Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,482 results found
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Superior cerebellar peduncle

The superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) are a paired white matter fibre tracts that connect the cerebellum with the midbrain. The SCP contains vital afferent and efferent fibres including cerebellothalamic, cerebellorubral and ventrospinocerebellar tracts. Radiographic features The superior ce...
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Superior cerebral veins

The superior cerebral veins drain the superior portion of the cerebral cortex. They run up and medially before draining into the superior sagittal sinus. In a proportion of patients, a large such vein connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to the sinus, and is known as the superior anasto...
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Superior epigastric artery

The superior epigastric artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery with the other being the musculophrenic artery.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The superior epigastric artery originates at the level of the sixth or seventh costal cartilage. It descends to the a...
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Superior frontal gyrus

The superior frontal gyrus is the medial most gyrus of the frontal lobe's superolateral surface, running from the the frontal pole anteriorly, all the way to the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus posteriorly. Laterally it is bounded by the superior frontal sulcus, which separates it from t...
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Superior frontal sulcus

The superior frontal sulcus is one of the major sulci of the frontal lobe, separating the superior frontal gyrus medially, from the middle frontal gyrus inferolaterally. It runs posteriorly from the frontal pole, parallel to the interhemispheric fissure, back to the precentral sulcus which it in...
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Superior gemellus muscle

The superior gemellus muscle is a small triangular muscle in the gluteal region that together with the inferior gemellus and obturator internus muscles form the tricipital (three headed) triceps coxae which occupies the space between the piriformis muscle (superiorly) and quadratus femoris muscl...
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Superior geniculocalcarine tract

The superior geniculocalcarine tract or superior optic radiation, also known by its eponymous name Baum’s loop, is the posterior/superior fibres of the optic radiation. These superior fibres pass dorsally and posteriorly from the lateral geniculate nucleus through the retrolentiform internal cap...
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Superior gluteal artery

The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery and supplies structures within the pelvis and gluteal region. Summary origin: from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: originates from pelvis and enters the gluteal region supply: cutaneo...
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Superior gluteal nerve

The superior gluteal nerve is formed from posterior divisions of L4, L5 and S1 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. The nerve supplies branches to the gluteus minimus and medius muscles and terminates by innervating the tensor fasciae latae muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The superior gluteal nerve...
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Superior hypophyseal artery

The superior hypophyseal artery (or arteries) is a branch from the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually a single trunk which then divides into many small branches, which go on to supply: optic nerve optic chiasm pituitary gland (anterior gland) pituitary stalk It is ofte...
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Superior labial artery

Superior labial artery (old name: superior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is bigger and more serpiginous than the inferior labial artery. It supplies the upper lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch...
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Superior laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid muscle. It pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. ...
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Superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue

The superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres ...
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Superior lumbar triangle

The superior lumbar triangle, also known as triangle of Grynfeltt-Lesshaft, is one of the locations for lumbar hernia. Gross anatomy Boundaries medially: the quadratus lumborum muscle  superiorly: twelfth rib   laterally: internal oblique muscle  (see figure 1) floor: transversalis fascia ...
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Superior meatus

The superior meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the superior nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses drain into the superior meatus.​ See also nasal meatus
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Superior mediastinum

Superior mediastinum is an artificially divided wedge-shaped compartment of the mediastinum located between the thoracic plane inferiorly and the thoracic inlet superiorly. The inferior mediastinum, comprising of the anterior, middle and posterior parts, lies inferiorly. Gross anatomy Boundari...
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Superior medullary velum

The superior (or anterior) medullary velum is a thin layer of tissue that is suspended between the superior cerebellar peduncles forming the roof of the fourth ventricle along with the inferior medullary velum. It is enclosed by pia mater dorsally and ependyma ventrally. The lingula of the vermi...
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Superior mesenteric artery

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the midgut. Gross anatomy Origin Single vessel arising anteriorly from the abdominal aorta at the level of L1, usually just below ...
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Superior mesenteric vein

