Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,283 results found
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Incomplete hippocampal inversion

Incomplete hippocampal inversion describes the situation where the normal inversion of the hippocampus fails to happen during development. Terminology Incomplete hippocampal inversion is the most correct description of this finding. Hippocampal malrotation is a term used by some authors 1 alth...
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Inferior alveolar nerve

The inferior alveolar nerve or inferior dental nerve is a mixed sensory and motor branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve in the pterogomandibular space of the oral cavity. Gross anatomy The inferior alveolar nerve divides off the posterior division ...
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Medial lemniscus

The medial lemniscus, also know as Reil's band, is an ascending bundle of myelinated axons from the gracile and cuneate nuclei after they decussate in the medulla oblongata.  Gross anatomy It is part of the larger dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, important for conveying the sensation fo...
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Intraparietal sulcus

The intraparietal sulcus, together with the post-central sulcus, is one of the two main sulci of the parietal lobe. It runs from the post-central sulcus towards the occipital pole, dividing the lateral parietal lobe into the superior and inferior parietal lobules. The floor of the intraparietal ...
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Pericardiophrenic artery

The pericardiophrenic artery is a branch of the internal thoracic artery that runs to the diaphragm where it anastamoses with both the musculophrenic and superior phrenic arteries. It runs with the phrenic nerve between the pleura and the pericardium, and supplies the pericardium and the diaphra...
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Cervical rib

Cervical rib is a supernumerary or accessory rib arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, and are more common in females. Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anatomic rib variant clinically, because they can caus...
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Glymphatic pathway

The glymphatic pathway has only recently been described and functionally represents the brain’s lymphatic system, although no anatomical structure equivalent to the peripheral lymphatic system is present within the brain parenchyma. It is believed to be a crucial normal homeostatic feature allow...
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Teeth

Teeth can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24.  Gross anatomy There are twenty deciduous (primary) teeth in young children, with ten per jaw and five in each quadrant, which consist of (distal to mesial):...
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Os intermetatarseum

The os intermetatarseum is an uncommon accessory ossicle of the foot occurring in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population.  Clinical presentation It is usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding although it can be a cause of dorsal midfoot pain.  Gross anatomy The os intermetarseum is typical...
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Superior geniculocalcarine tract

The superior geniculocalcarine tract or superior optic radiation, also known by its eponymous name Baum’s loop, is the posterior/superior fibres of the optic radiation. These superior fibres pass dorsally and posteriorly from the lateral geniculate nucleus through the retrolentiform internal cap...
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Superior phrenic arteries

The superior phrenic arteries are small branches arising either side from the lower part of the thoracic aorta just before it passes through the aortic hiatus. They anastamose with the pericardiophrenic and musculophrenic arteries to supply the superior surface of the diaphragm.
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Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal (DJ) flexure or junction is the anatomical border between the duodenum and the jejunum. Gross anatomy The DJ flexure is located anterolateral to the aorta at the level of the upper border of the second lumbar vertebra. It makes a sharp turn anteroinferiorly to become the jej...
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Ethmoidal infundibulum

The ethmoidal infundibulum is a curved cleft of the ethmoid bone which leads into the anterior portion of the hiatus semilunaris. It is bordered medially by the uncinate process and laterally by the orbital plate of the ethmoid. The infundibulum is often continuous with the frontonasal recess in...
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Deep auricular artery

The deep auricular artery is the first named branch of the maxillary artery and passes through the bony or cartilaginous wall of the external acoustic meatus to supply the skin of that canal and part of the tympanic membrane. It can sometimes contribute a small branch to the arterial supply of t...
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Anterior tympanic artery

The anterior tympanic artery is the second named branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. The vessel passes through the petrotympanic fissure to supply the lining of the middle ear and accompanies the chorda tympani in its course.
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Radial recurrent artery

The radial recurrent artery is the largest lateral branch of the radial artery in the forearm, arising just after its origin. It courses proximally on supinator from its origin to form an arterial arcade with the anterior branch (radial collateral artery) of the profunda brachii (deep brachial) ...
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Os epilunate

The os epilunate is an accessory ossicle of the wrist that lies at the dorsal surface of the lunocapitate articulation. For this reason it can be mistaken for a loose body within this articulation 1. Though quite rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of dorsal atraumatic wr...
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Alveoli

The alveoli are tiny hollow air sacs that comprise the basic unit of respiration. Gross Anatomy Alveoli are found within the lung parenchyma and are found at the terminal ends of the respiratory tree, clustered around alveolar sacs and alveolar ducts.  Each alveolus is approximately 0.2 mm in ...
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Sympathetic chain

