Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

961 results found
Article

Scapular anastomosis

The pectoral girdle has a rich plexus of arterial vessels that anastomose around the scapula and its muscles known as the scapular anastomosis. It functions to allow blood to flow around the scapula and shoulder joint if there is injury or occlusion. Contributing branches arise from as proximal...
Article

Scimitar sign of cystic adventitial disease

Scimitar sign traditionally referred a catheter angiographic appearance, although it can also be seen on MRA and CTA. It denotes lateral displacement and stenosis of the popliteal artery in patients with cystic adventitial disease. 
Article

Scimitar syndrome (lungs)

Scimitar syndrome, also known as hypogenetic lung syndrome, is characterised by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous vein into the systemic venous system. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and is one of the several findings in congenital pulmonary venolobar ...
Article

Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension

Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension includes all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension except for those for which no cause is identified with are then termed idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  The classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension into primary and secondary ha...
Article

Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal haemorrhage. It is characterised by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. I...
Article

Sentinel clot sign

The sentinel clot sign is a useful CT finding for the evaluation of probable anatomic sites of haemorrhage. On CT, acute clotted haemorrhage typically has high attenuation (45 to 80 HU), whereas surrounding areas of acute nonclotted haemorrhage or more chronic haemorrhage have either lower atte...
Article

Septal cerebral veins

Septal cerebral veins originate at the lateral aspect of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles then pass medially, inferior to the genu of the corpus callosum. They then turn backwards and traverse along the septum pellucidum and enter the internal cerebral vein behind the foramen of Monr...
Article

Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l  Abner in the 1940s. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlargement.
Article

Shone syndrome

Shone syndrome is characterised by four congenital heart defects, largely multiple left sided obstructions:   supravalvular mitral membrane (SVMM)  subaortic stenosis (membranous or muscular) parachute mitral valve coarctation of the aorta
Article

Shrinking lung syndrome

Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) refers to a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and is characterised by: unexplained dyspnoea restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests elevated hemidiaphragm Epidemiology As with SLE in general, it is thought to carry a increased fem...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The highest ...
Article

Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly splenic enlargement may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in th...
Article

Sigmoid arteries

The sigmoid arteries are branches, between two-to-four, of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and supply the sigmoid colon.  Summary origin: inferior mesenteric artery course: after arising from IMA, these branches descend to the left in the sigmoid mesocolon anastomosis: superiorly with ...
Article

Sigmoid sinus

The sigmoid sinus is a paired structure and one of the dural venous sinuses. It is the continuation of the transverse sinus (which is similarly variable in size) and becomes the sigmoid sinus as the tentorium ends. It is here that the sinus receives the superior petrosal sinus. It passes inferi...
Article

Signal flare phenomenon

The signal flare phenomenon is a useful sign to identify active bleeding in a liquefied haematoma with haematocrit effect on dynamic CT scan images. When active arterial haemorrhage is present in a liquefied haematoma that has a haematocrit effect, a signal flare phenomenon may be seen as a lin...
Article

Sildenafil citrate induced penile doppler

Erectile dysfunction is the occassional or consistent inability of a male to attain and maintain a penile erection sufficient enough and for a suffcient duration so as to allow vaginal penetration. Erectile dysfunction is multifactorial in etiology. In general erectile dysfunction increases wit...
Article

Single coronary artery

Single coronary arteries are rare (incidence 0.03-0.07%), with a higher incidence in patients with congenital heart disease (in particular truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia). They occur when there is a single ostia arising from the aorta with no ectopic ostia. There is a wide variety of c...
Article

Single umbilical artery

Single umbilical artery (SUA) results when there is a congenital absence of either the right or left umbilical artery. In the usual situation, there are paired umbilical arteries. For some unknown reason, the absence of the left umbilical artery is much more common (~70%). Epidemiology The est...
Article

Sinotubular junction

The sinotubular junction is the region of the ascending aorta between the aortic sinuses (of Valsalva) and where the normal tubular configuration of the aorta is attained.
Article

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. They can be either congenital or acquired (mycotic). Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being around 3-4:1). They are relatively more common in eastern and Asian populations and can occur in any age group ...
Article

Situs classification

Situs classification can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups : situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of normal situs ambiguus: an intermediate configuration with duplication (isomerism) Situs is best thought...
Article

Situs inversus

Situs inversus, short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image of internal organs normal pos...
Article

Situs solitus

Situs solitus refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the aortic arch, gastric fundus, cardiac apex, pulmonary fissures and the branching pattern of ...
Article