The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) accompanies the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and drains the midgut to the portal venous system. Gross anatomy Origin and course Mesenteric venous arcades, which accompany the arteries, unite to form the jejunal and ileal veins in the small bowel mesenter...
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Superior nasal concha

The superior nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is a bony projection on the posterior surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid. The air passage between the superior nasal concha and the lateral nasal wall is known as the superior meatus.
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Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. Summary innervation: trochlear nerve (CN IV) origin: lesser wing of sphenoid bone and is outside of Annulus of Zinn located supero-medially. inse...
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Superior occipital sulcus

The superior occipital sulcus is a sulcus of the occipital lobe that separates the superior from the middle occipital gyri. It is usually seen as a posterior continuation of the intraparietal sulcus.
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Superior olivary nucleus

The superior olivary nuclei (or complex, SOC) are a group of nuclei within the pons contributing to the ascending and descending auditory pathways. Gross anatomy The superior olivary nuclei are located in the pons, while the inferior olivary nuclei are located in the medulla. It is generally s...
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Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, supratrochle...
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Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
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Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure from superio...
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Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
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Superior parietal lobule

The superior parietal lobule is one of the three subdivisions of the parietal lobe. The other subdivisions include the inferior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus. It is involved with sensorimotor integration 1. Gross anatomy Relations It is separated from the inferior parietal lobule by t...
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Superior petrosal sinus

The superior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the cavernous sinus, posterolaterally to the transverse sinus. It runs along superior aspect of the petrous temporal bone. It receives: cerebellar veins inferior cerebral veins labyrinthine vein: draining the inner ear ...
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Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Its primary action is constriction of the pharynx (in coordination with the middle pharyngeal constrictor and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles) to deliver a bolus of food into the oesophagus. Sum...
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Superior phrenic arteries

The superior phrenic arteries are small branches arising either side from the lower part of the thoracic aorta just before it passes through the aortic hiatus. They anastamose with the pericardiophrenic and musculophrenic arteries to supply the superior surface of the diaphragm.
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Superior pulmonary sulcus

The superior pulmonary sulcus (or just the superior sulcus) refers to an apical pleuro-pulmonary groove formed by the subclavian artery as it curves in front of the pleura runs upward and lateral immediately below the apex. It is a typical location for Pancoast tumours (also known as superior su...
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Superior rectal artery

The superior rectal artery is an artery that supplies bloods to the rectum down to the level of the levator ani 2. Summary origin: the terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery is the superior rectal artery course: descends into the pelvic cavity in the sigmoid mesocolon, crossing the...
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Superior rectus muscle

Superior rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. Summary innervation: superior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: Annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, superior surface) primary function: one of two ocular elevators ...
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Superior sagittal sinus

The superior sagittal sinus is the largest dural venous sinus. As the name suggests, it runs in a sagittal plane from the anterior aspect of the falx cerebri to its termination at the confluence of sinuses at the occipital protuberance, where it usually proceeds rightward and into the right tran...
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Superior salivary nucleus

The superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve is a visceromotor parasympathetic cranial nerve nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum.
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Superior temporal gyrus

The superior temporal gyrus forms the most superior part of the temporal lobe, and has a role in both verbal and non-verbal communication.  Gross anatomy The superior temporal gyrus is situated at the topmost aspect of the temporal lobe, lying inferior to the lateral sulcus and superior to the...
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Superior temporal sulcus

The superior temporal sulcus runs longitudinally along the lateral surface of the temporal lobe, parallel to the Sylvian fissure above and the inferior temporal sulcus below. It separates the superior temporal gyrus from the middle temporal gyrus.  Posteriorly it is capped by the angular gyrus. 
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Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly.  Boundaries posteri...
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Superior thoracic artery

The superior thoracic artery is the only branch of the first part of the axillary artery.  It is only a small and highly variable artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The superior thoracic artery originates from the first part of the axillary artery, just inferior to subclavius. It courses...
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Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies the larynx and thyroid gland. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the hyoid bone branches hyoid artery sterncocleidomastoid branches superior laryngeal artery cricothyroid...
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Superior tibiofibular joint

