteal vein

The popliteal vein forms from the posterior and anterior tibial veins and ascends through the popliteal fossa to the opening in adductor magnus where it becomes the femoral vein. Its relationship to the popliteal artery changes as the vein ascends, but it is always between the popliteal artery ...
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Popliteal venous aneurysm

Popliteal venous aneurysms are rare than those of the popliteal artery and are mostly asymptomatic. However, due to the disturbance of the venous blood flow, they can lead to potentially life-threatening consequences, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Epidemiology ...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as portal venous pressure greater than 12 mmHg. Pathology Causes can be split in their relation to the hepatic sinusoids: pre-sinusoidal portal vein thrombosis extrinsic compression of portal vein Schistosomiasis (S. mansoni or S. japonicum) sinusoidal cirr...
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...
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Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Gross anatomy The portal vein usually measures approximately 8 cm in length in adults with a ...
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Portal vein calcification

Portal vein calcification is a rare radiologic finding which can be seen in long-standing portal venous hypertension. Pathology Calcium may be deposited in a thrombus or in the wall of the portal vein and is more rarely found in the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein. One of the propos...
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Portal vein embolisation

Portal vein embolisation (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes, diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, the future liver remnant (FLR). This diversion will increase the size of the post hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) and increa...
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Portal vein thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis may be seen in a variety of clinical contexts, and when acute can be a life-threatening condition. It is a major cause of non-cirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombus may be either bland and/or malignant (i.e. tumour thrombus), and it is a critical...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Portal venous system

The portal venous system refers to the vessels involved in the drainage of the capillary beds of the GI tract and spleen into the capillary bed of the liver. Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. As a result, the partial pressure of oxygen...
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Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...
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Portosystemic shunt ratio

The portosystemic shunt ratio is a measure performed using ultrasound to quantify the abnormal flow of portal venous blood that is shunted away from the hepatic sinusoidal circulation in the context of a congenital portosystemic shunt 1. Ultrasound The ratio is determined using the following e...
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Post-embolisation syndrome

Post-embolisation syndrome (PES) is one of the commonest side effects of transarterial embolisation and chemoembolisation. It comprises of a constellation of fever, nausea/vomiting, and pain. It usually occurs within the first 72 hours after embolisation (liver lesion or uterine fibroids) and th...
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Posterior auricular artery

The posterior auricular artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies scalp posterior to the auricle and the auricle itself. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery above digastric and stylohyoid opposite the styloid process course: ascends beneath the parotid t...
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Posterior auricular vein

The posterior auricular vein is tributary of the external jugular vein or retromandibular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course It arises over the mastoid process of the temporal bone draining the skin behind the ear and courses anteriorly into the parotid gland, draining into the external ju...
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Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
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Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarct

Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarcts arise, as the name says, from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery. It is a type of posterior circulation infarction. Clinical presentation Symptoms include contralateral homonymous hemianopia and quadrantic visual field defects. Because the PCA s...
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Posterior cerebral circulation

The posterior cerebral circulation (or simply, posterior circulation) is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain, including the occipital lobes, cerebellum and brainstem. The posterior circulation is supplied by the vertebral arteries that combine to form the basilar artery which...
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Posterior choroidal artery

The posterior choroidal artery is not in fact a single artery, although it is commonly referred to as such. The posterior choroidal arteries, often numbering up to 10 or 11 per hemisphere, are divided into medial posterior choroidal artery and lateral posterior choroidal artery groups. They usua...
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Posterior choroidal artery stroke

Posterior choroidal artery occlusion uncommonly presents as an isolated stroke syndrome.  It usually coexists with posterior cerebral artery and often superior cerebellar artery involvement.  When seen in isolation damage is characteristically limited to the: lateral geniculate body pulvinar ...
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Posterior communicating artery

The posterior communicating artery (PCOM or P Comm) makes up the posterior linkage in the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy Course The PCOM originates from the posterior aspect of the C7 (communicating) segment of the internal carotid artery and extends posteriormedially to anastomose with the ...
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Posterior ethmoidal artery

