Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,048 results found
Article

Bronchial vein

The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries and drain the bronchi, hilar structures and the mid-portion of the esophagus. Gross anatomy There is typically a single bronchial vein at each hilum, formed from the superficial bronchial veins with deep bronchial veins draining in...
Article

Bronchioles

Bronchioles are the branches of the tracheobronchial tree that by definition, are lacking in submucosal hyaline cartilage.  Gross anatomy The bronchioles typically begin beyond the tertiary segmental bronchi and are described as conducting bronchioles. Following the tertiary segmental bronchi,...
Article

Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy

Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy describes the division of the lungs into segments based on the tertiary or segmental bronchi. Gross anatomy The trachea divides at the carina forming the left and right main stem bronchi which enter the lung substance to divide further. This initial division ...
Article

Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonics 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment...
Article

Bronchus intermedius

The bronchus intermedius is one of the two bronchi which the right main bronchus bifurcates into, the other being the right upper lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The bronchus intermedius runs distal to the right upper lobe bifurcation and follows the trajectory of the right main bronchus 1. Its m...
Article

Brown adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) (also known as brown fat) is one of two types of adipose tissue (the other one being white fat) important for producing thermal energy (heat, non-shivering thermogenesis), especially in the newborn. It constitutes ~5% of body mass in the newborn and tends to reduce mar...
Article

Brunner glands

Brunner glands are compound tubular submucosal glands found in the duodenum. They are only found proximal to the sphincter of Oddi. Related pathology Brunner gland hyperplasia Brunner gland adenoma
Article

Buccal nerve

The buccal nerve is the only purely sensory branch of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It is not to be confused with the buccal branch of the facial nerve. Gross anatomy The buccal nerve divides off the anterior division and passes with the paired nerve...
Article

Buccal space

The buccal space, also known as the buccinator space, is one of the seven suprahyoid deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy  The buccal spaces are paired fat-containing spaces on each side of the face forming cheeks. Each space is enveloped by the superficial (investing) layer o...
Article

Buccinator artery

The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
Article

Buccinator muscle

The buccinator muscle is a muscle of facial expression located in the cheek, between the maxilla and mandible, and functions chiefly as a muscle of mastication. Summary origin: outer surface of alveolar process of both maxilla and mandible, and anterior margin of the pterygomandibular raphe 1 ...
Article

Buccopharyngeal fascia

The buccopharyngeal fascia is the component of the middle layer of the deep cervical fascia that invests the outside of the pharyngeal constrictors and buccinator muscles. Terminology The term has been variably used to refer to the entire visceral component of the middle layer of the deep cerv...
Article

Buford complex

Buford complex is a congenital glenoid labrum variant where the anterosuperior labrum is absent in the 1-3 o'clock position and the middle glenohumeral ligament is thickened (cord-like). It originates directly from the superior labrum adjacent to the bicipital labral complex and inserts onto the...
Article

Bulbospongiosus muscle

The bulbospongiosus muscle is found in the superficial perineal pouch which covers the bulb of the penis in males and the bulb of the vestibule in females. Summary origin: median raphe and perineal body insertion: dorsum of penis/clitoris, perineal membrane innervation: pudendal nerve arter...
Article

Bulbourethral glands

The bulbourethral glands or Cowper glands are paired small pea-sized glands of the male reproductive tract, homologous to the female Bartholin glands. Gross anatomy The bulbourethral glands are located in the deep perineal pouch posterolateral to the membranous portion of the male urethra and ...
Article

Bulbs of the vestibule

The bulbs of the vestibule (also known as the vestibular, vestibulovaginal or clitoral bulbs) are conglomerations of erectile soft tissue, collectively homologous to the bulb of the penis. However unlike in the male, the developing bulb is bisected by the vaginal opening to form two halves. The...
Article

