Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,048 results found
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. Physiology Production Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ve...
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Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a paired neural structure composed of the two cerebral hemispheres (left and right) each containing a central space, the lateral ventricle. It develops from the telencephalon. Gross anatomy The cerebrum takes up most of the intracranial cavity and lies above the tentorium cereb...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterized by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Cervical incompetence morphological changes on ultrasound (mnemonic)

Sequential morphological ultrasound changes of the endocervical canal with cervical incompetence can be remembered using the mnemonic: Trust Your Vaginal Ultrasound Mnemonic T-shaped (normal internal cervical os) Y-shaped V-shaped  U-shaped Related article cervical incompetence funnelin...
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Cervical ligament

The cervical ligament attaches to the calcaneus and talus. It is lateral to the tarsal sinus and medial to the attachment of extensor digitorum brevis. It is taut in inversion.
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Cervical lymph node groups

The cervical lymph node groups covers all the lymph nodes in the head and neck region. These named groups overlap with the cervical lymph node levels, which are numbered. Gross anatomy Groups described in the literature include but are not limited to the following:  superficial lymph node gro...
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Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is formed by the ventral (anterior) rami of the C1 to C5 nerve roots and innervates the diaphragm, provides motor supply to some neck muscles and cutaneous sensation to the skin of the head, neck and chest. Gross anatomy Roots anterior rami of C1 to C5 nerves Course runs...
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Cervical plicae palmatae

Cervical plicae palmatae are normal folds seen on the anterior and posterior walls of the cervical canal. They are often described as longitudinal ridges or oblique elevation. Sometimes they are identified on MRI, and one must make sure not to misinterpret this finding as abnormal. Studies repo...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females. Related pathology Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the mo...
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Cervical spine

The cervical spine (often shortened to C-spine) is the upper part of the spine extending from the skull base to the thorax at the level of the first vertebra with a rib attached to it. It normally consists of seven vertebrae. Its main function is to support the skull and maintain the relative po...
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Cervical spine alignment

When assessing cervical spine alignment, look for four parallel lines connecting structures in the cervical spine: anterior vertebral line: anterior margin of the vertebral bodies posterior vertebral line: posterior margin of the vertebral bodies (also known as George's line) spinolaminar lin...
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Cervical spine ligaments

Cervical spine ligaments ordered from anterior to posterior include: anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) anterior atlanto-occipital membrane apical ligament alar ligaments (paired) cruciate ligament of the atlas longitudinal band: joins the body of the axis to the foramen magnum transver...
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Cervical thymus

The cervical thymus (plural: cervical thymi) refers to an ectopic location of the thymus in the neck above the level of the brachiocephalic veins. Clinical presentation A cervical thymus usually presents before adolescence as a painless unilateral midline or lateral neck mass. Pathology Etio...
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Cervix

The cervix or uterine cervix is the lower constricted segment of the uterus providing the passage between the uterus proper and the vagina.  Gross anatomy The cervix is somewhat conical in shape, with its truncated apex directed posteriorly and inferiorly. The inferior aspect of the cervix pro...
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Chassaignac bursa

Chassaignac bursa (also known as the retromammary bursa, submammary serous bursa or occasionally Chassaignac bag) is the space behind the breast, lying between the pectoralis fascia posteriorly and deep layer of superficial fascia anteriorly. It contains loose connective tissue and aids in mobi...
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Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognize on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1 mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1,2: anterior junct...
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Chevron sign (endopelvic fascial defect)

The chevron sign refers to the appearance caused on axial pelvic MR images by posterior drooping of the posterolateral wall(s) of the upper third of the vagina, due to loss of integrity of the lateral level 1 endopelvic fascia.
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Chiari network

An uncommon anatomic variant present in the right atrium, a Chiari network refers to a filamentous, weblike structure that results from incomplete resorption of the embryologic sinus venosus. Epidemiology Prevalence estimates for the general population vary widely, ranging from 2% - 10% of ran...
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Chordae tendineae

