Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,355 results found
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Tarsal bones

The tarsal bones are the seven bones of the foot excluding the metatarsals and phalanges. They are collectively known as the tarsus. The seven bones are: talus calcaneus navicular cuboid lateral cuneiform intermediate cuneiform medial cuneiform There are several mnemonics for the tarsals.
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Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
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Tarsal coalition

Tarsal coalition describes the complete or partial union between two or more bones in the midfoot and hindfoot. Tarsal coalition refers to developmental fusion rather than fusion that is acquired secondary to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, trauma or post-surgical. Epidemiology It occ...
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Tarsal sinus

The tarsal sinus (or sinus tarsi) is a cylindrical cavity located between the talus and calcaneus on the lateral aspect of the foot. MRI is the investigation of choice for evaluating the tarsal sinus structures. Gross anatomy The tarsal sinus is situated on the lateral side of the foot; distal...
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Tarsal tunnel

The tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Boundaries roof: flexor retinaculum floor: medial surfaces of the tibia, talus and calcaneus 1, 2 Contents From anterior to posterior:  tibialis posterior tendon flexor digitorum longus tend...
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Tectorial membrane of the spine

The tectorial membrane is the thin superior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament from the body of the axis. It joins the axis body to the clivus on the anterior half of the foramen magnum, and ascends as high as the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and laterally extends to the hypog...
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Teeth

Teeth can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24.  Gross anatomy There are twenty deciduous (primary) teeth in young children, with ten per jaw and five in each quadrant, which consist of (distal to mesial):...
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Tegmentovermian angle

The tegmentovermian angle is an important measurable parameter in the assessment of posterior fossa abnormalities in the fetus. The angle is constructed on midsagittal images of the fetal brain, ideally on MRI. The angle is formed by the intersection of the following two lines 1: line 1: along...
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Tegmentum

The tegmentum (Latin: "hood") is one of the areas of the brainstem. It is a phylogenetically old part of the brainstem and in adults, is the location of the brainstem nuclei.  In the midbrain, it sits between the quadrigeminal plate and cerebral peduncles. In the pons, it is posterior to the ba...
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Tela choroidea

The tela choroidea is the thin, highly vascularised, loose connective tissue portion of pia mater that gives rise to the choroid plexus. Thus, it is basically the lamina propria of the ependyma and lies directly adherent to it, without any tissue in between the two 6. Gross anatomy Being part ...
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Temporal bone

The temporal bone is situated on the sides and the base of the cranium and lateral to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum. The temporal bone is one of the most important calvarial and skull base bones. The temporal bone is very complex and consists of five parts: squamous part mastoid part petr...
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Temporal fossa

The temporal fossa is located in the temporal region and communicates inferiorly with infratemporal fossa deep to the zygomatic arch. Gross anatomy The temporal fossa is bounded by a few anatomical landmarks, anteriorly the frontal process of the zygomatic bone, superiorly and posteriorly the...
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Temporalis muscle

The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. It is responsible for both closing the mouth and retraction (posterior fibres). Summary origin: temporal fossa between the infratemporal crest and inferior temporal line insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible innervation:...
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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four lobes of the brain (along with the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe), and largely occupies the middle cranial fossa. Gross anatomy The temporal lobe lobe is the second largest lobe, after the larger frontal lobe, accounting 22% of the total n...
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Temporal pole

The temporal pole is an anatomical landmark that corresponds to the anterior end of the temporal lobe, lying in the middle cranial fossa.  It corresponds to Brodmann area 38 and has strong connections with the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex, and is sometimes recognised as a component of...
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Temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an atypical synovial joint located between the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular eminence of the temporal bone. It is divided into superior discotemporal space and inferior discomandibular space by the TMJ disc (or menisc...
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Temporopolar artery

The temporopolar artery is usually a dorsolateral branch from the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and supplies the polar and anterolateral portions of the temporal lobe.  This artery may arise as a branch from the anterior temporal artery 1.  
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Temporozygomatic suture