The posterior ethmoidal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses, dura and nasal cavity. Course It passes through the posterior ethmoidal foramen to enter the anterior cranial fossa where it gives off meningeal and nasal branches.
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Posterior external jugular vein

The posterior external jugular vein is a tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course Forms from the confluence of several superficial veins in the posterosuperior neck and posterior scalp. It passes superficially over the posterior triangle to drain into the extern...
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Posterior humeral circumflex artery

The posterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm 1 location: proximal arm supply: glenohumeral joint, teres major and minor, and deltoid 1 main ...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Posterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of anterior and posterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The first two intercostal spaces are supplied by the superior intercostal artery, and the remaining nine are supplied by separate branches from the descending thoracic aorta 1. The right ...
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Posterior interosseous artery

The posterior interosseous artery is one of the two terminal branches of the short common interosseous artery (from the ulnar artery). The artery courses deep in the proximal anterior compartment of the forearm to pierce the upper aspect of the interosseous membrane and enter the posterior compa...
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Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Posterior tibial artery

The posterior tibial artery (PTA) is one of the 2 branches of the tibioperoneal trunk in the lower leg and provides oxygenated blood to the posterior compartments of the leg and plantar surface of the foot. It is accompanied by the posterior tibial vein, along its course. Summary origin: tibio...
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Posterior tibial veins

The posterior tibial veins accompany the posterior tibial artery. They receive tributaries from the calf muscles (especially from the venous plexus in the soleus) and from superficial veins. They join the anterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein and enter the popliteal fossa.
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Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

The posterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the posterior medial aspect of the elbow, posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the superior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to...
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Posterior vein of the left ventricle

The posterior vein of the left ventricle is a vein of the heart which courses over the inferior wall of the left ventricle and drains into the coronary sinus to the left of where the middle cardiac vein drains into the sinus. It drains, not unsurprisingly, the inferior wall of the left ventricle.
Article

Post thrombotic syndrome

Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
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Power Doppler

Power Doppler is a technique that uses the amplitude of Doppler signal to detect moving matter. Power Doppler: is independent of velocity and direction of flow, so there is no possibility of signal aliasing is independent of angle, allowing detection of smaller velocities than colour Doppler, ...
Article

Pretzel sign

The pretzel sign is seen on DSA and is indicative of a serpentine aneurysm 1. The sign refers to the sinusoid configuration of the intra-aneurysmal vascular channel seen in serpentine aneurysms, giving it the appearance of a pretzel.
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
Article

Princeps pollicis artery

The princeps pollicis artery (also known as the first palmar metacarpal artery) is a branch of the radial artery that supplies the thumb (1st digit). It arises from the radial artery just as it enters the palm and courses distally along the palmar aspect of 1st metacarpal. At the 1st metacarpoph...
Article

Proatlantal artery

The proatlantal artery is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses, and can be subdivided into two types depending on its origin: type I: (~55%) also known as the proatlantal intersegmental artery arises from the internal carotid artery corresponds to the first segmental art...
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Profunda femoris artery

The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery or deep artery of thigh) is a branch of the common femoral artery and is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the deep structures of the thigh, including the femora. Summary origin: common femoral artery main branches...
Article

Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Prostatic artery embolisation

Prostatic artery embolisation (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilised to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic haemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment o...
Article

Prostatic venous plexus

The prostatic venous plexus is a network of veins around the anterolateral aspect of the prostate and anterior to the bladder. Tributaries include: deep dorsal vein of the penis anterior vesical rami prostatic rami The receipt of blood from the vesical and prostatic rami connect the prostati...
Article

Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
Article

Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterised by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
Article

Proximal brachial artery

The proximal brachial artery represents the initial portion of the brachial artery as it arises as a continuation of the axillary artery at the inferior edge of teres major. There is no anatomic difference between the proximal and more distal brachial artery. However, the functional response to...
Article

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterised by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congenital origin, and characterised by elongation and ki...
Article

Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
Article

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome, is a systemic condition characterised by the degeneration of elastic fibres. It has multiorgan manifestations. Epidemiology Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.  Clinical presentation Patients may ...

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