Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

3,048 results found
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Ectopic pancreatic tissue

Ectopic pancreatic tissue, also known as heterotopic pancreatic tissue, refers to the presence of pancreatic tissue in the submucosal, muscularis or subserosal layers of the luminal gastrointestinal tract outside the normal confines of the pancreas and lacking any anatomic or vascular connection...
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Ectopic posterior pituitary

An ectopic posterior pituitary reflects a disruption of normal embryogenesis of the posterior pituitary and is one of the more common causes of pituitary dwarfism. Although it can be an isolated abnormality, numerous other congenital central nervous system malformations have been identified. Whe...
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Ectopic thyroid

An ectopic thyroid gland is one which is located in a location other than the normal position anterior to the laryngeal cartilages. Terminology Ectopic tissue refers to the gland located outside its normal anatomical position whereas accessory tissue refers to extra tissue located remote from ...
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Edinger-Westphal nucleus

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is a small parasympathetic motor nucleus in the midbrain and one of the two nuclei for the oculomotor nerve. It is one of the cranial nerve nuclei. Gross Anatomy The nucleus is located in the central midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus ventral and medi...
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Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid. Gross anatomy Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens and is approximately 2 cm long. The ducts course ...
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules of the testes E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Elbow

The elbow is a complex synovial joint formed by the articulations of the humerus, the radius, and the ulna.  Gross anatomy Articulations The elbow joint is made up of three articulations 2,3: radiohumeral: capitellum of the humerus with the radial head ulnohumeral: trochlea of the humerus w...
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Elbow bursae

The elbow bursae are a collection of synovial-lined bursae that exist around the elbow.  They can be divided into bursae around the olecranon and in the cubital fossa. Olecranon bursae superficial olecranon bursa: lies between the olecranon and the subcutaneous tissue. subtendinous olecranon ...
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Elbow ossification

Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicondylar fracture for a normal ossification center.  Appearance Order The order of appearances of the elbow o...
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Eleventh rib

The atypical 11th rib is one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 11th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T11 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. The angle is slight. Its costal groove is shallow. The internal surface of this rib faces slightl...
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Elster's rule (pituitary gland)

Elster's rule provides a guide to the expected approximate pituitary gland height in relation to age 1. The rule follows an even-numbered pattern of 6, 8, 10, and 12 1: 6 mm pituitary gland height in infants and children 8 mm pituitary gland height in men and postmenopausal women 10 mm pituit...
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Emissary veins

Emissary veins (also known as the vena emissaria) are veins which pass through foramina in the skull to provide a venous communication between the dural venous sinuses and veins of the scalp or veins inferior to the skull base (cranial-cerebral anastomosis). They are thin-walled and valveless. ...
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Empty sella

An empty sella, also known as an empty pituitary fossa, is a relatively common incidental finding and posed more of a diagnostic problem before modern cross-sectional imaging. In addition to being incidental, a well-established association with idiopathic intracranial hypertension is also recogn...
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Endocardium

The endocardium defines the inner soft tissue lining oft he heart within the cardiac chambers and constitutes the superficial surface of the cardiac valves. It apparently serves as a regulatory mechanism on myocardial contractility. Gross anatomy The endocardium represents the inner layer of t...
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Endochondral ossification

Endochondral ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) with a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures. Bone formation occurs at ossification centers, which are either primary or secondary: primary ossification cent...
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Endolymph

Endolymph is one of the two types of cochlear fluids, the other being perilymph. It is located in the scala media of the cochlea. It is secreted by the stria vascularis (also colloquially called the 'battery of the cochlea') on the outer wall of the scala media. It has a high level of potassium...
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Endolymphatic duct

The endolymphatic duct is a small epithelial-lined channel, part of the membranous labyrinth that passes through the vestibular aqueduct in the bony labyrinth of the petrous temporal bone. It arises from the utricle and saccule via the utriculosaccule duct and drains endolymph. The distal end is...
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Endometrium

The endometrium refers to the inner lining of the uterine lumen, composed of endometrial glands surrounded by loose highly cellular connective tissue. Gross anatomy Layers In women of reproductive age, the endometrium is composed of two layers: stratum basale (basal layer): describes the de...
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Endopelvic fascia

The endopelvic fascia is the enveloping connective tissue network for the pelvic viscera, suspending, supporting and fusing the pelvic organs to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis, which itself inserts onto the pelvic sidewalls and pubic bones. The major anterior component is the pubovesical li...
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Enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a general term that refers to the vast network of neurons that supply the gastrointestinal system. It is part of the autonomic nervous system and allows the gastrointestinal system to act independently from the brain and spinal cord.
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Enthesis