The  temporozygomatic suture (or zygomaticotemporal suture) is between the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. It can mimic a zygoma fracture.
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Tendinous ring

The tendinous ring, also known as the annulus of Zinn, is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). The tendinous ring straddles the superior orbital fissure and through it (from superior to inferior) pass: superior division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) nasocilia...
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Tenon capsule

The Tenon capsule, also known as fascia bulbi or bulbar sheath, functions as an extraocular muscle pulley. It also provides a socket which separates the globe from the surrounding fat and allows free movement. It merges posteriorly with the dural sheath of the optic nerve and extends anteriorly ...
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Tensor fasciae latae muscle

The tensor fasciae latae muscle is the most anterior of the superficial group of muscles in the gluteal region and overlies the gluteus minimus and the anterior part of the gluteus medius. Summary origin: lateral aspect of crest of ilium between anterior superior iliac spine and tubercle of cr...
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Tensor fasciae suralis muscle

The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is an uncommon accessory muscle in the popliteal fossa. It can be an unusual cause of a popliteal fossa soft-tissue swelling or mass.  Summary origin: may arise from the distal aspect of any of the hamstring muscles, in the majority of reported cases it origin...
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Tensor tympani

The tensor tympani is a short muscle in the middle ear that arises from the superior surface of the cartilaginous part of the Eustachian tube, the greater wing of the sphenoid, and the petrous part of the temporal bone. It passes across the tympanic cavity and inserts into the upper end of the h...
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Tensor veli palatini

The tensor veli palatini is one of the 5 paired muscles of the soft palate. It is triangular in shape and it's tendon wraps around the pulley of pterygoid hamulus to alter the shape of the soft palate. Summary origin: it has 3 sites of origin: scaphoid fossa of the medial pterygoid plate med...
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Tentorial nerve

The tentorial nerve is the first branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Va) which is the dominate dural nerve supplying most of the supratentorial dura. It specifically supplies the falx, calvarial dura and superior surface of the tentorium.
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Tentorium cerebelli

The tentorium cerebelli is the second largest dural fold after the falx cerebri. It lies in the axial plane attached perpendicularly to the falx cerebri and divides the cranial cavity into supratentorial and infratentorial compartments 1. It contains free and attached margins 2. Gross anatomy ...
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Teres major

Teres major is one of the seven scapulohumeral muscles that act around the glenohumeral joint to facilitate shoulder movement. Summary origin: caudal two thirds of lateral border and inferior angle of scapula insertion: medial border of the intertubercular goove, which is the crest of lesser ...
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Teres minor

Teres minor is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, the others being: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. Summary origin: lateral border of the scapula insertion: greater tuberosity of the humerus innervation: axillary nerve (C5-6) arterial supply: circumflex ...
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Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles, are confusingly named, as they not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions from ...
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Terminal ductal lobular unit

Each breast lobe is drained by a collecting duct terminating in the nipple. The collecting duct has several branches, which ends in a terminal ductal-lobular unit (TDLU), the basic functional and histopathological unit of the breast. The TDLU is composed of a small segment of the terminal duct a...
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Terminal ileum

The terminal ileum is the most distal segment of small bowel. It immediately precedes the small bowel's connection with the colon through the ileocaecal valve. It is of particular interest since a number of infectious and inflammatory processes preferentially involve the segment. location: the ...
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Terminal tuft

The terminal tuft is the most distal part of a distal phalanx, and comprises of the flared bone distal to the shaft. Related pathology acro-osteolysis spade phalanx sign terminal tuft masses osteomyelitis as it is close to the nail, pathology or injuries of one can affect the other
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Terminologia Anatomica

The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature in humans 1. The publication of the second edition is imminent.  The standard anatomical terms are from Latin and Ancient Greek roots. The English edition of the terminologia anatomica provides the ...
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Testes

The testes (singular "testis" or "testicle") are the male gonads and contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 cc volume at puberty 1. Norm...
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Testicular appendages