Bulla lamella

The bulla lamella is a structure that, when intact, forms the posterior boundary of the frontal recess. When pneumatized, it forms the ethmoid bulla. Gross anatomy It is frequently incomplete and often does not reach the roof of the ethmoid at the skull base. Under these circumstances, the fro...
Article

Bursa

Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs lined by a synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of synovial fluid. It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. They may or may not communicat...
Article

Butterfly vertebra

Butterfly vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly that results from the failure of fusion of the lateral halves of the vertebral body because of persistent notochordal tissue between them. Pathology Associations anterior spina bifida +/- anterior meningocele can be part of the Alagille syndr...
Article

C7 vertebra

The seventh cervical vertebra, C7, also known as the vertebra prominens, shares similar characteristics of the like typical cervical vertebra C3-C6, but has some distinct features making it one of the atypical vertebrae. The name vertebra prominens arises from its long spinous process, which is ...
Article

Cecum

The cecum (plural: ceca or cecums) is the first part of the large bowel and lies in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.  Gross anatomy Blind-ending sac of bowel that lies below the ileocecal valve, above which the large intestine continues as the ascending colon. The cecum measures 6 cm i...
Article

Calcaneal inclination angle

The calcaneal inclination angle (also known as the calcaneal pitch) is drawn on a weight-bearing lateral foot radiograph between the calcaneal inclination axis and the supporting horizontal surface. It is a measurement that reflects the height of the foot framework, but is affected by abnormal ...
Article

Calcaneal tendon

The calcaneal tendon, commonly known as the Achilles tendon, is the strongest and largest tendon of the human body. It is also one of the commonest tendons to become injured due to its high biomechanical load but poor vascularity 2. Gross anatomy The calcaneal tendon forms by the merging of fi...
Article

Calcaneal vascular remnant

Calcaneal vascular remnant is a benign finding that may be seen on MRI of ankle and can be misinterpreted as an alarming bone lesion. It is typically located at the insertion site of sinus tarsi ligaments (cervical and interosseous ligaments). The focus of signal alteration is believed to be pr...
Article

Calcaneocuboid joint

The calcaneocuboid joint is part of the mid-tarsal (Chopart) joint. It is a synovial articulation between the calcaneus and the cuboid bones of the foot. Gross anatomy The calcaneocuboid joint involves the anterior surface of the calcaneus and the posterior surface of the cuboid. Its joint cap...
Article

Calcaneofibular ligament

The calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) is the middle ligament of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle and stabilizes both the ankle and subtalar joints. Gross anatomy The CFL is an extracapsular round cord measuring 20-25 mm long x 6-8 mm width. Its origin is distal to the anterior...
Article

Calcaneonavicular coalition

Calcaneonavicular coalition is one of the two most common subtypes of the tarsal coalition, the other being talocalcaneal coalition. As with any coalition it may be osseous (synostosis), cartilaginous (synchondrosis) or fibrous (syndesmosis). Radiographic features This type of coalition is mor...
Article

Calcaneus

The calcaneus, also referred to as the calcaneum, (plural: calcanei or calcanea) is the largest tarsal bone and the major bone in the hindfoot. It articulates with the talus superiorly and the cuboid anteriorly and shares a joint space with the talonavicular joint, appropriately called the taloc...
Article

Calcar avis

Calcar avis, previously known as hippocampus minor, is a normal variant of the cerebral ventricular system. Gross anatomy It is a medial side indentation of the junction of the trigone and the occipital horn of the lateral ventricles by the calcarine fissure in the brain 1. Radiographic featu...
Article

Calcar femorale

The calcar femorale is a normal ridge of dense bone that originates from the postero-medial endosteal surface of the proximal femoral shaft, near the lesser trochanter. It is vertical in orientation, and the ridge projects laterally toward the greater trochanter. This ridge of bone provides mech...
Article

Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...
Article

Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
Article

Callosal sulcus

The callosal sulcus is a sulcus of the brain, located on the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, deep within the medial longitudinal fissure.  Gross anatomy The callosal sulcus runs posteriorly from the genu to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It separates the cingulate gyrus dorsally...
Article

Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery, also known as median artery of corpus callosum, is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It courses within or posterior to the cingulate sulcus, in parallel orientation to the pericallosal artery. It divides to give two or more cortical branches to supply the...
Article

Callososeptal interface

The callososeptal interface is located on the inferior surface of the corpus callosum, where the septum pellucidum abuts it.  It came to radiological attention when T2 hyperintense lesions affecting this region were believed to be specific for multiple sclerosis. This has, as is usually the cas...
Article

Calot triangle

Calot triangle or cystohepatic triangle is a small (potential) triangular space at the porta hepatis of surgical importance as it is dissected during cholecystectomy. Its contents, the cystic artery and cystic duct must be identified before ligation and division to avoid intra-operative injury. ...
Article

Canalis basilaris medianus

The canalis basilaris medianus (median basal canal), also known as clival canal, median clival canal, or inferior median clival canal, refers to a number of anatomic variant midline canals in the clivus, typically involving the basioccipital portion. Gross anatomy These canals are generally we...
Article

Canal of Nuck

The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of parietal peritoneum extending anteriorly from the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora through the inguinal ring into the inguinal canal. Incomplete obliteration of this canal is known as a patent processus vaginalis and can result i...
Article

Canals of Lambert

The canals of Lambert are microscopic collateral airways between the distal bronchiolar tree and adjacent alveoli. They are poorly formed in children, and along with poorly formed pores of Kohn, are thought to be responsible for the high frequency of round pneumonia in that age group.
Article

Cancellous bone

Cancellous, trabecular or spongy bone is one of the two macroscopic forms of bone, the other being cortical bone, and comprises 20% of skeletal mass.  Gross anatomy Cancellous bone is located in the medullary cavity of bone, in particular tubular and short bones, and consists of dense trabecul...
Article

Cantlie line

Cantlie line is a vertical plane that divides the liver into left and right lobes creating the principal plane used for hepatectomy. It extends from the inferior vena cava posteriorly to the middle of the gallbladder fossa anteriorly. It contains the middle hepatic vein, which divides the liver...
Article

Capitate

The capitate, also known as the os magnum, is the largest of the carpal bones and sits at the center of the distal carpal row.  A distinctive head-shaped bone, it has a protected position in the carpus, and thus isolated fractures are unusual. Gross anatomy Osteology The capitate sits in a p...
Article

Capitohamate coalition

Capitohamate coalition is the second most common type of carpal coalition and represents the congenital fusion of the capitate and the hamate. It represents ~5% of all carpal fusions 1 and is associated with Apert syndrome 2.
Article

Cardiac bronchus

A cardiac bronchus (or sometimes termed accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB)) is a rare anatomic variant of the tracheobronchial tree, arising from the medial aspect of the bronchus intermedius. Epidemiology This anomaly is rare and is reported in ~0.3% (range 0.09-0.5%) of individuals 3-5. There ...
Article

Cardiac fibrous skeleton

The fibrous skeleton of the heart is a complex set of collagenous rings that connect annuli of all four cardiac valves. Between the four annuli are two trigones (right and left) and the membranous portions of the interatrial, interventricular, and atrioventricular septa. The annuli of the two se...
Article

Cardiac plexus

The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart. It is formed by cardiac branches derived from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Gross anatomy Sympathetic cardiac nerves are derived from T1 to T4 segments and partly from the T5 segment of the ...
Article

Cardiac position

The cardiac position in the thorax may be described as: levocardia: left-sided heart dextrocardia: right-sided heart mesocardia: midline heart These terms purely describe the anatomic position of the left ventricular apex in the chest and their use does not indicate anything about the struct...
Article

