Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,328 results found
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Twelfth rib

The twelfth rib is an atypical rib. It is the shortest rib, and one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 12th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T12 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. It also lacks a costal groove and angle. internal surface ...
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Tympanic annulus

The tympanic annulus is the thickened edge of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane, anchoring it in the tympanic sulcus 3. Gross anatomy The tympanic annulus is formed by a fibrocartilaginous thickening of the edge of the pars tensa and has a horseshoe-shaped configuration. It is deficient ...
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Tympanic membrane

The tympanic membrane is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. It acts to transmit sound waves from air in the external auditory canal (EAC) to the ossicles of the middle ear. Gross anatomy The tympanic membrane is shaped like a flat cone pointing into the middle...
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Tympanic part of temporal bone

The tympanic part of the temporal bone is situated inferiorly to the squamous part and anteriorly to the mastoid part. The tympanic part surrounds the external auditory meatus, forming the anterior wall, floor and some of the posterior wall of the bony external acoustic meatus. The lateral bord...
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Typical cervical vertebrae

Of the seven cervical vertebrae, C3 through C6 have typical anatomy, while C7 looks very similar. C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) have very distinct anatomical features. For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae. Gross anatomy small, oval-sized vertebral bodi...
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Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The inferior border is thin and sharp.  Osteology Head The head...
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Typical thoracic vertebrae

Given the twelve thoracic vertebrae are largely similar, most are considered typical thoracic vertebrae with the exceptions T1 and T9 to T12. For a basic anatomic description of the structure of typical vertebrae, see vertebrae. Gross anatomy Relative to cervical and lumbar vertebrae, thoracic...
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Ulna

The ulna (plural: ulnae) is one of the two long bones of the forearm. It is located medially in the supinated anatomic position. It has a larger proximal end and tapers to a smaller distal end (opposite to the radius).  Gross anatomy Prominent features of the ulna include: proximal: olecranon...
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Ulnar artery

The ulnar artery is a terminal branch of the brachial artery, arising at the proximal aspect of the forearm. Along with the radial artery, it is one of the main arteries of the forearm.  Summary origin: terminal branch of the brachial artery location: inferior aspect of the cubital fossa sup...
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Ulnar nerve

The ulnar nerve is one of the terminal branches of the brachial plexus and has motor and sensory supply to the forearm and hand. Gross anatomy Origin The ulnar nerve originates as a terminal branch of the medial cord of the brachial plexus with nerve root fibres from C8-T1. Course Arm In t...
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Ulnar vein

The ulnar vein is one of the two major deep veins of the forearm, along with the radial vein. As is usual in the upper and lower limbs, there are often two veins (venae comitantes) that run on either side of the ulnar artery and anastomose freely with each other. It forms in the hand from the d...
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Ulnomeniscal homologue

The ulnomeniscal homologue (UMH) is an obliquely oriented, fibrocartilaginous structure, that forms part of the ulnar collateral ligament complex (ULC). Gross anatomy The UMH is located between the ulnar styloid process and the triquetrum. It adheres to the ulnar joint capsule and merges with ...
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Umbilical artery

The umbilical artery gives rise to both a nonfunctional remnant of the fetal circulation, and an active vessel giving supply to the bladder. In the adult the obliterated area of the vessel is identifiable as the medial umbilical ligament and the patent segment is the superior vesical artery. Su...
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Umbilical cord

The umbilical cord is a fetal organ and connects the placenta to the uterus and is a vital passage for nutrients, oxygen and waste products to and from the fetus.  The umbilical cord inserts into the centre of the placental bulk and into the fetus at the umbilicus. Variations in insertion can o...
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Uncovertebral joint

Uncovertebral joints, also called Luschka’s joints, are seen bilaterally between adjacent cervical vertebrae, identified by the cat ear shaped uncinate processes of the C3-7 vertebrae (C1 and C2 have no uncinate processes). Gross anatomy Articulations The articulation forms between the uncina...
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Uncus

The uncus is the innermost part of the anterior parahippocampal gyrus, part of mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The uncus is the most anterior portion of the medial parahippocampal gyrus. It belongs to the limbic system. Housing the primary olfactory cortex, it is part of the olfactory sys...
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Unfused spinous process