Small cardiac vein

The small cardiac vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the acute marginal artery from the RCA. It courses in the right posterior atrioventricular groove and drains into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination but may drain directly into the right atrium. It drains the right ventric...
Article

Small saphenous vein

The small saphenous vein (SSV) forms part of the superficial venous drainage of the lower limb. Gross anatomy Origin and course The SSV forms by the confluence of the lateral aspect of the dorsal venous network of the foot (lateral marginal vein of the foot). It passes behind the lateral mall...
Article

Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
Article

Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinop...
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin AVM grading system allocates points for various features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a grade between 1 and 5. Grade 6 is used to describe inoperable lesions. The score correlates with operative outcome. Grading size of nidus small (<3cm) = 1 medium...
Article

Sphenopalatine artery

The sphenopalatine artery, formerly known as the nasopalatine artery, is the terminal branch of the maxillary artery that is the main supply to the nasal cavity. It is colloquially know as the artery of epistaxis given its common involvement in cases of nose bleeds. It is a major contributor to ...
Article

Sphenoparietal sinus

The sphenoparietal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and is located along the posteroinferior ridge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. It drains into the cavernous sinus and receives tributaries from: superficial middle cerebral vein middle meningeal vein (frontal ramus) anterior...
Article

Spinal arteriovenous malformations

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by arteriovenous shunting with a true nidus. They represent ~25% of spinal vascular malformations.  Epidemiology Different types of spinal AVM (see below) have differing age of presentation, but overall 80% present between the age 20 ...
Article

Spinal AVM classification

Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways: intramedullary extramedullary: 80% 1 Or into four types 2: type I: single coiled vessel (dural AV fistula) type II: intramedullary glomus AVM type III: juvenile  type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula) sub t...
Article

Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord paired posterior s...
Article

Spinal vascular malformations

Spinal vascular malformations (SVM) are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications.  Pathology There are two main types of SVMs 1,2: spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF): 70% of SVMs pial: small, large, or giant dural AVF (DA...
Article

Splenial artery

Splenial artery or posterior pericallosal artery arises most commonly from the parieto-occipital branch of the PCA. It represents an important collateral supply from the posterior to anterior cerebral arteries as it anastomoses with the pericallosal artery. Variant anatomy the splenial artery ...
Article

Splenic artery

The splenic artery is one of three branches coeliac trunk and supplies the spleen as well as large parts of the stomach and pancreas. Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the coeliac trunk, passing from the coeliac axis toward the splenic hilum...
Article

Splenic artery aneurysm

Splenic artery aneuryms are the commonest visceral arterial aneurysm formation as well as the 3rd commonest abdominal aneurysm (after the aorta and iliac vessels). Aneurysms are usually saccular in configuration and they can either be in the form of a true aneurysm (much more common) or as a pse...
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
Article

Splenic steal syndrome

Splenic steal syndrome is a possible complication after liver transplantation. In this syndrome, blood flows preferentially from the celiac artery into the splenic artery and the hepatic artery is relatively hypoperfused as a result. This complication can threaten a liver transplant's survival. ...
Article

Splenic vein

The splenic vein drains the spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the stomach.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic vein is formed by splenic tributaries emerging at the splenic hilum in the splenorenal ligament at the tip of the tail of pancreas. It runs in the splenorenal ligame...
Article

Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation may be vague and varied: no inciting history no evidence of cutaneous bruising back, lower abdomin...
Article

Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary oedema as seen on frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resemble stag's antler. It is the earliest sign of pulmonary venous hyper...
Article

Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A aff...
Article

Stewart-Treves syndrome

Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of post-mastectomy lymphoedema. It however only accounts for 10% of all angiosarcomas seen in the setting of chronic post-mastectomy lymphoedema.
Article

Straight sinus

The straight sinus is one of the main dural venous sinuses and is found at the junction between the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli and is triangular in cross section. It receives the inferior sagittal sinus, the vein of Galen at its anterior end and some superior cerebellar veins alo...
Article

String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
Article

String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small-bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia 
Article

String sign (artery)

The angiographic string sign, also known as the carotid string sign, refers to the thin string of intravenous contrast material distal to a stenotic focus in the internal carotid artery (ICA).  Pathology A thin stripe of flow is caused by decreased pressure and flow distal to the stenosis, whi...
Article

String sign (disambiguation)

The string sign may refer to: angiographic string sign gastrointestinal string sign string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma
Article