The superior tibiofibular joint is a synovial joint between the superior aspects of the tibia and fibula and is one of the multiple sites of cartilaginous and fibrous articulation carrying the name of the tibiofibular joint. Gross anatomy Articulation fibula: flat facet of fibular head tibia...
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Superior ulnar collateral artery

The superior ulnar collateral artery is a vessel arising from the brachial artery at the middle part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the brachial artery at the middle part of the arm location: medial lower arm supply: elbow joint main branches: posterior ulnar recurrent artery (anasta...
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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large valveless venous channel formed by the union of the brachiocephalic veins. It receives blood from the upper half of the body (except the heart) and returns it to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The SVC begins behind the lower border of the first right co...
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Superior vena caval duplication

Superior vena caval (SVC) duplication is the most common form of a left-sided SVC, where the normal right-sided SVC remains. The right SVC, however, can be smaller in approximately two-thirds of such cases 3. Pathology Results from failure of the embryonic left anterior cardiac vein to regress...
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Superior vesical artery

The superior vesical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It supplies part of the bladder, ureter, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: superior bladder, ureter, ductus de...
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Superior sublabral sulcus

The superior sublabral sulcus is a normal variant of the superior sublabral recess, which is normally present at the attachment of the biceps tendon to the glenoid labrum. The superior sublabral sulcus has been described as being shallow or deep and may be continuous with a sublabral foramen if...
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Supernumerary kidney

Supernumerary kidneys are a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital system, where there are one or two accessory kidneys. Epidemiology Less than 100 cases are documented.  Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic. If present symptoms range from fever, pain to abdominal mass. Thes...
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Supernumerary nipples

Supernumerary nipples are a common minor congenital malformation that consists of accessory nipples. Supernumerary nipples are located along the embryonic milk lines. Ectopic supernumerary nipples are found beyond the embryonic milk lines. In human beings, the embryonic milk line extends from a...
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Supernumerary teeth

Supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia) are additional teeth that are in addition to the normal number of either primary or permanent teeth. Terminology The term supplemental tooth may be used when the supernumerary tooth resembles its associated normal tooth and the term peridens may be used for an...
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Supinator muscle

The supinator muscle is, as its name suggests, a supinator of the forearm. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and together with brachialis, forms the floor of the cubital fossa. Summary origin: posterior proximal shaft of ulna; lateral epicondyle of hum...
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Supplementary motor area

The supplementary motor area is involved in preparing for voluntary movements carried out by the primary motor area (precentral gyrus). It is located on the medial surface of the frontal lobe, contained within the medial frontal gyrus, just anterior to the paracentral lobule 1. 
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Supra-acetabular fossa

A supra-acetabular fossa, also known as pseudodefect of acetabular cartilage, is an anatomic variant whereby a focal defect is evident within the subchondral bone of the acetabular roof. It is seen in as many as 10% of hips and is typically located at the 12 o'clock position both in the coronal ...
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Suprabullar cells

The suprabullar cells are a subset of variably present frontal recess cells located above the ethmoid bulla. Terminology They are nearly identical to frontal bullar cells. The distinguishing features with the latter are that the suprabullar cells are located entirely below the frontal ostium a...
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Suprabullar recess

The suprabullar recess is a potential opening (cleft) between the bulla lamella and skull base located along the posterior margin of the frontal recess with which it may communicate directly. It is present when the bulla lamella is incomplete superiorly. The term ​sinus lateralis is sometimes u...
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Supraclavicular foramen

The supraclavicular foramen is a normal variant and typically found as an incidental finding on radiographs. It occurs in ~4% (range 2-6%) of the population.  Supraclavicular foramen appear as an osseous tunnel or tunnels, with the most typical position at the superior aspect of the junction of...
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Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes are a paired group of lymph nodes located on either side in the hollow of clavicle close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous system. They oversee the transport of lymph from the thora...
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Supraclavicular nerves

The supraclavicular nerves are three cutaneous nerves that emerge as a common trunk from the cervical plexus before branching to innervate the skin over the upper chest and shoulders.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraclavicular nerves arise from the ventral rami of C3 and C4 spinal nerves, alth...
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Supraclavicular triangle