The chordae tendineae (singular: chorda tendinea, is rarely used) are thin strong inelastic fibrous cords that extend from the free edge of the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (the tricuspid and mitral valves) to the apices of the papillary muscles within the right and left ventricles respe...
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Chorda tympani

The chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
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Chorion

The chorion is one of the embryonic membranous structures that enclose both the fetus as well as the amnion. The chorion begins to form chorionic villi towards its outer surface, which initially serves to provide nutrition to the developing embryo.  Part of the chorionic villi arborize more ext...
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Chorionic plate

The chorionic plate is a synonym for the fetal side of the placenta. The maternal side of the placenta is termed the basal plate. Some pathologies and processes are localized to the chorionic plate, and evaluation of the chorionic plate is a part of placental grading.
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Choroidal epithelial cells

Choroidal epithelial cells are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They cover the surface of the choroid plexus and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 1. 
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Choroidal fissure

The choroidal fissure, or choroid fissure, is a cleft of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere running immediately above the hippocampus and forms the medial wall of the lateral ventricle and attachment site for the choroid plexus. Gross anatomy The C-shaped fissure runs between the fo...
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Choroid (eye)

The choroid is part of the uveal layer of the eye along with the ciliary body and iris 1.   Summary location: posterior aspect of the globe function: vascularization of the outer retina arterial supply: posterior ciliary arteries innervation: short ciliary nerves, long ciliary nerves rela...
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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is located within the cerebral ventricles and is made of epithelial cells, loose connective tissue (tela choroidea), and permeable capillaries. It produces cerebrospinal fluid.  The choroid plexuses also form the blood-CSF barrier alongside arachnoid and arachnoid villi 2. G...
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Chromaffin cells

Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in the fifth week of fetal development when neuroblas...
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Ciliary ganglion

The ciliary ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibers from the oculomotor nerve. Gross anatomy smallest of the ganglia (2 mm in size) located posterolaterally in the intraconal space of the orbit (towards the orbital apex) between...
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Cingulate gyrus

The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has functions in emotion and behavior. The frontal portion is termed the anterior cingulate gyrus (or cortex) 1,2.  Gross anatomy Location The cingulate gyrus extends fro...
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Cingulate sulcus

The cingulate sulcus is situated directly superior to the cingulate gyrus, which is formed by the medial surface of the frontal lobes that is directly above the corpus callosum.
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon (heptagon) formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of...
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Circular sulcus

The circular sulcus is a deep sulcus that surrounds the insular cortex and separates it from the operculum of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. The circular sulcus is contiguous with the lateral (Sylvian) sulcus inferiorly.
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Circumaortic left renal vein

Circumaortic left renal vein, also known as circumaortic renal collar is an anomaly of left renal vein when a supernumerary or accessory left renal vein passes posterior to the aorta, apart from the normal renal vein passing anterior to the aorta. This anomaly is potentially hazardous, if unreco...
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Circumcaval ureter

Circumcaval ureter, also known as retrocaval ureter, is a term used to describe an abnormal course of a ureter that encircles the inferior vena cava. Both of these terms are somewhat misleading, as this configuration is considered a developmental anomaly of the inferior vena cava (IVC). There ar...
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Circumduction

Circumduction is the orderly combination of shoulder movements so that the hand traces a circle and the arm traces a cone. In order it is produced by shoulder flexion, abduction, extension and abduction (or the reverse). It is hence produced by co-ordination of all the muscles that produce thes...
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Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is one of the two major coronary arteries that arise from the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery can be referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (...
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Circumflex fibular artery

The circumflex fibular artery is a minor artery of the leg. Gross anatomy Origin and course Most often arises from the posterior tibial artery, passes laterally round the neck of the fibula through the soleus to anastomose with the lateral inferior genicular, medial genicular and anterior tib...
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Circumventricular organs (CNS)

The circumventricular organs are neuroendocrine anatomical structures localized around the ventricles of the brain. They are characterized by a rich vasculature and fenestrated (permeable) capillaries. As such, with the exception of the subcomissural organ, they are also characterized by the abs...
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Cisterna chyli