Stroke

Stroke is a clinical designation that refers to the sudden neurological deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular event. It is divided into two broad categories: ischaemic stroke  (80% 2) haemorrhagic stroke (15%) lobar haemorrhage hypertensive haemorrhage secondary haemorrhages: some intrac...
Article

Subclavian artery

The subclavian arteries are asymmetric paired arteries that supply blood to the posterior cerebral circulation, cerebellum, posterior neck, upper limbs and the superior and anterior chest wall. Gross anatomy Origin Right and left subclavian arteries classically have different origins: right ...
Article

Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D). Mnemonic Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral artery I: inte...
Article

Subclavian artery stenosis

Subclavian artery stenosis (SAS) refers to narrowing of one or both of the subclavian arteries. Epidemiology The estimated in the general population as a whole is thought to be around 2-4%, while in those with peripheral vascular disease, it can be as high as 18% 1,4. Pathology It can arise ...
Article

Subclavian steal syndrome

Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) and subclavian steal phenomenon both result from occlusion or severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery resulting in retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. Terminology Subclavian steal phenomenon refers to steno-occlusive disease of the pro...
Article

Subclavian vein

The subclavian vein (SCV) is the major venous channel that drains the upper limb. Gross anatomy Origin and course The subclavian vein starts at the crossing of the lateral border of the 1st rib. It then arches cephalad, posterior to the medial clavicle before curving caudally and receiving it...
Article

Subclavian vein stenosis

Subclavian vein stenosis refers to a narrowing of the subclavian vein. Clinical presentation Presentation can be variable ranging from being asymptomatic to having arm swelling, arm pain, paresthaesia, neck pain and occipital headaches. Pathology Subclavian vein stenosis can arise from numbe...
Article

Subcostal artery

The subcostal arteries are bilateral small arteries that arise of the distal descending aorta which courses laterally beneath the 12th rib. They are the last  Gross Anatomy The subcostal arteries are analogous to the posterior intercostal arteries, instead in the subcostal space rather than an...
Article

Subscapular artery

The subscapular artery is the largest branch of the axillary artery. Gross anatomy The subscapular artery originates from the medial surface of the third part of the axillary artery. It passes along the inferior border of the subscapularis muscle and it divides into two branches 1,2: Thoracod...
Article

Sudeck point

The Sudeck point (or Sudeck critical point) refers to a specific location in the arterial supply of the rectosigmoid junction, namely the origin of the last sigmoid arterial branch from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) 1.  This arterial branch usually forms an anstomosis with a branch of th...
Article

Sulcal artery

Sulcal arteries are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery which arise from the anterior spinal artery and extend posteriorly through the anterior median fissure of the cord. The sulcal arteries supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord at any cross-sectional level. Successi...
Article

Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Article

Superficial femoral artery

The superficial femoral artery is a continuation of the common femoral artery at the point where the profunda femoris branches. It is the main artery of the lower limb and is, therefore, critical in the supply of oxygenated blood to the leg. Summary origin: continuation of the common femoral a...
Article

Superficial middle cerebral vein

The superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) (also known as the Sylvian vein) is one of the superficial cerebral veins. It usually passes along the Sylvian fissure posteroanteriorly, it collects numerous small tubutaries which drain the opercular areas around the lateral sulcus. It curves anterio...
Article

Superficial palmar branch of the radial artery

The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery (also known as the palmar cutaneous branch) is a small branch of the radial artery in the distal forearm. It arises from the radial artery just proximal to the flexor retinaculum, which it passes superficially over before entering the hand to su...
Article

Superficial temporal artery

The superficial temporal artery is one of two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. It arises in the parotid gland and runs between the deep and superficial lobes, over the zygomatic process before terminating in three branches - parietal, frontal and transverse facial - to supply pa...
Article

Superficial temporal vein

The superficial temporal vein arises in a plexus on the side and vertex of the skull and, in the substance of the parotid gland, joins with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein. Gross Anatomy The superficial temporal vein originates from a venous plexus on the side and vertex of...
Article

Superficial thrombophlebitis

Superficial thrombophlebitis, also called superficial venous thrombosis (SVT), is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of a thrombus in the lumen of a superficial vein, accompanied by inflammatory reaction of adjacent tissues. Terminology Some authors however reserve the term...
Article

Superficial veins of the brain

Superficial veins of the brain predominantly drain the cerebral cortex, and include: superior cerebral veins (or superficial cerebral veins) inferior cerebral veins superficial middle cerebral veins superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard) inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe) Some also inclu...
Article