An enthesis (plural: entheses), also known as a footprint, generally refers to the anatomic junction where connective tissue (e.g. ligament, tendon, joint capsule, bursa or a combination thereof) attach to bone. Enthesis are commonly classified into two types 1: fibrous fibrocartilage Histol...
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Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (plural: cortices) (a.k.a. Brodmann area 28) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and acts as the interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex. It has been considered part of the hippocampal formation (along with Ammon’s horn, subiculum and presubiculum), but is di...
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Eparterial bronchus

The eparterial bronchus is a synonymous term for the right superior lobar bronchus. Its name is derived from the bronchus being the only one originating superior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, all other bronchi can be referred to by their anatomical relationship to the pulmona...
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Ependymal cells

Ependymal cells are one of the four main types of glial cells, and themselves encompass three types of cells 1:  ependymocytes: line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord tanycytes: line the floor of the third ventricle overlying the median eminence of the hypothalam...
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Ependymocytes

Ependymocytes are one of the three types of ependymal cells, which in turn are one of the four principles types of glial cells, and are found lining the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord 1.  They do not form a water-tight barrier between the cerebrospinal ...
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Epicardium

The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium and forms the outer layer of the cardiac wall. Gross anatomy The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium, envelopes the heart, contains a variable amount of epicedial fatty tissue adjoining the myocardium at its ou...
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Epididymal appendix

Epididymal appendices, also known as appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis, are an testicular appendage found at the head of the epididymis 1. They represent a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct). In 78% of the cases, it has a stalk configuration and is thus...
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Epididymis

The epididymis (plural: epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testis within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens. Gross anatomy The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to the testis. It can be su...
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Epidural ligaments

The epidural ligaments, also known as meningovertebral ligaments, are variably thick bands of connective tissue located within the spinal epidural space attaching the outer surface of the theca to the inner borders of the spinal canal (vertebrae and ligaments).  They are somewhat variable in nu...
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Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a single midline leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx.  Gross anatomy The epiglottis projects posterosuperiorly from its stem-like base, which is attached to the thyroid...
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Epiphysis

The epiphyses (singular: epiphysis) are the rounded portions at the ends of a bone separated from the metaphysis by the physis. The epiphysis contributes to a joint, compared with an apophysis which is a site of tendon or ligament attachment. Once the growth plate has fused, the epiphysis and me...
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Epiploic appendage

Epiploic appendages (or appendix epiploica, plural: appendices epiploicae) are peritoneum-lined protrusions of subserosal fat that arise from the surface of the large bowel.  Gross anatomy Epiploic appendages typically measure 1.5 x 3.5 cm but have been reported to measure up to 15 cm in lengt...
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Epiploic foramen

The epiploic foramen (also called the foramen of Winslow) is a passage between the greater sac (peritoneal cavity proper) and the lesser sac (omental bursa), allowing communication between these two spaces. Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: the free edge of the lesser omentum, known as the h...
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Epipyramis

Epipyramis also knows as os epitriquetrum is an accessory ossicle of the wrist. It is a small pyramidal shaped ossicle seen in the medial intercarpal space between lunate, triquetral, capitate and hamate bones. It is one of the rare accessory ossicles of the wrist and can be mistaken for a fract...
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Episternal ossicles

Episternal (or suprasternal) ossicles are accessory bones and a normal variant of the sternum. They result from supernumerary ossification centers and are seen in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population. Gross anatomy Episternal ossicles are usually located posterior or superior to the superior bor...
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Epithalamus

The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon that includes the habenula, stria medullaris, pineal gland, and posterior commissure. Its function is the connection between the limbic system to other parts of the brain.
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Epitransverse process of the atlas

Epitransverse process is a rare anatomical variant of the atlas, consisting of a bony exostosis which extends cephalad from the transverse process of the atlas to articulate with the occipital bone. This process sometimes meets with a paracondylar process from the occipital bone, forming a pseud...
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Epitympanum

The epitympanum, also known as the attic or epitympanic recess, is the most superior portion of the tympanic cavity. It is that portion of the tympanic cavity superior to the axial plane between the tip of the scutum and the tympanic segment of the facial nerve 1,3. Posteriorly the epitympanum ...
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Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. iliocostalis subgroup is the most lateral longissimus subgroup is between iliocostalis and spinalis spinalis subgroup...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Esophageal lymph node stations

Esophageal lymph node stations are those nodal stations in the neck, chest, and abdomen considered regional (rather than distant) for the purpose of esophageal cancer staging. This list reflects the map provided in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging M...
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Ethmoidal air cells

The ethmoidal air cells, also known less commonly as the ethmoidal sinuses, form one of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses. They are located within the single, midline ethmoid bone. Summary location: between the orbit and the nasal cavity, within the ethmoid labyrinth of the ethmoid bone blo...
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Ethmoid bone