Unfused spinous process, which is really failure of fusion of the neural arch, is a relatively common anatomical variant and is part of the spectrum of spina bifida occulta.  This should be differentiated from accessory ossicles of the spinous process, which appear after non-fusion of the secon...
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Unicornuate uterus

A unicornuate uterus or unicornis unicollis is a type of Mullerian duct anomaly (class II) that is the second most commonly associated with miscarriages.  Epidemiology This type can account for ~10% (range 6-13%) of uterine anomalies and infertility is seen in ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of cases. P...
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Upper limb anatomy

Upper limb anatomy encompasses the anatomy of the shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand.
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Upper subscapular nerve

The upper subscapular nerve, also known as the short or superior subscapular nerve, arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the subscapularis muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The upper subscapular nerve branches from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with fibres...
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Upper T sign

The upper T sign is one of the features useful in identifying the central sulcus on cross-sectional imaging. It relies on identifying the superior frontal sulcus which intersects the precentral sulcus in a "T" junction, thus defining the precentral gyrus. The central sulcus is the next posterio...
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Urachus

The urachus is the fibrous vestigal remnant of the fetal allantois. The lumen of the urachus usually obliterates after birth and it becomes the median umbilical ligament, a midline linear fibrous fold of parietal peritoneum, extending from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. If the lumen...
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Ureter

The ureter is a paired fibromuscular tube that conveys urine from the kidneys in the abdomen to the bladder in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ureter is 25-30 cm long and has three parts: abdominal ureter: from the renal pelvis to the pelvic brim pelvic ureter: from the pelvic brim to the bla...
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Ureteral duplication

Ureteral duplication is the most common congenital abnormality associated with the urinary tract, and occurs in ~1% of the population. Gross anatomy Duplication can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, and may be partial or complete: partially duplicated ureters fuse into a single ureter proxim...
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Ureteric bud

The ureteric bud (also known as the metanephrogenic diverticulum) is a protrusion of the mesonephric duct that appears during the embryological development of urogenital organs. It will eventually form the urinary collecting system (i.e. collecting tubes, calyces, renal pelvis, ureter) of the ki...
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Urethra

The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately: female urethra male urethra
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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extra-peritoneal structure located in the true pelvis. Gross anatomy The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anterior apex and an inferior neck with two inferolatera...
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Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is equitable in both males and females.  It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system. The urinary...
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U sign (central sulcus)

The U sign denotes the characteristic "U" shaped appearance of the subcentral gyrus which surrounds the inferolateral end of the central sulcus and abuts the lateral (Sylvian) fissure. It has been found, at least in one study, to be the most reliable anatomical feature to identify the central su...
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Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
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Uterine artery

The uterine artery is seen bilaterally and is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Gross anatomy Course It runs medially in the pelvis, within the base of the broad ligament, to the outer surface of the uterus. From lateral to medial it has a descending, transverse ...
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Uterine duplication anomalies

Uterine duplication anomalies are a group of Müllerian duct anomalies where fusion of the Müllerian duct associated structures fail to some degree: uterus didelphys: class III bicornuate uterus: class IV (second commonest duplication anomaly) septate uterus: class V (commonest duplication ano...
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Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
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Uterus

The uterus is a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis.   Gross anatomy The uterus has an inverted pear shape. In the adult, it measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness. It weighs ...
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Uvea

The uvea (also called the uveal layer or vascular tunic) is the middle three layers that make up the eye. It is the pigmented layer and its main function is of nutrition and gas exchange. It sits between the retina (innermost layer) and sclera.  It is traditionally split up into three anatomica...
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Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular structure positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the uterus. Th...
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Vaginal artery

The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males. Summary origin: anterior div...
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Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and provides the bulk of the parasympathetic input to the gastrointestinal system and to the heart. It is a complex mixed sensory, motor and parasympathetic nerve.  Gross anatomy Central connections The vagus nerve arises as multiple rootlets at the ...
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Valvulae conniventes

The valvulae conniventes, also known as Kerckring folds, plicae circulares or just small bowel folds, are the mucosal folds of the small intestine, starting from the second part of the duodenum, they are large and thick at the jejunum and considerably decrease in size distally in the ileum to di...
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Variant anatomy of the aortic arch

