Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,804 results found
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Xiphisternum

The xiphisternum (also known as the xiphoid process or simply the xiphoid) is the smallest of the three parts of the sternum (manubrium, body or gladiolus and xiphisternum). It arises from the inferior and posterior margin of the sternal body and projects inferiorly. It is a small cartilaginous ...
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Xiphoid shape variations

There is considerable anatomic variation in the shape of the xiphoid of the sternum: xiphoid ending is classified as single, double, or triple. xiphoid size varies (e.g. elongated process) xiphoid morphology (e.g. ventral or dorsal deviation, hook-like, reverse S-shape). Clinical presentatio...
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Zona orbicularis

The zona orbicularis are circular fibers of the hip joint capsule and form a collar around the femoral neck. Though partly blended with the pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments, these fibers are not directly attached to bone. 
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Zuckerkandl tubercle

Zuckerkandl tubercles are the projections of normal thyroid tissue from the posterior or posteromedial margin of the thyroid gland that extend posterior to the tracheoesophageal groove. They are present in most patients and occur more commonly on the right and in the longitudinal center 50% of t...
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Zygoma

The zygoma (also known as zygomatic bone or malar bone) is an important facial bone which forms the prominence of the cheek. It is roughly quadrangular in shape. Gross anatomy Zygoma has three surfaces, five borders, and two processes. Surfaces anterolateral surface is convex, pierced at its...
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Zygomatic arch

The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone at the zygomaticotemporal suture.  Related pathology Le Fort type 3 fracture zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture
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Zygomatic nerve

The zygomatic nerve is a main branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It should not be confused with the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve. Gross anatomy The zygomatic nerve divides off the maxillary division just after emerging from the foramen rotundum to enter the ptery...
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Zygomaticofacial foramen

The zygomaticofacial foramen is a small foramen in the mid lateral surface of the zygomatic bone that transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve (a branch of the zygomatic nerve from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) and zygomaticofacial vessels.
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Zygomaticofacial nerve

The zygomaticofacial nerve is the smaller of the two branches of the zygomatic nerve, from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It is sometimes referred to as the malar branch of the zygomatic nerve. It leaves the inferolateral aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit through the z...
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Zygomaticomaxillary suture

The zygomaticomaxillary suture is between the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the maxillary process of the zygomatic bone. They are often involved in zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures.
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Zygomaticotemporal foramen

The zygomaticotemporal foramen is a small foramen in the anteromedial surface of the zygomatic bone that transmits the zygomaticotemporal nerve (a branch of the zygomatic nerve from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) and zygomaticotemporal vessels.
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Zygomaticotemporal nerve

The zygomaticotemporal nerve is the larger of the two branches of the zygomatic nerve, from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It is primarily sensory but also relays parasympathetic fibers to the lacrimal nerve from the pterygopalatine ganglion which reach the lacrimal gland. It le...
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Zygomaticus major

Zygomaticus major is a member of the buccolabial muscle group of the upper lip1. It joins with the fibers of levator anguli oris, orbicularis oris and the more deeply placed muscular bands to move the side of the mouth upwards and sideways during facial movements such as laughing. Summary orig...
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Zygomaticus minor

Zygomaticus minor is a member of the buccolabial muscle group. Together with levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and levator labii superioris it is one of the main elevators of the lip, exposing the maxillary teeth 1. Along with its other action of deepening and elevating the nasolabial furro...

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