Superior adrenal artery

The superior adrenal (suprarenal) arteries area a group of one of the three adrenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland. There are usually numerous small arteries arising from the inferior phrenic artery. Gross Anatomy Origin The superior suprarenal arteries arise from the inferior phrenic...
Article

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein of Trolard connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than both of t...
Article

Superior cerebellar artery

The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises from the distal basilar artery, just below the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and typically supplies: whole superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres down to the great horizontal fissure superior vermis dentate nucleus most of the cerebellar ...
Article

Superior cerebellar artery infarct

Superior cerebellar artery infarcts affect the superior cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis and parts of the midbrain. The superior cerebellar artery is the most constantly identified vessel arising from the basilar artery with its origin just below the posterior cerebral artery in the dis...
Article

Superior cerebral veins

The superior cerebral veins drain the superior portion of the cerebral cortex. They run up and medially before draining into the superior sagittal sinus. In a proportion of patients, a large such vein connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to the sinus, and is known as the superior anasto...
Article

Superior epigastric artery

The superior epigastric artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery with the other being the musculophrenic artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The superior epigastric artery originates at the level of the sixth or seventh costal cartilage. It descends to the a...
Article

Superior gluteal artery

The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery and supplies structures within the pelvis and gluteal region. Summary origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: originates from pelvis and enters the gluteal region supply: cutaneo...
Article

Superior hypophyseal artery

The superior hypophyseal artery (or arteries) is a branch from the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually a single trunk which then divides into many small branches, which go on to supply: optic nerve optic chiasm pituitary gland (anterior gland) pituitary stalk It is ofte...
Article

Superior laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid muscle. It pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. ...
Article

Superior mediastinum

Superior mediastinum is an artificially divided wedge-shaped compartment of the mediastinum located between the thoracic plane inferiorly and the thoracic inlet superiorly. The inferior mediastinum, comprising of the anterior, middle and posterior parts, lies inferiorly. Gross anatomy Boundari...
Article

Superior mesenteric arterial dissection

Superior mesentertic arterial (SMA) dissection is an uncommon type of arterial dissection. It can either on its own (rarer) or occur as part of an extension of an aortic dissection.  A spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is considered the most frequently reported type...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is one of the three non-paired arteries that provide blood to the midgut and other abdominal viscera. Gross anatomy Origin Single vessel arising anteriorly from the abdominal aorta at the level of L1. Course Courses anteroinferiorly, behind the neck of p...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery compression disorders

There are two distinct vascular compression disorders due to compression of another structure by the superior mesenteric artery. The terminology is sometimes confusing and they can occur in association.   superior mesenteric artery syndrome (Wilkie syndrome): compression of the third part of th...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Superior mesenteric vein

The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) accompanies the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and drains the midgut to the portal venous system. Gross anatomy Origin and course Mesenteric venous arcades, which accompany the arteries, unite to form the jejunal and ileal veins in the small bowel mesenter...
Article

Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, suprat...
Article

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
Article

Superior petrosal sinus

The superior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the cavernous sinus, posterolaterally to the transverse sinus. It runs along superior aspect of the petrous temporal bone. It receives: cerebellar veins inferior cerebral veins labyrinthine vein: draining the inner ear ...
Article

Superior phrenic arteries

The superior phrenic arteries are small branches arising either side from the lower part of the thoracic aorta just before it passes through the aortic hiatus. They anastamose with the pericardiophrenic and musculophrenic arteries to supply the superior surface of the diaphragm.
Article

Superior rectal artery

Summary origin: the terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery is the superior rectal artery course: descends into the pelvic cavity in the sigmoid mesocolon, crossing the left common iliac vessels branches: opposite the S3 vertebra the superior rectal artery divides into two terminal ...
Article

Superior sagittal sinus

The superior sagittal sinus is the largest dural venous sinus. As the name suggests, it runs in a sagittal plane from the anterior aspect of the falx cerebri to its termination at the confluence of sinuses at the occipital protuberance, where it usually proceeds rightward and into the right tran...
Article

Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly.  Boundaries posteri...
Article

Superior thoracic artery

The superior thoracic artery is the only branch of the first part of the axillary artery.  It is only a small and highly variable artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The superior thoracic artery originates from the first part of the axillary artery, just inferior to subclavius. It courses...
Article

Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies the larynx and thyroid gland. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the hyoid bone branches hyoid artery sterncocleidomastoid branches superior laryngeal artery cricothyroid...
Article

Superior ulnar collateral artery

The superior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the middle part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery at the middle part of the arm location: medial lower arm supply: elbow joint main branches: posterior ulnar recurrent artery (anasta...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.