The supraclavicular triangle is one of the paired triangles in the posterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep sp...
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Supracondylar spur

A supracondylar spur, supracondylar process, supratrochlear spur, or avian spur of the distal anteromedial humeral cortex is an anatomical variant present in ~1% 1,2 of the population.  Gross anatomy The supracondylar spur is typically located on the anteromedial humeral cortex, 5 cm proximal ...
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Supradiaphragmatic liver

Supradiaphragmatic liver has been reported as a very rare variant in liver morphology.  In this variant, liver tissue extends into the right hemithorax through an opening in the right hemidiaphragm. The tissue is connected to the right hepatic lobe by a pedicle. In one report, the caudate lobe ...
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Suprahyoid muscles

The suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles in the neck, named because of their position to the hyoid bone: anterior suprahyoid muscles anterior bellies of digastric muscle mylohyoid muscle geniohyoid muscle posterior suprahyoid muscles posterior bellies of digastric muscle stylohyoid m...
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Supramarginal gyrus

The supramarginal gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other being the angular gyrus. It plays a role in phonological processing and emotional responses. Gross anatomy Relations The supramarginal gyrus is horsesh...
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Supramesocolic space

The supramesocolic space is the peritoneal space above the root of the transverse mesocolon. The inframesocolic space lies below the root of the transverse mesocolon. It can be arbitrarily divided into right and left spaces and subspaces. These are normally in communication with each other, but...
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Supraoptic nucleus

The supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains neurosecretory cells that produce hormones (oxytocin and vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone).  Gross anatomy The supraoptic nucleus is found in the medial area of the anterior hypothalamus, sitting superior to the optic tract 1. The hormones travel down the...
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Supraoptic recess

The supraoptic recess is a small angular recess or diverticulum that sits at the junction of the floor and anterior wall of the third ventricle, immediately above the optic chiasm. Related pathology When the third ventricle is expanded due to hydrocephalus (e.g. aqueduct stenosis) this recess,...
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Supraorbital artery

The supraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplying part of the orbit and face.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraorbital artery originates from the ophthalmic artery, upon branching it lies medial to the optic nerve. Course The supraorbital artery courses superiorly and med...
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Supraorbital cells

Supraorbital air cells are an anatomical variant of the paranasal sinuses. They consist of cells originating from the anterior ethmoid air cells extending posteriorly and superiorly over the orbit from the frontal recess. They may mimic septated frontal sinuses as their posterior wall is the sku...
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Supraorbital foramen

The supraorbital foramen or notch is the small opening at the central edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone just below the superciliary arches that transmits the supra-orbital nerve, artery and vein. It is lateral to the supratrochlear foramen, where the supratrochlear nerve, ...
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Supraorbital nerve

The supraorbital nerve is the lateral and larger of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superior aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit it exits the orbit through the supraorbital notch to supply the conju...
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Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge, also known as the supraorbital margin or superciliary arch is the superior margin of the bony orbit. Part of the frontal bone, the supraorbital ridge contains the supraorbital foramen (or notch). The corrugator supercilii muscles arise from the medial end of the supraorbi...
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Suprapleural membrane

The suprapleural membrane, also known as Sibson fascia, is a dense fascial layer that is attached to the inner border of the first rib and costal cartilage anteriorly, C7 transverse process posteriorly and to the mediastinal pleura medially. It is flat and lies in the oblique plane of the thora...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Suprascapular nerve

The suprascapular nerve is the only branch of the upper trunk (C5 and C6) of the brachial plexus, supplying the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and sensation to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Gross anatomy Origin The suprascapular nerve arises from the upper trunk of t...
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Suprascapular notch

The suprascapular notch is located on the superior aspect of the scapula, at the scapula's anterolateral aspect. Gross anatomy The suprascapular notch separates the superior border of the scapula from the anterior coracoid process.  Relations and/or boundaries The suprascapular nerve passes ...
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Suprasellar cistern