The ethmoid bone is a single midline facial bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain and is located at the roof of the nose and between the orbits. It is a cubical shape and is relatively lightweight because of its spongy construction. It contributes to the anterior cranial fossa. Gr...
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Ethmoid bulla

The ethmoid bulla, also known as bulla ethmoidalis, is the largest and most consistent air cell of the anterior ethmoid air cells. Gross anatomy It is located posterior to the frontal recess and enclosed laterally by the lamina papyracea. It forms the roof of the middle meatus. It can be clas...
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Ethmoid infundibulum

The ethmoid infundibulum is a curved cleft of the ethmoid bone which leads into the anterior portion of the hiatus semilunaris. It is bordered medially by the uncinate process and laterally by the orbital plate of the ethmoid. The infundibulum is often continuous with the frontal recess into whi...
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Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube, also known as the pharyngotympanic tube or auditory tube, is the channel via which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. Gross anatomy It is ~36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sag...
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Eustachian valve

The eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.   Incomplete regression of ...
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Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

Extensor carpis radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. It is on...
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Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

Extensor carpis radialis longus (ECRL) muscle is a muscle of the superficial layer in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. It is one of the extrinsic muscles of the h...
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Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle

Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is separated from the extensor digitorum and the extensor digiti minimi muscles by a distinct intermuscular septum. It is the only forearm extensor that lies in its own fibro-...
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Extensor compartments of the wrist

The extensor tendons at the level of the wrist are divided into six extensor compartments that are designated by Roman numerals from lateral to medial 1: I: extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus II: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis III: extensor poll...
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Extensor digiti minimi muscle

Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) muscle is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, and with other extensor muscles arises from a common extensor tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The EDM represents a medial group of superficial extensor ...
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Extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle

The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle is an accessory muscle in the hand and is a normal anatomical variant.  Summary origin: distal radius and posterior radiocarpal ligament insertion: extensor hood of 2nd or 3rd digits (variable) innervation: posterior interosseous nerve actio...
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Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps extend digits 2 through 4. Summary origin: superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion: lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV action: extension of toes II to I...
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Extensor digitorum longus muscle

Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) is a thin muscle situated in the anterior leg lateral to extensor hallucis longus and extends the lateral four toes. Summary origin: upper two thirds of anterior shaft of fibula, superior portion of the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, superior tib...
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Extensor digitorum muscle

Extensor digitorum (ED) muscle, also known as extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle, is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and with other extensor muscles arises from a common tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. It is one of the...
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Extensor expansion

The extensor expansions (also known as the extensor hood or dorsal digital expansion)​ are triangular aponeuroses by which the extensor tendons insert onto the phalanges. Gross anatomy On the dorsal aspect of the fingers, the tendons of the long extensor muscles of the posterior forearm (exten...
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Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps to extend the big toe. Summary origin superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion base of proximal phalanx of great toe action extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe arterial supply dors...
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Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Summary origin: anterior surface of the middle half of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the dist...
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Extensor indicis muscle

The extensor indicis (EI) muscle is an accessory extensor of the 2nd digit. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and its tendon passes through the 4th extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand. Summary origin: poste...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee

The extensor mechanism of the knee comprises: quadriceps muscle quadriceps tendon medial patellar retinaculum lateral patellar retinaculum patella patellar tendon tibial tuberosity Related pathology extensor mechanism of the knee injuries
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Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscle is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis...
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Extensor pollicis longus muscle

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues laterally towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The tendon of EPL defines the ulnar border of t...
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Extensor retinaculum (disambiguation)

The extensor retinaculum can refer to the: extensor retinaculum of the wrist extensor retinaculum of the foot
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Extensor retinaculum (foot)

The extensor retinaculum of the foot is the broad ligamentous sheet located at the dorsal aspect of the foot and consists of the superior and inferior extensor retinacula.  Gross anatomy The superior extensor retinaculum is located proximally to the dorsal aspect of the ankle joint and houses ...
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Extensor retinaculum (wrist)

The extensor retinaculum of the wrist is the broad ligamentous sheet located at the dorsal aspect of the wrist and functions to keep the extensor tendons in alignment and prevent bowstringing during movement. Gross anatomy It is obliquely oriented and attaches proximally to the lateral surface...
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External auditory canal

The external auditory canal (EAC) or external auditory meatus (EAM) extends from the lateral porus acusticus externus medially to the tympanic membrane. Terminology As the term external auditory meatus is variably used to refer to the canal itself or the porus acusticus externus (the round lat...
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External capsule

The external capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain situated between the putamen and claustrum. It is composed of claustrocortical fibers dorsally and the combined mass of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus ventrally. Relationships The putamen se...
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External carotid artery

