Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,048 results found
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Deep Bursae

Deep bursae are those bursae that are located deep to the fibrous fascia and are normally located between muscles or muscle and bone.  These bursae form in utero alongside synovial joint formation 1. In contrast, superfical bursae are located superficial to the fibrous fascia.
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Deep cerebral veins

The deep cerebral veins drain the deep white matter and grey matter that surround the basal cisterns and ventricular system. The deep veins are responsible for the outflow of approximately the inner 80% of the hemisphere. They provide useful landmarks for skull base and intraventricular surgery ...
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Deep cervical fascia

The deep cervical fascia consists of three separate but related fascial layers that encircle structures in the neck and allow anatomic compartmentalisation into the deep spaces of the head and neck. Each layer contributes to the carotid sheath. See the separate articles for further details: sup...
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Deep circumflex iliac artery

The deep circumflex iliac artery arises from the external iliac artery. Gross anatomy origin: lateral aspect of the external iliac artery above the inguinal ligament, almost opposite to the inferior epigastric artery course: travels superiorly parallel to the inguinal ligament towards the ant...
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Deep femoral vein

The deep femoral vein or the profunda femoris vein lies anterior to its artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the artery. Through these tributaries it connects distally with the popliteal and proximally with the inferior gluteal veins. It sometimes drains the medial a...
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Deep infrapatellar bursa

The deep infrapatellar bursa is one of many bursae surrounding the knee joint and shares the name with its superficial, subcutaneous counterpart. Gross anatomy It is located above the tibial tubercle immediately superior to the distal patellar tendon insertion and posterior of the lower third ...
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Deep inguinal lymph nodes

The deep inguinal lymph nodes (often shortened to the deep inguinal nodes) form a subgroup of the inguinal lymph node group, and are located within the femoral sheath, medial to the femoral vein. They receive afferent lymphatic drainage from the deep lymphatics of the distal lower extremity and ...
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Deep layer of the deep cervical fascia

The deep layer of the deep cervical fascia is one of the three layers of the deep cervical fascia. It encases the paravertebral muscles and forms the perivertebral space. It consists of the perivertebral fascia (the anterior part of which is called the prevertebral fascia) and alar fascia 1-3. ...
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Deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery

The deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery originates from the ulnar artery near the base of the fifth metacarpal. It contributes to the arterial supply of the opponens pollicis, hypothenar and interossei muscles. It also supports the supply of the palmar aspect of the metacarpus and digits, via...
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Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space superior (deep) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital t...
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Deep peroneal nerve

The deep peroneal (fibular) nerve is one of two terminal branches of the common peroneal nerve. Summary origin: the terminal branch of common peroneal nerve in the lateral compartment of the leg course: passes into the anterior compartment of the leg, where it courses inferiorly into the dors...
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Deep petrosal nerve

The deep petrosal nerve transmits post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers from the internal carotid plexus to the Vidian nerve on its way to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The nerve begins at the internal carotid plexus and runs alongside the lateral aspect of the internal carotid arte...
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Deep posterior compartment of the leg

The deep posterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle plantarflexion and toe flexion, with exception of the popliteus which acts on the knee. Of the two posterior compartments, the d...
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Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament

The deep posterior tibiotalar ligament (DPTTL) is one of the two deep components and the strongest part of the deltoid ligament 1,2. Gross anatomy The deep posterior tibiotalar ligament is covered by the superficial posterior tibiotalar and tibiocalcaneal ligaments. It is a broad and thick lig...
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Deep spaces of the head and neck

The deep spaces of the head and neck refer to compartments delimited by the deep cervical fascia. While these concepts overlap with traditional anatomical description, their existence highlights the importance of fascia in confining various pathologies. A knowledge of these spaces not only allo...
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Deep temporal arteries

The deep temporal arteries (anterior, middle and posterior) are branches from the second part of the maxillary artery. They ascend between the temporalis muscle and the pericranium supplying the overlying muscle. The anterior branch communicates with the lacrimal artery by means of small branch...
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Deep temporal nerves

The deep temporal nerves are a pair of motor branches of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It should not be confused with the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Gross anatomy The two deep temporal nerves divide off the anterior division and course abov...
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Deep transverse perineal muscle