Testicular and epididymal appendages are remnants of embryonic ducts and are quite common, with one or more being present in ~70% of patients 1. Gross anatomy Four such appendages have been described: testicular appendix (hydatid of Morgagni) it is a Müllerian duct remnant (paramesonephric d...
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Testicular appendix

A testicular appendix (alternatively called appendix of testis or appendix testis) represents a developmental remnant of the paramesonephric duct (Müllerian duct) which is situated in the upper pole of the testis inside a groove between the testicle and the head of epididymis 1. Epidemiology T...
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Testicular arteries

The testicular arteries (also known as the spermatic arteries) are the long, small-diameter gonadal arteries in the male that supply the testis alongside the cremasteric artery and the artery to the ductus deferens.  Gross anatomy Origin As paired structures they arise symmetrically, slightly...
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Testicular descent

Testicular descent occurs after the fourth month of fetal life. The testes are derived from the gonadal ridge medial to the mesonephric ridge of the intermediate cell mass. An elongated diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity, the processus vaginalis precedes the testis through the inguinal canal ...
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Thalamostriate veins

Thalamostriate veins are formed by the joining of anterior caudate vein and the vein of stria terminalis. They join the septal veins and form internal cerebral veins. Related pathology The thalamostriate veins can be compressed in preterm neonates who have had germinal matrix haemorrhage. This...
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Thalamus

The thalamus is the largest of the structures comprising the diencephalon. Role The thalamus acts as a relay centre, receiving and distributing information between the peripheries and higher centres such as the cerebral cortices. It contributes to functions such as: consciousness sleep memo...
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Thigh

Thigh refers to the portion of the lower limb between the hip and knee joints. Note that in an anatomical context "leg" refers to the portion between the knee and ankle joints and not to the entire lower limb.
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Third condyle

The third condyle (also known as condylus tertius or median occipital condyle) is a rare anatomic variant of the occipital condyles. It is a small separate ossicle at the anteromedial margin of the occipital condyle formed by the failure of the embryonic proatlas (4th occipital sclerotome) to un...
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Third ventricle

The third ventricle is one of the four CSF-filled cavities that together comprise the ventricular system. Gross anatomy The third ventricle is a median cleft between the two thalami and is bounded laterally by them and the hypothalamus. Its anterior wall is formed by the lamina terminalis, and...
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Thoracic anatomy

Thoracic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the thoracic cavity.
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Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It ...
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Thoracic cage

The thoracic cage refers to the skeleton of the thorax: thoracic vertebral column 12 pairs of ribs costal cartilages sternum
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Thoracic duct

The thoracic duct is the main lymphatic channel for the return of chyle to the venous system. It drains lymph from both lower limbs, abdomen (except the convex area of the liver), left hemithorax, left upper limb and left face and neck.  Gross anatomy The thoracic duct is the superior continua...
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Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. Supraclavicular Station 1 highest mediastinal nodes: low cervical, supraclavicular, and sternal notch nodes ...
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Thoracic plane

The thoracic plane, also known as the transthoracic plane or the plane of Ludwig is an artificial horizontal plane used to divide the mediastinum into the superior mediastinum and the inferior mediastinum. It is defined as a horizontal line that runs from the manubriosternal joint (sternal angl...
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Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
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Thoracic spine

The thoracic spine forms the middle part of the vertebral column. It extends from below C7 on the cervical spine to above L1 on the lumbar spine. There are 12 thoracic vertebra, termed T1-T12 (some older doctors and texts refer to the dorsal spine and D1-D12).  The thoracic spine is unique due ...
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Thoracoacromial artery

The thoracoacromial artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the axilla. Summary origin: first branch of the second part of the axillary artery 1 location: axilla supply: pectoralis major and minor, anterior part of the deltoid, and dermal sensation overlying the clavipectoral ...
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Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
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Thoracodorsal nerve

The thoracodorsal nerve also known as the middle subscapular or long subscapular nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The thoracodorsal nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with fibres...
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Thymus

The thymus is a T-cell producing lymphoid organ in the anterior mediastinum that plays a role in the development of the immune system, particular the maturation of T-cells. It typically has a retrosternal location and hence can mimic retrosternal pathology. Gross anatomy It is relatively large...
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Thyrocervical trunk