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch occurs when there is failure of normal aortic development. It results in a number of heterogenous anomalies of the aorta and its branch vessels. Gross anatomy Normally, the aorta ascends in the superior mediastinum to the level of the sternal notch before arc...
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Variant hepatic arterial anatomy

Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the coeliac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.  In general, the common ...
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Variation in placental morphology

There can be several variations in placental morphology. These include: single lobed discoid placenta (single disc): most common scenario bilobed placenta: two near equal size lobes succenturiate lobe(s): one of more smaller accessory lobes circumvallate placenta: rolled placental edges with...
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Vascular anatomical variants

Vascular anatomical variants are common. Aorta variants Thoracic aorta Ascending aorta Aortic arch Descending aorta Abdominal SVC & IVC - variants Intracranial arteries - variants
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Vastus intermedius muscle

The vastus intermedius muscle is one of the 4 quadriceps muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh. The others are the vastus medialis, the vests laterals, and the rectus femoris. Summary origin: upper two thirds of the anterior and lateral surfaces of the femur insertion quadriceps t...
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Vastus lateralis muscle

The vastus lateralis is largest of the four quadriceps muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh. The others are the rectus femoris, the vastus intermedius, and the vastus medialis. Summary origin femur lateral part of intertrochanteric line margin of greater trochanter lateral mar...
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Vastus medialis muscle

The vastus medialis muscle is one of the four quadriceps muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh. The others are the rectus femoris, the vastus intermedius, and the vastus lateralis. Summary origin femur medial part of intertrochanteric line pectineal line medial lip of the linea ...
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Vein of Galen

The vein of Galen, also known as the great cerebral vein or great vein of Galen, is a short trunk formed by the union of the two internal cerebral veins and basal veins of Rosenthal. It lies in the quadrigeminal cistern. It curves backward and upward around the posterior border of the splenium o...
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Vein of Labbé

The vein of Labbé, also known as inferior anastomotic vein, is part of the superficial venous system of the brain.  The vein of Labbé is the largest channel that crosses the temporal lobe between the Sylvian fissure and the transverse sinus and connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to t...
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Vein of Marshall

The vein of Marshall, oblique vein of Marshall or the oblique vein of the left atrium is a small vein that descends on and drains the posterior wall of the left atrium. It drains directly into the coronary sinus at the same end as the great cardiac vein, marking the origin of the sinus. It repr...
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Veins of Sappey

Veins of Sappey are small veins around the falciform ligament that drain the venous blood from the anterior part of the abdominal wall directly into the liver. This flow dilutes the portal perfusion at these sites, causing hepatic pseudolesions. Gross anatomy The superior vein of Sappey drains...
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Velum interpositum

The velum interpositum is a small membrane containing a potential space just above and anterior to the pineal gland which can become enlarged to form a cavum velum interpositum.  Gross anatomy The velum interpositum is formed by an invagination of pia mater forming a triangular membrane the ap...
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Vena caval foramen

The vena caval foramen is one of the three major apertures in the diaphragm. It is the highest of the three and situated at the level of T8-9. It is quadrilateral and placed at the junction of the right and middle leaflets of the central tendon. It transmits several structures between the thora...
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Venae cordis minimae

The venae cordis minimae (smallest cardiac veins or thebesian veins) are a small group of valveless myocardial coronary veins within the walls of each of the 4 cardiac chambers that drain venous blood directly into each of the respective chambers. They are most frequent in the right atrium and t...
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Venous drainage of the thoracic wall

The venous drainage of the thoracic wall drains deoxygenated venous blood from the peripheries of the thoracic cage back into systemic circulation. Gross anatomy Anterior thoracic wall Anterior intercostal veins The anterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just inferio...
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Ventral horn

The ventral horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It contains the cell bodies of the lower motor neurones which have axons leaving via the ventral spinal roots on their way to innervate muscle fibres. Gross anatomy On transverse section o...
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Ventricular system

The ventricular system in the brain is composed of CSF-filled ventricles and their connecting foraminae. CSF is produced by ependymal cells which line the ventricles. They are continuous with the central spinal canal. Ventricles contain around 1/5 of normal adult CSF volume, which is around 20-2...
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Vermian lobulation