The paired deep transverse perineal muscles (TA: musculus transversus profundus perinei) lie in the perineum and are important for stabilizing the perineal body. Summary origin: ischial ramus insertion: the fibers of each muscle meet in the midline at the perineal body and decussate to intert...
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Default mode network

The default mode network (DMN), is a group of specific brain regions that are functionally-connected. The regions become active in the resting state (not doing any active task), and inactive when someone is engaged in any attention-demanding tasks 1; this phenomenon has been termed task-induced ...
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Delphian lymph node

The Delphian (prelaryngeal/precricoid) lymph node (often shortened to Delphian node) is one of the cervical lymph node groups that comprise level VI cervical lymph nodes and is not routinely excised in radical neck dissections. Gross anatomy It is located between the cricothyroid muscles, abov...
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Deltoid ligament of the ankle

The complex of the medial collateral ligaments of the ankle joint is collectively called deltoid ligament. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones. Gross anatomy The ligament is composed of two layers. The superficial layer has variable attachments and crosses two joints whil...
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Deltoid muscle

The deltoid muscle (also known as deltoideus muscle) is the largest of the shoulder muscles. The muscle is composed of three heads (clavicular, acromial and spinous), although electromyography suggests that there are at least seven control regions that could act independently 1. Summary origin...
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Deltopectoral groove

The deltopectoral groove is located between the superolateral aspect of the pectoral region and the deltoid muscle. It runs obliquely from superomedial to inferolateral and contains the cephalic vein which at the upper margin of the groove dives deep to pierce the clavipectoral fascia and enter ...
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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is located in the mesial temporal lobe and forms part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus proper and subiculum.  The dentate gyrus receives fibers from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path and projects fibers to the CA3 portion of the hippocampus. ...
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Dentate nucleus

The dentate nucleus is the largest and most lateral of the cerebellar nuclei, located medially within each cerebellar hemisphere, just posterolateral to the fourth ventricle 1.  It is part of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, connected to the contralateral red nucleus via the superior cere...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular lateral extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal ...
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Depressor anguli oris muscle

The depressor anguli oris muscle (also known as the triangularis muscle) is one of the muscles of facial expression. Summary origin: oblique line of the mandible insertion:  ​angle of the mouth superficial fibers from both sides merge to form the transversus menti innervation: facial nerve...
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Depressor septi nasalis muscle

The depressor septi nasalis muscles (DSN) (also known as the depressor septi nasi muscles) are paired muscles of the nose, a subset of the muscles of facial expression, which depress the nose. Summary origin: maxilla insertion: nasal septum, medial crura, membranous septum innervation: facia...
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Descending aorta

The descending aorta is the continuation of the aortic arch in the posterior mediastinum. Gross anatomy The descending aorta commences at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra body, on its left, in the plane of Ludwig as the continuation of the aortic arch. It descends in the posterior med...
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Descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery descends from the lateral aspect of the femoral neck and extends as far as the knee where it provides blood to the patellar network (the complex arterial anastomosis around the knee). Summary origin: lateral circumflex femoral arte...
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Descending colon

The descending colon is the continuation of the transverse colon after the left colic flexure, where the colon loses its mesentery.  Gross anatomy The descending colon measures up to 25 cm in length and is secondarily retroperitoneal. It descends down attached to the left posterior abdominal w...
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Descending geniculate artery

The descending geniculate artery arises from the distal portion of the superficial femoral artery before it becomes the popliteal artery. Along with other arterial branches, it provides blood to the patella network and the knee. Summary origin: superficial femoral artery supply: patella netwo...
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Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of the cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features ...
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Detrusor muscle

The detrusor muscle (or detrusor urinae muscle)is the smooth muscle component of the urinary bladder and facilitates contraction of the bladder wall during micturition. Gross anatomy Forms the smooth muscle component of the bladder wall. The urothelial lining overlies it within the bladder cav...
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Developmental anomalies of the kidney and ureter

Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters are numerous and not only potentially render image interpretation confusing but also, in many instances, make the kidneys more prone to pathology: number renal agenesis supernumerary kidney fusion horseshoe kidney: most common cross fused ...
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Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle. There are usually denoted as D1, D2, D3, etc.   There are termed "diagonal" due to them branching from their parent vessel at acute angles. They ext...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Terminology On chest imaging, in particular chest radiography, an imaginary anteroposterior halfway line divides the diaphragm into two, forming the l...
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Diaphragma sellae