The cisterna chyli (CC) (plural cisternae chyli), also known as the receptaculum chyli, is a normal anatomical structure in the lymphatic system. It is seen as a saccular area of dilatation in the lymphatic channels that are located in the retrocrural space, usually to the immediate right of the...
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Cisterna magna

The cisterna magna (also known as the cerebellomedullary cistern) is the largest of the CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at and above the level of the foramen magnum. CSF produce...
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Cistern of the lamina terminalis

The cistern of the lamina terminalis is one of the unpaired CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The cistern of lamina terminalis lies anterior to the anterior wall of the 3rd ventricle in the midline and appears like a high-top tent with diamond-shaped floor1. It acts as a connecti...
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Claustrum

The claustrum (plural: claustra) is a vertical curved sheet of subcortical grey matter oriented sagittally between the white matter tracts of the external capsule and extreme capsule. It is lateral to the putamen and medial to the insular cortex. It is not part of the basal ganglia. There are l...
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Clavicle

The clavicle, also colloquially known as the collarbone, is the only bone connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton and is the only long bone that lies horizontally in the human skeleton.  Gross anatomy Osteology The clavicle is roughly "S-shaped" with a flattened, concave, lateral...
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Clavipectoral fascia

The clavipectoral fascia is a sheet of loose connective tissue which is the deep layer of fascia in the pectoral region. It acts to suspend the floor of the axilla.  Gross anatomy The clavipectoral fascia lies below the clavicular head of the pectoralis major. It fills in the space between the...
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Cleft epiphysis

Cleft epiphysis is a normal variant of an epiphysis. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. The most common site is the epiphysis of the first proximal phalanx of the foot. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Plain radiographs will demonstrate a lucent defect in the epiphysis. The borde...
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Clitoris

The clitoris (plural: clitorides), the female homologue of the penis, and part of the female reproductive system, is situated at the anterior aspect of the labia minora. The clitoris, like the penis, is formed of a body and glans, formed respectively from the crura of the clitoris and the bulbs ...
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Clival diploic veins

Clival diploic veins are veins that travel through the body of the clivus connecting intracranial venous structures on the inner surface of the skull (e.g. basilar venous plexus, inferior petrosal sinuses, marginal sinus, internal carotid artery venous plexus of Rektorzik, inferior petro-occipit...
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Clivus

The clivus (of Blumenbach) is the sloping midline surface of the skull base anterior to the foramen magnum and posterior to the dorsum sellae 1. Specifically, it is formed by the sphenoid body and the basiocciput, which join at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. At the clivus, the occipital bon...
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Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
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Cloison sagittale

The cloison sagittale (sagittal partition), also known as Charpy fascia, is a sagittally oriented fascia on either side of the neck that separates the midline deep neck spaces (retropharyngeal space, prevertebral space, and danger space) from the more lateral parapharyngeal space (including caro...
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Cloquet's canal

Cloquet's canal, also known as the hyaloid canal or Stilling's canal, is a transparent canal that runs from the optic nerve disc to the lens traversing the vitreous body. It serves as a perivascular sheath surrounding the hyaloid artery in the embryonic eye. History and etymology Hippolyte Clo...
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Coalition

A coalition is a joining of two bones that are normally discrete 1. It is usually a congenital abnormality. The bridge between the bones is initially fibrous, then gradually becomes cartilaginous, finally ossifying. Symptoms tend to arise as the coalition forms a synostosis, which is usually fro...
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Coccygeus muscle

The coccygeus muscle, also known as the ischiococcygeus muscle, is a remnant muscle of the pelvic floor. Gross anatomy The coccygeus is a paired muscle which is triangular in shape and overlies the sacrospinous ligament. The coccygeus lies parallel to the inferior border of the piriformis musc...
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Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
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Cochlea

The cochlea (plural: cochleae) is part of the inner ear osseous labyrinth found in the petrous temporal bone. It contains the cochlear duct, part of the membranous labyrinth which senses hearing. Gross anatomy The cochlea is a shell-shaped spiral that turns between two-and-a-half and two-and-t...
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Cochlear aqueduct