The suprasellar cistern (also known as the chiasmatic cistern or pentagon of basal cisterns) is a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cistern located above the sella turcica, under the hypothalamus and between the uncus of the temporal lobes. It contains the proximal part of Sylvian fissure,  the optic c...
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Supraspinatus muscle and tendon

Supraspinatus is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, the others being: infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis. Summary origin: supraspinous fossa of the scapula insertion: greater tuberosity of the humerus innervation: suprascapular nerve (C5-6) arterial supply: sup...
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Supraspinous ligament

The supraspinous ligament runs along the tips of adjacent spinous processes and is particularly thick in the cervicothoracic region. Above the level C7 spinous process the ligament no longer directly attaches to the spinous process but rather continues as the nuchal ligament up to its attachment...
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Suprasternal space

The suprasternal space (of Burns) is a space of the inferior neck. Gross anatomy Inferior to the hyoid bone, the superficial or investing layer of the deep cervical fascia divides into anterior and posterior leafs to attach to the respective borders of the suprasternal (jugular) notch, forming...
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Suprasternal tubercle

Suprasternal tubercle is a sternal normal variant which forms when a suprasternal ossicle fuses with manubrium 1. It can be unilateral or bilateral. It usually appears as triangular or pyramidal bony projection in continuity with the superior margin of manubrium. It is better depicted in coronal...
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Supratrochlear artery

The supratrochlear artery, also known as the frontal artery, originates from the ophthalmic artery as one of its terminal branches. Gross anatomy After arising from the ophthalmic artery, it pierces the orbital septum and courses in the superior and medial aspect of the orbit, medial to the su...
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Supratrochlear foramen (head)

The supratrochlear foramen is the small opening at the medial edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone that transmitts the supratrochlear nerve, artery and vein. When incomplete, it forms a notch. It is variably present, and when absent the neurovascular bundle will simple exit th...
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Supratrochlear nerve

The supratrochlear nerve is the medial and smaller of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superomedial aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit, it passes over the trochlear and exits the orbit under the sup...
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Supravesical fossa

The supravesical fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the median umbilical fold and the medial umbilical folds. It partially overlies the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The supravesical fossae are usually occupied by small bowel loops and the urinar...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second intercosta...
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Supreme meatus

The supreme meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the supreme nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The ostium of a posterior ethmoidal air cell may be seen in the supreme meatus. Terminology The plural of meatus is meatus (Latin noun of the fourth declension) or ...
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Supreme nasal concha

The supreme nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is a bony projection, arising from the medial surface of the labyrinth of the ethmoid above the superior nasal concha. Its presence is variable and has been reported in up to 52% of subjects 1. The air passage between t...
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Suspensory ligament of the axilla

The suspensory ligament of the axilla is the inferior extension of the clavipectoral fascia on each side of the thorax. Gross anatomy The suspensory ligament of the axilla originates from the inferior border of pectoralis minor, where the 'leaflets' of the clavipectoral fascia have fused again...
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Sustentaculum tali

The sustentaculum tali is a horizontal shelf that arises from the anteromedial portion of the calcaneus. The superior surface is concave and articulates with the middle calcaneal surface of the talus. The inferior surface has a groove for the tendon of flexor hallucis longus. Several ligamentou...
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Sutures

There are many sutures of the skull, which are where skull bones meet. In general, sutures don't fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Sutures are fibrous joints with the periosteum externally and outer la...
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Sylvian cistern

The Sylvian cistern, also known as the insular cistern, is one of the CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy There are two paired cisterns on either side. It is the subarachnoid space extending into the fissure of the frontal and temporal lobes (i.e. the lateral sulcus). It therefore ...
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Sylvian fissure

The Sylvian fissure, also known as the lateral sulcus, separates the frontal and parietal lobes superiorly from the temporal lobe inferiorly. The insular cortex is located immediately deep to the Sylvian fissure.  Anteriorly the fissure courses medially to the 'stem' of the lateral fissure, int...
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Sympathetic chain

The sympathetic chain is a component of the autonomic nervous system and is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via the hypothalamus. The overarching function of the sympathetic system is to control the 'fight, fright o...

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