The diaphragma sellae is one of the folds (or reflections) of the dura mater. It covers the sella turcica and forms the roof over the pituitary fossa 1. Gross anatomy The diaphragma sellae consists of two horizontal leaves of dura mater on the sphenoid bone. It extends from the tuberculum sell...
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Diaphragmatic apertures

The diaphragmatic apertures are a series of apertures that permit the passage of structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are three main apertures: aortic hiatus (T12) (not a true aperture) esophageal hiatus (T10) vena caval foramen (T8) The vertebral levels of these ape...
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus Mnemonic I 8: inferior vena cava at T8 10 eg...
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Diaphysis

The diaphyses (singular: diaphysis), sometimes colloquially called the shafts, are the main portions of a long bone (a bone that is longer than it is wide) and provide most of their length.  The diaphysis has a tubular composition with a hard outer section of hard cortical bone and a central po...
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Diarthroses

Diarthroses are a functional class of joint that are freely mobile. All synovial joints are considered diathroses.    See also  synarthroses amphiarthroses
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela choroidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brain...
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Difference in vertical mid-vertical angle (lumbar spine)

The difference in vertical mid-vertical angle is the difference in the vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) between the caudal segment angle and the adjacent cephalad segment angle of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine as measured on a mid-sagittal MRI or a lateral radiograph. Ra...
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Digastric muscle

The digastric muscle is composed of two bellies, anterior and posterior, connected by an intermediate round tendon. The two bellies of the muscle have different embryonic origins and hence are supplied by different cranial nerves. Summary origin anterior belly: digastric fossa on the deep sur...
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Digastric triangle

The digastric triangle is one of the paired triangles in the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focused, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spaces of ...
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Dilator naris muscle

Dilator naris muscle forms the alar component of nasalis muscle, and is one of the muscles of the nose, a subset of the muscles of facial expression.  Summary origin: maxilla​​ insertion: ​nasal ala innervation: facial nerve (VII) action: flaring of the nostril Gross anatomy Origin fiber...
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Discoid meniscus

Discoid menisci are those that have a body that is too wide, usually affecting the lateral meniscus. They are incidentally found in 3-5% of knee MRI examinations.  Epidemiology Discoid menisci are congenital, frequently bilateral (up to 50%) and have been reported in twins, although no genetic...
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Distal dural ring

The distal dural ring is an anatomical landmark that separates the extradural from the intradural intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). It is located at the junction of the cavernous, clinoid and ophthalmic segments of the ICA. Gross anatomy Anatomy of this region is complex and varied a...
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Distal radioulnar joint

The distal radioulnar joint is a pivot type synovial joint between the distal radius and ulna. Summary articulation: pivot type synovial joint between the distal aspect of the radius and the ulna movement: rotation of the distal radius ligaments: triangular ligament, and anterior and posteri...
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Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis

The tibiofibular syndesmosis is a complex fibrous joint composed of multiple ligaments and a broad fibrous interosseous membrane that spans between the tibia and fibula throughout the length of both bones. The distal osseous part of this syndesmotic joint includes the following four components:...
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Dominant ovarian follicle

A dominant ovarian follicle refers to the follicle that enlarges to release an ovum during a menstural cycle. Usually approximately 10 Graafian follicles begin to mature where one becomes a dominant follicle and the rest become atretic ovarian follicles. After release of the ovum the remainder o...
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Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...
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Dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament

The dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament is the dorsolateral stabilizer of the calcaneocuboid joint and a stabilizer of the midtarsal (Chopart) joint. Gross anatomy The dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament can arise as single or multiband-structure lateral of the bifurcate ligament and can merge with the ...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Dorsal defect of the patella

Dorsal defects of the patella are benign subchondral lesions of unknown etiology and a normal developmental anomaly of the patella, which can be mistaken for a pathological process such as a focus of infection or osteochondritis dissecans. Epidemiology Dorsal defect of patella occurs in males ...
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Dorsal horn