Evaluation of vermian lobulation is essential in assessment of the vermian maturity. MRI is a useful tool in assessment of the fetal posterior fossa. Normal Vermian lobulation by weeks 1: By 21 weeks - Prepyramidal fissure can be seen between the tuber and pyramis. 21 to 22 weeks - Preculmina...
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Vermis

Gross anatomy The vermis (pl vermes) of the cerebellum is an unpaired medial structure which separates the cerebellar hemispheres. The neocerebellar posterior lobes join in the midline behind the primary fissure to separate the vermis into superior and inferior portions. The vermis can be furth...
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Vertebra

The vertebra (plural: vertebrae) is the fundamental segmental unit of the vertebral column (also know as the spine). Gross anatomy Vertebrae, apart from those that are atypical, have a similar basic structure which can be described as an anterior vertebral body and a posterior neural (or verte...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
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Vertebral levels (anatomical landmarks)

Many vertebral levels are associated with key anatomical landmarks. Below is a summary of vertebral levels and associated internal or surface anatomy. Vertebral Level: C3 hyoid bone C4 bifurcation of common carotid artery thyroid cartilage  C6 cricoid cartilage trachea begins (end of la...
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Vertebral venous plexus

The vertebral venous plexus is a highly anastomotic network of valveless veins running along the entire length of the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to the sacral hiatus. Gross anatomy The vertebral venous plexus is comprised of three interconnected divisions: internal vertebral ven...
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Vertebra prominens (C7)

C7, also called vertebra prominens, is the seventh cervical vertebra and looks like vertebrae C3-C6, but has some distinct features making it an atypical vertebrae. The name vertebra prominens arises from its long spinous process, which is easily palpable.  Gross anatomy C7 possesses the stand...
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Vertex

The vertex is the midline bony landmark at the most superior part of the calvaria in the standard anatomical position, near the midpoint of the sagittal suture (i.e. between the bregma and lambda). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull m...
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Vertical fissure line in the lung

The vertical fissure line commences in or near the costodiaphragmatic recess and heads superomedially towards the hilum and terminates before or at the horizontal fissure. More commonly occurs on the right and may indicate partial volume loss of the lower lobe 1.
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Vertical muscle of the tongue

The vertical muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres attach proxim...
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Vesico-urachal diverticulum

Vesico-urachal diverticulum is one of the congenital urachal remnant abnormalities. Gross anatomy It is the proximal equivalent of a urachal umbilical sinus, representing a result of the failure of the urachus to close at the urinary bladder, forming an out-pouching of variable length from the...
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Vestibular aqueduct

The vestibular aqueduct is a structure of the inner ear being part of the osseous labyrinth. It contains the endolymphatic duct and sac. It normally has a diameter of ~1.5 mm (similar to the posterior semicircular canal) and runs from the vestibule in a transverse direction to the long axis of t...
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Vestibule

The vestibule is an approximately 4 mm central chamber of the bony labyrinth. It is dominated by depressions housing the: utricle (elliptical recess) saccule (spherical recess) basal end of the cochlear duct (cochlear recess) The cribrose areas have perforations through which the nerve bundl...
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Vickers ligament

Vickers ligament is a ligamentous structure connecting the lunate bone and TFCC to the distal radius and is seen in the vast majority of patients with Madelung deformity 1. Release of this thickened ligament may help in improving symptoms associated with Madelung deformity 2.
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Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
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Vidian nerve

Vidian nerve, also known as the nerve of the pterygoid canal or nerve of the Vidian canal, is so named because of the canal in which is travels: the Vidian canal. It is formed by the confluence of two nerves: greater superfical petrosal nerve (from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) ...
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Visceral space

The visceral space is one of the infrahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck.  Gross anatomy The visceral space extends from the hyoid bone to the superior mediastinum (level of aortic arch / T4), and is surrounded by the middle layers of the deep cervical fascia.  Contents thyroid gland pa...
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Visual system

The visual system transmits visual information from the retina within the eyes to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe as well as the pretectal nuclei and superior colliculi of the midbrain. Gross anatomy Below the visual pathway is described from distal to proximal in a single hemi...
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Vomer

The vomer is one of the facial bones and forms the postero-inferior part of the bony nasal septum. Variant anatomy Occasionally the sphenoid sinus may pneumatise the vomer 2.
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Waldeyer's ring