The thyrocervical trunk is one of the 3 branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives of numerous branches to supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles and the scapular anastomosis. The trunk arises lateral to the vertebral artery from the anterosuperior wall...
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Thyroglossal duct

The thyroglossal duct is an epithelium-lined connection between the foramen caecum and the thyroid that develops during the descent of the thyroid. It usually involutes in the 8th-10th week of gestation.  Gross anatomy The thyroglossal duct arises from foramen caecum located at the junction of...
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Thyrohyoid muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. The primary function of the thyrohyoid muscle is to depress and fix the hyoid bone and larynx though it may also raise the larynx when the hyoid bone is fixed. Summary origin: oblique line ...
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Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx, with its superior pole sitting at the level of the C4 vertebrae. Gross Anatomy The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that are fused anteriorly in the median plane to form the laryngeal prominence. Each laminae posses...
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Thyroidea ima artery

The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoracic artery The thyroidea ...
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Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.  Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...
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Tibia

The tibia (plural: tibiae) is the largest bone of the leg and contributes to the knee and ankle joints. (shin- or shank-bone are lay terms). It is medial to and much stronger than the fibula, exceeded in length only by the femur. Gross anatomy Osteology The tibia has a prismoid shaft, expande...
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Tibialis anterior muscle

The tibialis anterior muscle is one of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg involved in dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot. Summary origin: body of the tibia insertion: medial cuneiform and first metatarsal action: dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot arterial supply: an...
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Tibialis posterior muscle

The tibialis posterior muscle is one of the small muscles of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Summary origin: inner posterior borders of the tibia and fibula insertion: navicular and medial cuneiform the tendon splits into two slips after passing inferior to plantar calcaneonavicu...
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Tibial nerve

The tibial nerve is one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve and supplies the leg and foot with motor and sensory supply. Summary origin: the terminal branch of sciatic, at or above the popliteal fossa course: courses straight down the popliteal fossa, passing deep to gastrocnemius t...
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Tibial plateau

The tibial plateau is the proximal articular surface of the tibia. Gross anatomy The tibial plateau is composed of two parts: concave articular surfaces of the oval-shaped medial and circular-shaped lateral tibial condyles (medial and lateral tibial plateaus) the medial tibial plateau is lar...
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Tibiofemoral joint

The tibiofemoral joint is a modified hinge synovial joint between the distal femur and the proximal tibia. Summary articulation: modified hinge joint between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and the tibial condyles joint: knee ligaments: transverse ligament of the knee, medial an...
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Tibioperoneal trunk

The tibioperoneal or TP trunk, which occasionally referred to as the tibiofibular​ trunk is the direct continuation of the popliteal artery in the posterior upper leg after the anterior tibial artery origin. It is a short trunk that bifurcates into two terminal branches. Summary origin: contin...
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Tongue

The tongue is a complex, principally muscular, structure that extends from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. It has important roles in speech, swallowing and taste.  Gross anatomy The tongue has a tip, ventral surface, dorsal surface and root. The tongue is made of a midline lingual septum an...
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Torus tubarius

Torus tubarius or cushion of the auditory canal is a mucosal elevation in the lateral aspect of the nasopharynx, formed by the underlying pharyngeal end of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. The opening of the Eustachian tube is anterior to the torus tobarius. Immediately posterio...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Tracheal bronchus

A tracheal bronchus (with some variations also known as a pig bronchus) is an anatomical variant where an accessory bronchus originates directly from the supracarinal trachea. The latter term (pig bronchus or bronchus suis) is often given when the entire upper lobe (usually right side) is suppli...
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Tracheobronchial branching anomalies

Tracheobronchial branching anomalies can be seen as an isolated finding or accompanying heterotaxy syndromes, pulmonary sling, and conditions associated with pulmonary underdevelopment (agenesis and aplasia), including the scimitar syndrome. Abnormal branching patterns include: right sided iso...
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Tracheobronchial tree