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It primarily acts as the termination of primary afferent fibers via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. Gross Anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord the spinal grey matter is d...
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Dorsal intercarpal ligament

The dorsal intercarpal ligament is one of the extrinsic wrist ligaments. Gross anatomy The dorsal intercarpal ligament has a horizontal orientation, however, together with the dorsal radiotriquetral ligament, it is said to have a zig-zag configuration. It runs from the dorsal tubercle of the ...
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Dorsal interossei (foot)

The four dorsal interossei muscles are the most superior muscles in the sole of the foot and abduct the 2nd to 4th toes relative to the long axis through the second toe. Summary origin sides of metatarsals of toes I to V insertion extensor hoods and bases of proximal phalanges of toes II to...
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Dorsal interossei muscles (hand)

The interossei muscles form part of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, and as a group consist of four palmar (1st is often rudimentary) and four dorsal muscles. Collectively, the interossei contribute to abduction and adduction of the fingers and also contribute to flexion of the metacarpophala...
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Dorsalis pedis artery

The dorsalis pedis artery is the principal dorsal artery of the foot. Summary location: dorsal surface of the foot, running towards the first dorsal interosseous space origin: direct continuation of the anterior tibial artery termination: as the first dorsal metatarsal artery branches: deep...
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Dorsal nasal artery

The dorsal nasal artery, also known as the dorsonasal artery, is a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery. Gross anatomy Arising as a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery, the dorsal nasal artery exits the orbit after piercing the orbital septum above the medial canthal tendon (medial pa...
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Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris

Dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris is one of the two terminal branches of the pudendal nerve that arises from nerve whilst in the pudendal canal. The other terminal branch is the perineal nerve.  Gross anatomy Course Entering the urogenital triangle of the perineum, the dorsal nerve of penis o...
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Dorsal pancreatic artery

The dorsal pancreatic artery is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreas. It arises from the proximal splenic artery and descends a short distance to run along the posterior margin of the pancreas where it divides in to left and right branches. the right branches pass either an...
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Dorsal radiocarpal ligament

The dorsal radiocarpal ligament is a large extrinsic intracapsular dorsal radiocarpal ligament and one of the main dorsal stabilizers of the wrist 1-3. Terminology The dorsal radiocarpal ligament is also known as ‘dorsal radiolunotriquetral ligament’, or ‘dorsal radiotriquetral ligament’. Gro...
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Dorsal radioulnar ligament

The dorsal radioulnar ligament is one of the primary stabilizers of the distal radioulnar joint and forms part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex 1,2. Summary location: extending from posterior margin of the ulnar notch at the distal radius to the posterior portion of the head of the uln...
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Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Dorsal scapular artery

The dorsal scapular artery is a branch of either the transverse cervical artery (from the thyrocervical trunk off the first part of the subclavian artery) or an independent branch from the third (or less commonly second) part of the subclavian artery. It accompanies the dorsal scapular nerve, c...
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Dorsal scapular nerve

The dorsal scapular nerve is a branch from the C5 root of the brachial plexus and supplies the rhomboid muscles. Gross anatomy Origin Posterior aspect of the C5 root of the brachial plexus. Course It courses through scalenus medius then accompanies the dorsal scapular vessels inferiorly, de...
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Dorsal talonavicular ligament

The dorsal talonavicular ligament is one of the three stabilizers of the talonavicular joint and therefore a stabilizer of the midtarsal (Chopart) joint. Gross anatomy The dorsal talonavicular ligament extends from the mid-talar neck to the navicular bone and merges with the joint capsule medi...
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Dorsal vagal nucleus

The dorsal vagal nucleus, also known as the vagal nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve or the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, is a elongated nucleus within the medulla oblongata that provides parasympathetic motor innervation to the viscera of the thorax and abdomen. It is the lar...
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Dorsum sellae

The dorsum sellae is the square shaped process of the sphenoid bone. It ascends superiorly from the posterior part of the sphenoid body to form the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Gross anatomy Relations The dorsum sellae forms the posterior wall of the sella turcica, which houses the pi...
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Double aortic arch

Double aortic arches are the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings. Clinical presentation Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to symptoms related to esophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory symp...
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Double retroaortic left renal vein