The sympathetic chain is a component of the autonomic nervous system and is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via the hypothalamus. The overarching function of the sympathetic system is to control the 'fight, fright o...
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Koerner's septum

Koerner's septum is a thin bridge of bone which divides the petrous and squamous portion of the mastoid air cells at the level of the mastoid antrum. It is commonly eroded by middle ear cholesteatomas.
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Inferior labial artery

Inferior labial artery (old name: inferior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is smaller than the superior labial artery. It supplies the lower lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch of the facial arter...
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Superior labial artery

Superior labial artery (old name: superior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is bigger and more serpiginous than the inferior labial artery. It supplies the upper lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch...
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Palatine bone

The palatine bones are paired L-shaped bones joined at the midline. They form the hard palate with the maxillary bones. They also form part of the floor of the nasal cavity (the hard palate separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity).  Gross anatomy The palatine bones are located at the b...
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Os centrale carpi

The os centrale carpi is an accessory ossicle of the wrist positioned dorsally between the scaphoid, the trapezoid and the capitate bones 1. As with most other accessory ossicles of the wrist, the os centrale carpi is a rare finding on imaging and is in the majority of cases an asymptomatic norm...
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Mental nerve

The mental nerve is one of the two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It emerges from the mandibular canal anteriorly through the mental foramen and supplies the labial gingiva of the lower lip ...
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Mandibular foramen

The mandibular foramen or inferior alveolar foramen is located on medial surface of ramus of the mandible and is the entrance to the mandibular canal. It transmits inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve that supplies all the...
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Mandibular canal

The mandibular canal is located within the internal aspect of the mandible and contains the inferior alveolar nerve, artery and the vein. It starts at the mandibular foramen, on the lingual side of the ramus, continues on buccal surface of body of the mandible and ends at the mental foramen, adj...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
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Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the cerebrum or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foraminae rather than through the spine.  Cerebrum The first and second cranial nerves derive from the telencephalon and diencephalon respectively ...
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Nasal concha

The nasal conchae or turbinates are long, narrow curled shelves of bone that protrude into the nasal cavity. The superior, middle and inferior conchae divide the nasal cavity into four groove-like air passages. Their position and relationship to other important anatomic landmarks are extremely i...
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Tensor fasciae suralis muscle

The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is an uncommon accessory muscle in the popliteal fossa. It can be an unusual cause of a popliteal fossa soft-tissue swelling or mass.  Summary origin: may arise from the distal aspect of any of the hamstring muscles, in the majority of reported cases it origin...
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Abdominal surface anatomy

The abdomen, when looking from in front, is divided into nine regions by imaginary planes (two vertical and two horizontal) forming abdominal surface anatomy. The nine regions are of clinical importance when examining and describing pathologies related to the abdomen. The horizontal planes are o...
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Cloquet's canal

Cloquet's canal, also known as the hyaloid canal or Stilling's canal, is a transparent canal that runs from the optic nerve disc to the lens traversing the vitreous body. It serves as a perivascular sheath surrounding the hyaloid artery in the embryonic eye.
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...
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Foveola pharyngica recess

A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2. 
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Inferior median clival canal

The inferior median clival canal also known as the canalis basilaris medianus is a rare anatomical variant of the clivus, which passes in the sagittal plane from the intracranial surface of the clivus to its retropharyngeal surface. It is generally thought to represent a remnant of the notocord....
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Arcuate line

The arcuate line is located at roughly one-third of the distance from the pubic crest to the umbilicus. It is the demarcation where the internal oblique and transversus abdominis aponeuroses of the rectus sheath start to pass anteriorly to the rectus abdominis muscle, leaving only the transversa...
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Semilunar line

The semilunar line, linea semilunaris or Spigelian line is a bilateral vertical curved line in the anterior abdominal wall where the layers of the rectus sheath fuse lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle and medial to the oblique muscles. Related pathology It is the site of a Spigelian hernia.
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Accessory soleus muscle

The accessory soleus muscle is an anatomical variant characterised by an additional distinct muscle encountered along a normal soleus muscle. It is uncommon with a prevalence of ~3% (range 0.7-5.5%). Summary origin: fibula, soleal line of the tibia, or the anterior surface of the soleus muscle...
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Orbicularis oculi

Orbicularis oculi are facial muscles, a ring-like muscle functioning in a number of eyelid movements. Gross anatomy The orbicularis oculi are made up of three parts the orbital, palpebral and lacrimal parts. Each has defined actions.  The orbicularis oculi are secured to the medial and latera...
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Paradoxical middle turbinate

Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rare developmental cause of nasal obstruction. It refers to an inferomedially curved middle turbinate edge with the concave surface facing the nasal septum and usually occurs bilaterally. Epidemiology Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rarely encountered anomal...
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Superior nasal concha

The superior nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is a bony projection on the posterior surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid.
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Middle nasal concha

The middle nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose. Gross anatomy It consists of the medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid which is a thin lamella that descends from the under surface of the cribriform plate, and ends in a free, convoluted margin. It is rough, and mar...
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Inferior nasal concha

The inferior nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose. Gross anatomy It extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity and consists of a lamina of spongy bone, curled upon itself like a scroll. Each inferior nasal concha is considered a pair of facial bones ...
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Posterior cervical space

The posterior cervical space is one of the fat filled deep spaces of the neck located posterolaterally. Gross Anatomy Location posterolateral part of the neck extending from the mastoid tip and base of skull to the clavicles 1,2 most of the volume is in the infrahyoid neck, with some extensi...
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Deep spaces of the head and neck

Head and neck anatomy is described in slightly different terms in the radiology literature reflecting the importance of fascia lined spaces in confining various pathologies. As such the neck has been divided into a number of 'deep spaces' which overlap with traditional anatomical description. A...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and...
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Ostiomeatal complex

The ostiomeatal complex (OMC) or ostiomeatal unit (OMU), sometimes less correctly spelled as osteomeatal complex, is a common channel that links the frontal sinus, anterior ethmoid air cells and the maxillary sinus to the middle meatus allowing airflow and mucociliary drainage.  Gross anatomy ...
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Semicircular canals

The semicircular canals are components of the bony labyrinth along with the cochlea and vestibule.  Gross anatomy There are three semicircular canals on each side: superior semicircular canal: vertical plane posterior semicircular canal: vertical plane lateral semicircular canal: 30 degrees...
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Sternum

The sternum completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphoid process or xiphisternum. These articulations are via a hyaline cartilage with a fibrocartilaginous intervening disc:  the manubrium i...
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Tegmentovermian angle

The tegmentovermian angle is an important measurable parameter in the assessment of posterior fossa abnormalities in the fetus. The angle is constructed on midsagittal images of the fetal brain, ideally on MRI. The angle is formed by the intersection of the following two lines 1: line 1: along...
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Greater wing of sphenoid

The greater wing or ali-sphenoid of the sphenoid bone is a process which projects from either side of the lower part of the sphenoid body, at a common junction with the pterygoid process. 1 It is a paired structure, which curves upward, backward and laterally from each side of the sphenoid body,...
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Superior accessory fissure

The superior accessory fissure is present in around 5% of individuals examined with CT 4.  Gross anatomy The superior accessory fissure of the right lower lobe is located in the same plane and posterior to the right minor fissure. It separates the right lower lobe into superior and basal segme...
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Vermian lobulation

Evaluation of vermian lobulation is essential in assessment of the vermian maturity. MRI is a useful tool in assessment of the fetal posterior fossa. Normal Vermian lobulation by weeks 1: By 21 weeks - Prepyramidal fissure can be seen between the tuber and pyramis. 21 to 22 weeks - Preculmina...
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First rib

The first rib is the most superior of the twelve ribs. It is an atypical rib and is an important anatomical landmark and is one of the borders of the superior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy Osteology Compared to a typical rib, the first rib is short and thick and it has a single articular f...
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Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The inferior border is thin and sharp.  Osteology Head The head...
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Azygos venous system

The azygos (venous) system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos veins and left superior intercostal vein. It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal v...
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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise from the coronary sinuses immediately distal (superior) to the aortic valve and supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood. They branch and encircle the heart to cover its surface with a lacy network resembling perhaps a slightly crooked crown. Gross anatomy The ty...
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Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
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Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation refers to the embryological development of male and female phenotypes. Unlike sexual genotype which is determined at the time of fertilisation, the male and female phenotypes do not begin to differentiate substantially until the seventh week of gestation.  Males  Y chrom...
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Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood...
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Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a roughly 2 mm length region where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type.  This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm...
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Hallux sesamoid

The hallux sesamoid bones are paired ossicles of the foot. They function as a fulcrum to increase the leverage of both flexor hallucis brevis and longus.  Gross anatomy The hallux sesamoids are ovoid-shaped ossicles. There is a medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) hallux sesamoid and are embe...
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Nasion