The cochlear aqueduct or canaliculus is a small canal in the bony labyrinth of the petrous temporal bone that contains the perilymphatic duct, which drains perilymph into the cerebrospinal fluid of the posterior cranial fossa subarachnoid space. It runs inferior and parallel to the internal audi...
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Cochlear cleft

The cochlear cleft is a curvilinear radiolucent area of incomplete endochondral ossification in the otic capsule adjacent to the cochlea. It is a variant most prominent in children that may also be visible in adults 1. Gross anatomy The cochlear cleft is a C-shaped structure in the otic capsul...
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Cochlear duct

The cochlear duct (also known as the scala media) is an endolymph-filled cavity located between the scala vestibuli (upper) and the scala tympani (lower) in the cochlea which is part of the inner ear along with the vestibular apparatus 1,4. The cochlea is located in the bony labyrinth, itself fo...
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Cochleariform process

The cochleariform process is the thin osseous projection in the anterior wall of the middle ear cavity that acts as the fulcrum for the tendon of the tensor tympani. Gross anatomy Relations The cochleariform process is located 2,3: at the posterior termination of the semicanal for tensor tym...
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Cochlear nuclei

The cochlear nuclei are a group of two small special sensory nuclei in the upper medulla for the cochlear nerve component of the vestibulocochlear nerve. They are part of the extensive cranial nerve nuclei within the brainstem. Gross Anatomy The dorsal and ventral nuclei are located in the dor...
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Cochlear promontory

The cochlear promontory is the name given to the bone that overlies the basal turn of the cochlea protruding into the middle ear cavity.  Related pathology glomus tympanicum paragangliomas typically arise in the region of the cochlear promonotory
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Celiac artery

The celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross anatom...
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Celiacomesenteric trunk

The celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. Four...
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Cog

The cog is a coronally oriented bony process in the middle ear cavity of the temporal bone that projects from the tegmen tympani, separating the anterior epitympanic recess from the posterior epitympanum. The cog ends anterosuperior to the head of the malleus and superior to the cochleariform pr...
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Colic branch of the ileocolic artery

The colic branch of the ileocolic artery supplies blood to the ascending colon. It courses superiorly along the left side of the ascending colon before anastomosing with the descending branch of the right colic artery to supply blood to the cecum and proximal ascending colon 1,2. 
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Collateral ligaments of the foot

The collateral ligaments of the foot are attached to the dorsal tubercles on the metatarsal heads and the corresponding side of the phalangeal bases.
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Collateral sulcus

The collateral sulcus, also known as the medial occipitotemporal sulcus, runs anteroposteriorly on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Anteriorly it is sometimes continuous with the rhinal sulcus 1-3.  Anteriorly, it separates the fusiform gyrus laterally, from the par...
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Collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

There are several collateral systems between the primary vascular supply of the foregut and midgut.  The collateral between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery include: gastroduodenal artery (GDA) branch of the common hepatic artery and anastomoses with branches of the inferior pa...
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Colliscalene triangle

The colliscalene triangle is an important anatomical region of the neck, situated medial to the scalenus anterior muscle. It should not be confused with the scalene triangle which is located posterior to the scalenus anterior muscle.  Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: lateral border of longus...
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Columella

The columella is the most anteroinferior portion of the nasal septum and forms the central fleshy portion between the two nostrils when looking at someone's nose. It is a single midline structure composed of cartilage and overlying skin, extending posteriorly from the tip of the nose. The latera...
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Commissural fibers of the brain

Commissural fibers of the brain, also known as commissural tracts of the brain or commissures are a type of white matter tract that cross the midline, connecting the same cortical area in opposite hemispheres (right-left hemispheric connections 3). Commissural fibers include: corpus callosum (...
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Common bile duct

The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD).  Terminology On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cystic duct enters the common hepatic duct to form t...
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Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired structure that supplies blood to the head and neck.  Summary origin: left: branch of the aortic arch right: branch of the brachiocephalic trunk course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and neck main bran...
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Common facial vein