Double retroaortic left renal vein is a very rare entity that is usually clinically silent and detected incidentally at imaging, surgery, or autopsy. The knowledge of anatomical variations helps the surgeon or interventionist to avoid complications during surgery and interventional procedures 4...
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Dromedary hump

Dromedary humps are prominent focal bulges on the lateral border of the left kidney. They are normal variants of the renal contour, caused by the splenic impression onto the superolateral left kidney. Dromedary humps are important because they may mimic a renal mass, and as such is considered a...
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Drooping moustache sign (endopelvic fascial defect)

The drooping moustache sign refers to the appearance caused on axial pelvic MR images by posterior prolapse of the fat in the retropubic space, akin to the drooping corners of a moustache, due to loss of integrity of the urethral suspensory ligaments and level 3 endopelvic fascia.
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Duct of Rivinus

The duct of Rivinus connects the sublingual gland to the floor of the mouth. Despite its name, it is not a single duct, but numerous small ducts all of which open into the floor of the mouth and are collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these little ductules is the major duct...
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Ducts of the salivary glands

The ducts of the salivary glands allow the passage of salivary juice from the glands to the oral cavity: parotid duct (Stenson duct): connects the parotid gland to the buccal mucosa, adjacent to maxillary second molar submandibular duct (Wharton duct): connects the submandibular gland to the f...
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Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
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Ductus deferens

The ductus deferens (plural: ductus deferentes) forms part of the male internal genitalia where it transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. In modern anatomic nomenclature, it is no longer referred to as the vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia). Gross anatomy The ductus ...
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Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta which may be mistaken for an acute aortic injury. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the aortic isthmus, where the ligamentum arteriosum attaches. It is also the sit...
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Ductus venosus

Ductus venosus (DV) is a narrow, trumpet-shaped vessel which is seen in the fetal liver connecting the umbilical vein directly to the caudal inferior vena cava. The vessel plays a critical role in the fetal circulation by shunting oxygenated and nutrient-rich umbilical venous blood from the plac...
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Duodenal bulb

The duodenal bulb refers to a proximal-most portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach and for most of the D1 segment of the duodenum. It usually has a length of about 5 cm.  It commences at the gastric pylorus and ends at the neck of the gallbladder. It is located posterior to the liver and...
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Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal (DJ) flexure or junction is the anatomical border between the duodenum and the jejunum. Gross anatomy The DJ flexure is located anterolateral to the aorta at the level of the upper border of the second lumbar vertebra. It makes a sharp turn anteroinferiorly to become the jej...
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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is the continuation of the stomach. Gross anatomy The duodenum is a 20-30 cm C-shaped hollow viscus predominantly on the right side of the vertebral column. It lies at the level of L1-3 and the convexity of the duodenum (called the duod...
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Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...
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Duplicated middle cerebral artery

The duplicated middle cerebral artery is an anatomical variant in which there are two middle cerebral arteries originating from the distal end of the internal carotid artery. Supply The duplicated artery supplies the anterior temporal lobe. Differential diagnosis It should not be confused wi...
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Duplication of inferior vena cava

Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognized, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of inferior vena cava duplicati...
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Dural venous sinuses

Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of the dura mater (endosteal layer and meningeal layer). They can be conceptualised as trapped epidural veins. Unlike other veins in the body, they run alone, not parallel to arteries. Furthermore, they are va...
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Dura mater

The dura mater, also known as the pachymeninx (plural: pachymeninges), is the tough outer layer of the meninges that surrounds the central nervous system and is pierced by the cranial nerves, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries.  Intracranially, it is formed by two layers: ...
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Ear

The ear refers to the entire vestibulocochlear organ and is divided anatomically into: external ear middle ear inner ear
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Ectopic intracaval liver

Ectopic intracaval liver is a very rare congenital abnormality of the liver in which a part of the liver, not contiguous with the liver proper, lies within the inferior vena cava (IVC).  Ectopic hepatic lobes elsewhere have been described rarely as congenital abnormalities, but a location withi...
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Ectopic kidney

An ectopic kidney, also known as renal ectopia, is a congenital renal anomaly characterized by the abnormal location of one or both of the kidneys. They can occur in several forms: cross fused renal ectopia ectopic thoracic kidney pelvic kidney Epidemiology The estimated incidence of an ec...

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