The tracheobronchial tree is the branching tree of airways beginning at the larynx and extending inferiorly and peripherally into the lungs as bronchioles. The luminal diameter decreases as the branching increases more peripherally into the lungs. The walls of the airway down to the level of the...
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Transitional vertebra

Transitional vertebra is one that has indeterminate characteristic and features of vertebrae from adjacent vertebral segments. They occur at the junction between spinal morphological segments: atlanto-occipital junction atlanto-occipital assimilation: complete or partial fusion of C1 and the o...
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Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a roughly 2 mm length region where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type.  This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm...
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Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena-cava (also known as left sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided IVC is important for planning of vascular procedures l...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualised at this level, altho...
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Transversalis fascia

Transversalis fascia is the lining fascia of the anterolateral abdominal wall which lies between the transversus abdominis muscle and peritoneum. Gross anatomy The transversalis fascia, inferior diaphragmatic fascia, pelvic fascia and iliacus fascia  form a continuous lining of the abdominal a...
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Transverse acetabular ligament

The transverse acetabular ligament is part of the labrum but has no cartilage cells. Its strong, flat fibres cross the acetabular notch forming a foramen through which vessels and nerves enter the joint.
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Transverse arch

The transverse arch of the foot is an arch in the coronal plane formed by the three cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the bases of the five metatarsals. They are held together by the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments. The peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons assist in maintaining the curv...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Transverse cervical nerve

The transverse cervical nerve, also known as the superficial cervical nerve, cutaneous cervical nerve or anterior cutaneous cervical nerve of the neck, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin covering the anterior cervical region. Gross anatomy Origin The transve...
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Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the longest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It measures up to 45 cm in length.  Gross anatomy The transverse colon is the continuation of the ascending colon from the right colic flexure. It passes from the right to left hypochondrium in a downward convex p...
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Transverse ligament of the hip

The transverse ligament of the hip bridges the acetabular notch (located anteroinferiorly along the margin of the acetabulum) and joins the two ends of the acetabular labrum, thus forming a complete ring. Beneath it (through the acetabular foramen) pass nutrient vessels which enter the ligamentu...
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Transverse ligament of the knee

The transverse ligament of the knee is a ligament within the anterior aspect of the knee joint. Gross anatomy The transverse ligament is a variable band-like intracapsular knee ligament. It attaches transversely across the anterior aspects of the convex margins of the medial and lateral menisci.
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Transverse mesocolon

The transverse mesocolon is a broad, meso-fold of peritoneum, which connects the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It is continuous with the two posterior layers of the greater omentum, which, after separating to surround the transverse colon, join behind it, and are contin...
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Transverse muscle of the tongue

The transverse muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres attach prox...
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Transverse pericardial sinus

The transverse pericardial sinus is the transverse communication between the left and right parts of the pericardial space proper behind the two outflow arteries of the heart.   Gross anatomy It is superior to the left atrium and posterior to the intrapericardial parts of the pulmonary trunk a...
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Transverse sinus

The transverse sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the superior sagittal sinus, the occipital sinus and the straight sinus, and empties into the sigmoid sinus which in turn reaches the jugular bulb. The two transverse sinuses arise at the confluence of the three aforementioned s...
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Transverse vaginal septum

Transverse vaginal (transvaginal) septum (TVS) is a type of rare congenital utero-vaginal anomaly (class II under the Rock and Adam classification). Epidemiology It is rare with a frequency of 1 in 70,000 females. Clinical presentation In the case of a complete septum, patients commonly pres...
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Transversospinalis group

The transversospinalis group is the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles. These muscles lie between the transverse and spinous processes and are grouped by length of the fascicles, as well as region covered. The groups are rotatores, multifidus, and semispinalis. Gross anatomy Rotatores T...
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Transversus abdominis muscle

The transversus abdominis muscle, named according to the direction of its muscle fibres, is one of the flat muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. It is deep to the internal oblique muscle and ends in the anterior aponeurosis, which ultimately blends with the linea alba.  Summary origi...

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