The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA. Summary origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery course: under the submandibular gland an...
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External ear

The external ear (or outer ear) comprises the auricle (or pinna), the external auditory meatus, and the tympanic membrane ("eardrum"). The auricle concentrates and amplifies sound waves and funnels them through the outer acoustic pore into the external auditory meatus to the tympanic membrane. ...
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External iliac artery

The external iliac artery (EIA) is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery (CIA). Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.  Cou...
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External iliac lymph nodes

The external iliac lymph nodes can be found surrounding the external iliac artery and act as the draining nodes for several regions of the pelvis and lower limb.  Gross anatomy The external iliac lymph nodes lie anterior to the internal iliac lymph nodes and usually form three separate subgrou...
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External iliac vein

The external iliac vein (EIV) is located along the pelvic brim between the inguinal ligament and the sacroiliac joint.  Gross anatomy Origin posterior to inguinal ligament within lacuna vasorum 1 as continuation of femoral vein Termination The external iliac vein unites with the internal il...
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External intercostal muscle

The external (or outermost) intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal space, expanding the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during inspiration. Gross anatomy The external intercostal muscles are the o...
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External jugular vein

The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the scapular region. Gross anatomy Origin The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite within the parotid gland to form the external jugular vein, at the angle of the mandible. Course ...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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External laryngeal nerve

The external laryngeal nerve is one of the two branches of the superior laryngeal nerve and supplies the cricothyroid muscle. Summary origin: arises as the smaller of the two branches of the superior laryngeal nerve at the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone course descends posterio...
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External oblique muscle

The external oblique muscle (EOM) is one of the muscles that forms the anterior abdominal wall. Its free inferior border forms the inguinal ligament, and its aponeurotic part contributes to the anterior wall of the inguinal canal.  Summary origin: outer surface of the shaft of the lower 8 ribs...
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External petrosal nerve

The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers to the middle meningeal artery.
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Extraconal orbital compartment

The extraconal orbital compartment or extraconal space is the space within the orbit outside the musculofascial cone. The base of which is anterior and is formed by the orbital septum that surrounds the equator of the globe. The external sides are formed by the bones of the orbit and their perio...
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Extradural neural axis compartment

Extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC) exists from the tip of the coccyx all the way to the back of the globe, and yet it is relatively unknown as a concept. It is bounded externally by the periosteum of the vertebrae and sacrum inferiorly and the skull superiorly, and the visceral layer of ...
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Extradural space

The extradural (epidural) space is a potential space between the cranial bones and the endosteal layer of the dura mater, which is otherwise adherent to the cranial bone.  Gross anatomy The extradural space is a potential space inside the cranial vault and is not normally appreciable unless th...
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
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Extraocular muscle nerve supply (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the nerve supply to the extraocular muscles: LR6SO4O3 (mock 'chemical formula') Mnemonic The letters represent the extraocular muscles and numbers represent their respective cranial nerve supply: LR6: lateral rectus, innervated by the 6th (abducens) nerve  SO4: superi...
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Extraocular muscles

The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion inferior rectus: depression Arterial supply Muscular...
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Extrapyramidal system

The extrapyramidal system is the part of the motor system involved in modulation and regulation of movement. As its name suggests, it is distinct from the motor fibers that are relayed through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata (corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts). It is composed of nerv...
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Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum; it is a normal anatomic variant. Epidemiology It is found in ~10% of the population 2.  Radiographic features Ultrasound An extrarenal pelvis usually appears dilated, erroneously suggesting...
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Extreme capsule

The extreme capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain that run between the claustrum and insular cortex.
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Extrinsic muscles of the hand

The extrinsic muscles of the hand are muscles that originate outside the hand but insert into structures within the hand 1,2. Most of the extrinsic muscles have their origins within the forearm, with several solely/also originating from the humerus: flexor carpi radialis muscle palmaris longus...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue are a group of 4 muscles of the tongue. They all arise outside the tongue, which is in comparison to the intrinsic muscles of the tongue which are entirely within the tongue with no external attachments. They act to alter the position of the tongue where as th...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonic Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
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Eyebrow

The eyebrows may refer either to: horizontal ridge where the forehead meets the superior eyelid consisting of the five layers of the scalp, i.e. skin, subcutaneous soft tissue, intertwined fibers of the orbicularis oculi and occipitofrontalis muscles, areolar layer and lastly the pericranium of...
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Eyelid

The eyelids cover the eyes, with an upper and lower eyelid on each side, and are covered in front with loose skin and behind with adherent conjunctiva. The lower lids possess very little mobility; lids are closed gently by levator palpebrae superioris muscle fibers and forcefully by the orbicula...

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