The common facial vein is formed by the joining of the facial vein and anterior branch of the retromandibular vein. It is part of the venous drainage system of the face. Summary origin and termination: the facial vein (along with the facial artery) pierces the deep investing fascia of the neck...
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Common femoral vein

The common femoral vein (CFV) forms from the confluence of the femoral vein and the deep femoral vein, and continues as the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament. It accompanies the common femoral artery. Terminology "Common femoral vein" is not listed in Terminologia Anatomica, however...
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Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is one of the 3 branches of the celiac artery. Gross anatomy Origin The common hepatic artery is normally a terminal branch of the celiac artery, the largest branch coursing to the right. Course It passes anterior to the pancreas, and then inferiorly to the r...
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Common hepatic duct

The common hepatic duct (CHD) is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts. It joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct (CBD). It is approximately 4 cm long and 4 mm in diameter.  Together with the cystic duct (laterally) and cystic artery (superiorly), they form Calo...
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Common iliac artery

The common iliac arteries (CIAs) are the large paired terminal branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Origin The abdominal aorta bifurcates anterolateral (to the left side) of the L4 vertebra, into the right and left common iliac arteries.  Course The common iliac arteries (CIAs) en...
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Common iliac vein

The common iliac vein, corresponding with the common iliac artery, drains venous blood from the pelvis, lower limbs and their associated structures. Summary location: pelvis, anterior to the sacroiliac joint origin and termination: union of internal and external iliac veins; into the inferior...
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Common interosseous artery

The common interosseous artery is a branch of the proximal part of the ulnar artery at the level of the pronator teres in the distal part of the cubital fossa. It is a short vessel that dives laterally and deeply before bifurcating into anterior and posterior interosseous arteries.
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Common peroneal nerve

The common peroneal nerve, also known as common fibular nerve, forms the lateral part of the sciatic nerve and supplies the leg. Summary origin: one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve course: diverges laterally to enter the lateral compartment of the leg terminal branches deep pe...
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Compressor naris muscle

Compressor naris muscle forms the transverse component of nasalis muscle, and is one of the muscles of the nose, a subset of the muscles of facial expression.  Summary origin: frontal process of maxilla​​ insertion: ​medial insertion into a transverse aponeurosis innervation: facial nerve (V...
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Concha bullosa

Concha bullosa (plural: conchae bullosae) (also known as middle turbinate pneumatization) is a common finding and although associated with deviation of the nasal septum, it is usually of little clinical importance. Epidemiology Concha bullosa is a normal variant and is one of the most common v...
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Condylar canal

The condylar canal, or canalis condylaris, is a skull base canal in the posterior cranial fossa, located in the condylar fossa. It is the largest of the emissary foramina of the skull 1. Summary location: in the condylar fossa of the posterior cranial fossa, posterior to the occipital condyles...
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Condylar emissary veins

The condylar emissary veins (anterior, lateral, posterior) are major posterior cranial fossa emissary veins: anterior condylar vein connects the internal vertebral venous plexus to the internal jugular vein lateral and posterior condylar veins connect the external vertebral venous system with ...
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Condylar process of the mandible

The condylar process, also called the condyloid process, is the process on the mandible that articulates with the disk of the TMJ.  Osteology It consists of two portions: condyle ​presents an articular surface for articulation with the articular disk of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), it'...
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Condyloid joint

Condyloid joints are a type of synovial joint where the articular surface of one bone has an ovoid convexity sitting within an ellipsoidal cavity of the other bone.   Movements Condyloid joints allow movement with two degrees of freedom much like saddle joints. They allow flexion/extension, ab...
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Confluence of sinuses

The confluence of sinuses, also known as the torcula or torcular herophili is the site of the confluence of: superior sagittal sinus straight sinus occipital sinus transverse sinuses The anatomy is highly variable and three types can be distinguished: type 1: superior sagittal sinus drains...
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Congenital absence of a spine pedicle

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle is a rare congenital condition, but awareness of its characteristic imaging appearance is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Failure to recognize this entity can lead to misdiagnosis of unilateral facet subluxation/dislocation, leading to unnecessary treatmen...
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Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...

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