Cardiac valves

The four cardiac valves direct the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle. Gross anatomy The heart valves are located in the cardiac fibrous skeleton: two are atrioventricular (AV) valves: the right-sided tricuspid valve (TV) and left-sided mitral (bicuspid) valve (MV) open...
Article

Carina

The carina is the sagittally-oriented cartilaginous ridge at the bifurcation of the trachea and is an important reference point in chest imaging. Gross anatomy The carina represents the inferior termination of the trachea into the right and left main bronchi. The carina usually sits at the le...
Article

Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the ascending p...
Article

Carotid bifurcation

The carotid bifurcation is the point at which the common carotid artery terminates. As it does so, it forms the internal and external carotid arteries which go on to supply the head and neck. The height of the carotid bifurcation is noted to be highly variable in the literature. Most frequently...
Article

Carotid body

The carotid body is located within the neck, and in close proximity to the carotid bifurcation. It is composed of a number of chemoreceptor cells and supporting matrix and detects changes in the composition of blood in the common carotid as it forms the internal and external carotid arteries. I...
Article

Carotid canal

The carotid canal is a passage within the petrous temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery and sympathetic plexus. Its inferior opening is called the carotid foramen and is situated anteriorly to the jugular fossa and medially to the carotid plate. The carotid canal is initially d...
Article

Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
Article

Carotid plate

The carotid plate is a thin (0.5 mm) bony plate that separates the carotid canal from the middle ear cavity. Gross anatomy The caroticotympanic artery perforates the carotid plate normally. Related pathology Disruption or dehiscence of the carotid plate may be seen in aberrant internal caro...
Article

Carotid space

The carotid space, the suprahyoid portion of which is also known as the poststyloid parapharyngeal space, is a deep compartment of the head and neck bound by the carotid sheath. Terminology The "carotid space" terminology was introduced by some radiologists to facilitate differential diagnosis...
Article

Carotid triangle

The carotid triangle is one of the paired triangles in the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focused, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spaces of th...
Article

Carotid tubercle

The carotid tubercle is a commonly used term referring to the paired anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the sixth cervical vertebrae 1. The carotid tubercle serves as an important landmark with respect to performing regional anesthesia such as a brachial plexus and cervical plexus...
Article

Carpal bones

The carpal bones are the eight bones of the wrist that form the articulation of the forearm with the hand. They can be divided in two rows: proximal row scaphoid lunate triquetrum pisiform​ distal row trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate The names and order of these bones can be rememb...
Article

Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bones are numerous and useful for memorizing the order and location of the bones. Some mnemonics name the carpal bones in a circle, starting with the proximal row from the scaphoid towards the pinky (small finger) and then the distal row starting from the hamate towards ...
Article

Carpal coalition

Carpal coalition refers to failure of separation of two or more carpal bones, and although the most commonly involved bones are the lunate and triquetrum, most combinations of adjacent bones can be found to be coalesced.  Terminology Carpal fusion is a misnomer, as it is the failure of normal ...
Article

Carpal tunnel

The carpal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal in the anterior (volar) wrist that acts as a passageway for structures between the forearm and the anterior hand. Gross anatomy Boundaries superficial border (roof): flexor retinaculum deep border (floor): carpal groove (formed by palmar aspect of c...
Article

Carpometacarpal joint

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are synovial joints formed by articulations of the distal carpal row and the metacarpal bones. Gross anatomy Articulations The carpometacarpal joints are made up of a number of bony articulations 1. first carpometacarpal: distinct synovial curved saddle joint...
Article

Carrying angle

Carrying angle is a small degree of cubitus valgus, formed between the axis of a radially deviated forearm and the axis of the humerus. It helps the arms to swing without hitting the hips while walking. In full flexion these axes become aligned.  Normally it is 14° (female) and 11° (male) away ...
Article

Cartilaginous joints

Cartilaginous joints are a type of joint where the bones are entirely joined by cartilage, either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. These joints generally allow more movement than fibrous joints but less movement than synovial joints.  Primary cartilaginous joint  These cartilaginous joints...
Article

Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  Its name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail". The cauda equina is contained within the thecal sac and suspended in CSF. The lower sacral (S2-S5) and coccygeal root...
Article

Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioral functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlli...
Article

Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the level...
Article

Caval variants

Many caval variants exist, due to the complex embryology of the venous system. These are important for a number of reasons:  not to confuse them with pathology suggest the presence of frequently associated other abnormalities planning of vascular intervention or surgery Types superior vena ...
Article

Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous tempor...
Article

Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology While the term "cavum septum pellucidum" is generally accepted, it is grammatically incorrect. Since it denotes a space (cavum meaning cave) of the septum pellucidum, the seco...
Article

Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI), often incorrectly termed a cavum velum interpositum, is an anatomic variation where there is a dilatation of the normal cistern of the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect,...
Article

Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) that lies immediately anterior to it, is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant.  Terminology The cavum vergae has also been refer...
Article

Cella media

The cella media is another term to denote the body of the lateral ventricle, extending from the foramen of Monro to the ventricular atrium 1. In modern practice, it is seldom if ever used and it is unlikely to be familiar to most clinicians or radiologists. 
Article

Central artery of the retina

The central artery of the retina or central retinal artery arises from the ophthalmic artery near or with the posterior ciliary arteries (either the lateral or medial branches) and supplies the retina 1,2. Gross anatomy The central artery of the retina courses anteriorly and inferior to the op...
Article

Central base of skull

The central base of skull is a region of the skull base centered on the pituitary fossa and includes surrounding structures. Despite no single universally accepted definition of this region, it is frequently used clinically and is conceptually useful particularly when considering tumors of the ...
Article

Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...
Article

Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
Article

Central nervous system embryology

Central nervous system (CNS) embryology is complex, and below is a brief summary of its development.  The early CNS begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Within the neural tube stem cells generate the two major classes of cells that m...
Article

Central retinal vein

The central retinal vein (CRV) or central vein of the retina, and sometimes shortened to the retinal vein, is the venous counterpart of the central retinal artery. Gross anatomy Each quadrant of the retina is drained by multiple minor retinal veins which coalesce to form a main retinal vein. T...
Article

Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory co...
Article

Central tendon of diaphragm

The muscle fibers of the diaphragm converge and attach to the central tendon of the diaphragm.  It is a thin but strong layer of aponeurosis which forms an intergral part of respiration. Gross Anatomy The central tendon of the diaphragm is located near the center of the diaphragmatic muscle bu...
Article

Centrilobular region

The centrilobular region, in context of the lungs and HRCT, refers to the central portion of the secondary pulmonary lobule, around the central pulmonary artery and bronchiole.  See also HRCT terminology
Article

Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter superior to the lateral ventricles and corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres, subjacent to the cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibers. Inferolaterally these fib...
Article

Cephalic vein

The cephalic vein, along with the basilic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm and terminates by draining into the axillary vein.   Summary origin: radial aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum of...
Article

Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
Article

Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise 4 paired deep grey matter nuclei deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order, from lateral to medial: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medi...
Article

Cerebellar tonsils

The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferomedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Gross Anatomy Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surface...
Article

Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern, also known as the pontocerebellar cistern, is a triangular CSF-filled subarachnoid cistern that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anter...
Article

Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled ...
Article

Cerebral hemisphere

The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most of the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave anteriorly, ...
Article

Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles are the anterior part of the midbrain that connects the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami. They are paired, separated by the interpeduncular cistern, and contain the large white matter tracts that run to and from the cerebrum. Terminology The crus cerebri (cerebr...
Article

Cerebral sulci and fissures

Cerebral sulci and fissures are grooves between the adjacent gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. By allowing the cortex to invaginate to form sulci and gyri the surface area of the cortex is is increased threefold 4. The result is that the surface area of the human cortex is 2200 cm...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.