Waldeyer's ring is a ring of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx and oropharynx at the entrance to the aerodigestive tract. Gross anatomy The structures composing this ring are: palatine tonsils (also called the faucial tonsils) adenoid tonsils (nasopharyngeal tonsils) the lateral ba...
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Wandering spleen

Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen migrates from its usual anatomical position, commonly to the lower abdomen or pelvis. Epidemiology Wandering spleen is rare, with a reported incidence of <0.5%. Diagnosis is most commonly made between ages 20 and 40 and is more common i...
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Ward triangle

Ward triangle refers to a radiolucent area between principle compressive, secondary compressive and primary tensile trabeculae in the neck of femur. It should be differentiated from Babcock triangle. History and etymology Named for F O Ward after his original description of the region in 1838.
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Weigert-Meyer law

The Weigert-Meyer law describes the relationship of the upper and lower renal moieties in duplicated collecting systems to their drainage inferiorly. Weigert-Meyer law With duplex kidney and complete ureteral duplication, the upper renal and lower renal moiety have their own ureters with each ...
Article

Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area (Brodmann area 22) is an area of the posterior temporal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the receptive components of speech. Gross anatomy Wernicke's area is located in the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the posterior commissure line. Relations It is boun...
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Wharton jelly

Wharton jelly refers to the gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. Gross anatomy Wharton jelly is derived from extra-embryonic mesoderm and is largely made up of mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate) while containing smaller amounts of fibroblasts and macropha...
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White matter tracts

White matter tracts, also known as white matter fibres, are classified into three categories: Projection tracts tracts connecting the cortex with other area in the CNS, e.g. deep nuclei, brainstem, cerebellum or spine may be efferent (motor) or afferent tracts (sensory) white matter tracts t...
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White matter tracts of the spinal cord

The spinal cord has numeorus white matter tracts that ascend and descend in the peripheral substance of the cord. They can be divided by their location and function: anterolateral columns anterior corticospinal tract medial longitudinal fasiculus spinothalamic tracts lateral spinothalamic t...
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Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. In both the male and the female the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone of the urinary bladder. Development Female In the female, in...
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Wormian bones

Wormian bones (a.k.a. intrasutural bones) is the name given to the additional small bones sometimes found between the cranial sutures of the bones of the skull vault, most commonly in relation to the lambdoid suture. Some reserve the term Wormian bones to just the intrasutural bones proximate to...
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Xiphisternum

The xiphisternum (also known as the xiphoid process or simply the xiphoid) is the smallest of the three parts of the sternum (manubrium, body or gladiolus and xiphisternum). It arises from the inferior and posterior margin of the sternal body and projects inferiorly. It is a small cartilaginous ...
Article

Zona orbicularis

The zona orbicularis are circular fibres of the hip joint capsule and form a collar around the femoral neck. Though partly blended with the pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments, these fibres are not directly attached to bone. 
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Zuckerkandl tubercle

Zuckerkandl tubercle is a normal variant of the thyroid and may be mistaken for a thyroid nodule, mass or lymph node. It is a projection of normal thyroid tissue from the posterior aspect of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland.  The tubercle is also an important surgical landmark due to its ...
Article

Zygoma

The zygoma (or zygomatic bone) is an important facial bone which forms the prominence of the cheek. It is roughly quadrangular in shape. Gross anatomy Zygoma has three surfaces, five borders, and two processes. Surfaces anterolateral surface is convex, pierced at its orbital border by the zy...
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Zygomatic arch

The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone at the zygomaticotemporal suture.  Related pathology Le Fort type 3 fracture zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture
Article

Zygomatic nerve

The zygomatic nerve is a main branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It should not be confused with the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve. Gross anatomy The zygomatic nerve divides off the maxillary division just after emerging from the foramen rotundum to enter the ptery...
Article

Zygomaticofacial foramen

The zygomaticofacial foramen is a small foramen in the mid lateral surface of the zygomatic bone that transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve (a branch of the zygomatic nerve from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) and zygomaticofacial vessels.
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Zygomaticofacial nerve

The zygomaticofacial nerve is the smaller of the two branches of the zygomatic nerve, from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It is sometimes referred to as the malar branch of the zygomatic nerve. It leaves the inferolateral aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit through the z...

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