The nasion is the midline bony depression between eyes where the frontal and two nasal bones meet, just below the glabella. It is also known as the bridge of the nose. It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement.
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Maxillary ostium

The maxillary ostium or maxillary hiatus is an opening that forms the drainage channel of the maxillary sinus and is also one of the components of the ostiomeatal unit. It is located posteriorly and medially near the roof of the maxillary sinus measuring approximately 2-4 mm. It drains into the ...
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Anterior talofibular ligament

The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is part of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle. Its role is to stabilise the talus. It is also the weakest of the lateral collateral ankle ligaments.  Gross anatomy The ATFL is an intra-capsular flat two-banded ligament that arises from...
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Duplication of inferior vena cava

Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognised, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1-2. Epidemiology The incidence of inferior vena caval duplicat...
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Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
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Greater (descending) palatine artery

The greater (descending) palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery which passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply most of the hard palate. Gross anatomy After branching off from the third (pterygopalatine) part of the maxillary artery, the greater palat...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Intermetatarsal joint

The intermetatarsal joints are strong interosseous ligaments between the second to fifth metatarsals and serve to maintain the lateral integrity of the forefoot.  Gross anatomy The intermetatarsal ligaments are present between the second to fifth metatarsal. There is no ligament between the se...
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Recurrent laryngeal nerve

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), also know as the inferior laryngeal nerve, is a branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) which has a characteristic loop around the right subclavian artery on the right and the aortic arch on the left before returning up to achieve the tracheoesophageal groove and th...
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Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in the TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow trac...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum beh...
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Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or chiasma is the midline structure where the nasal (medial) fibres of the optic nerves decussate to continue posteriorly as the optic tracts. It lies in the chiasmatic cistern and along with the pituitary stalk, is completely encircled by the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy R...
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Cartilaginous joints

Cartilaginous joints are a type of joint where the bones are entirely joined by cartilage, either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. These joints generally allow more movement than fibrous joints but less movement than synovial joints.  Primary cartilaginous joint  These cartilaginous joints...
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Joints

Joints, also known as articulations, are a form of connection between bones. They provide stability to the skeletal system as well as allowing for specialised movement. Gross anatomy Joints can be classified into three broad types according to the tissue that binds them.  Structural types fi...
Article

Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. ...
Article

Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
Article

Pterygopalatine fossa

The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is a small but complex space of the deep face in the shape of an inverted pyramid located between the maxillary bone anteriorly, the pterygoid process posteriorly and inferior to the orbital apex. It is quite important as it is a neurovascular crossroad of the nas...
Article

Bronchial vein

The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries and drain the bronchi, hilar structures and the mid-portion of the oesophagus. Gross anatomy There is typically a single bronchial vein at each hilum, formed from the superficial bronchial veins with deep bronchial veins draining i...
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Hippocampal sulcus remnant cyst

Hippocampal sulcus remnant cysts are remnants of incomplete involution of the embryonic hippocampal fissure and are an incidental finding.   Epidemiology They are seen in ~25% (range 10-40%) of the adult population 1,3. Radiographic features MRI They consist of small (1-2 mm) cystic lesions...
Article

Transverse sinus

The transverse sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the superior sagittal sinus, the occipital sinus and the straight sinus, and empties into the sigmoid sinus which in turn reaches the jugular bulb. The two transverse sinuses arise at the confluence of the three aforementioned s...
Article

Movements of the spine

Movements of the spine are possible due to intervertebral discs, and with the fulcrum of movement occurring primarily around the nucleus pulposus. Specialized motion occurs at the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints, which do not contain a disc. The spine (vertebral column) forms the cent...
Article

Nervus intermedius

The nervus intermedius, also known as intermediate nerve of Wrisberg, is a part of the facial nerve (CN VII) which contains somatic sensory, special sensory, and visceral motor (secretomotor) fibres 1. Gross anatomy Nuclei superior salivary nucleus parasympathetic supply to the lacrimal and ...
Article

Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate ganglion contains fibres for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tympanic segment...
Article

Right lower lobe superior segment

The right lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right lower lobe, posteroinferior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and posterior segment of the right upper lobe. Related ...
Article

Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid, retropharyngeal space, and occipital nodes.  Level I   below myloh...
Article

Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues medially towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The tendon of EPL defines the ulnar border of the Anato...
Article

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged co...
Article

Interscalar septum

The interscalar septum is a thin bony plate that separates each turn of the cochlea 1. It radiates from the modiolus laterally to the spiral ligament 2. Vessels (venules, arterioles and capillaries) run within the septum through bony canals 2. Related pathology Partial absence of the intersca...

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