The peri-articular arterial anastomosis of the elbow consists of several arteries that supply the elbow joint and its supporting structures. It functions to allow blood to flow around the elbow joint no mater which position the joint is in. The arteries that contribute include:
from the brachi...
The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries.
common carotid artery
internal carotid artery (segments)
persistent stapedial artery
The arterial supply of the lower limbs is via vessels arising from the external iliac artery.
The common femoral artery (CFA) is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery. It begins at the level of the inguinal ligament. It terminates as it gives off the profunda femoris and continu...
The arterial supply of the upper limb is derived from the subclavian artery. The right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery, which is the first branch of the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery originates directly from the aortic arch, being the third branch.
Arterial supply to the foot can be divided into plantar and dorsal components.
Plantar arterial supply
Medial plantar artery
branch off the posterior tibial artery
smaller calibre vessel
supplies the medial side of the foot, abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis.
provides the arter...
The arterial supply to the hand is comprised of a complex vascular network formed from the branches and distal continuations of the radial and ulnar arteries. This rich vascular network can be divided into palmar and dorsal components.
Palmar arterial supply
The palmar arterial supply can be d...
The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord.
The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterised by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally.
The term is used to refer to a solitary arterial trunk that branches from...
The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential or vesiculodeferential artery) is a branch of the superior vesical artery, which in turns arises from the internal iliac artery via the umbilical artery.
origin: superior vesical artery
main branch: no named branches
The articularis cubiti is a muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm:
origin: posterior surface of the distal humerus
insertion: posterior surface of the elbow joint capsule
innervation: radial nerve
action: tenses the posterior elbow joint capsule during elbow extension
The articularis genu is a small flat muscle of the anterior knee. During knee extension it acts to tighten the synovial membrane superiorly thereby preventing impingement of the synovial folds between the femur and the patella.
origin: anterior distal femoral shaft
insertion: knee joi...
The aryepiglottic folds are two ligamentomuscular structures within the supraglottic larynx that function to protect the airway when swallowing.
Each aryepiglottic fold is comprised of the superior ligamentous edge of the quadrangular membrane and covering mucous membrane 1, the ...
The arytenoid cartilages are paired hyaline cartilages that articulate with the sloping upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage by the cricoarytenoid joint. This joint allows movement of the arytenoid cartilages, which is vital in approximating, tensing and relaxing the vocal folds.
The ascending aorta is the first part of the aorta, and begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericardium where it becomes the aortic arch, in the plane of Ludwig, a hor...
The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery).
It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
The ascending colon is the second part of the large bowel.
The ascending colon is the continuation of the caecum superior to the ileocaecal valve. It is secondarily retroperitoneal, although it has its own mesentery in approximately 25% of patients and is 15 cm in length 1,2.
The ascending lumbar communicant vein is a communication between the left ascending lumbar vein and the left renal vein. Because of its retroperitoneal location, when dilated, it may be mistaken for a lymph node on non-contrast studies with thick collimation.
The image shows the left renal vein...
The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column.
location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region
origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the subcost...
The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid artery, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus.
origin: a branch of the external carotid artery
Asplenia refers to absence of the spleen thereby leading to deficient splenic function.
Seen in 3% of neonates with structural heart disease and in 30% of patients who die from cardiac malposition. The male-to-female ratio is 2:1.
Asplenia can be classified into two t...
The asterion is the junction on the side of the posteroinferior calvarium where three sutures meet:
It represents the site of the closed mastoid fontanelle. It is located at the posterior end of the parietotemporal suture, whereas ...
Astrocytes are cells of the central nervous system which act as both physical and physiological support for the neurones that are embedded between them. They are particularly abundant in the grey matter, where they are the most abundant glial cells 1.
They are highly branched and contribute to ...
Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology.
The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people.
A normal but large bulb will have...
Asymmetric pneumatisation of petrous apex results in asymmetric fatty bone marrow within the petrous apex. It is a common incidental finding on brain and skull base MRI.
Asymmetric pneumatisation of the petrous apex results in the presence of bon...
The lateral ventricles occasionally show small side to side differences in size on CT or MRI of the brain. This asymmetry of the lateral ventricles (ALV) is a normal anatomic variant in most cases.
The prevalence of asymmetry in lateral ventricle size in those without evidence of ...
The atlanto-axial articulation is a complex of three synovial joints, which join the atlas (C1) to the axis (C2).
paired lateral atlanto-axial joints: classified as planar-type joint between the lateral masses of C1 and C2, though somewhat more complex in shape wit...
The atlanto-occipital articulation is comprised of a pair of condyloid synovial joints that connect the occiput (C0) to the first cervical vertebra (atlas/C1).
Each joint is comprised of two concave articular surfaces on the superior aspect of the lateral mass of a...
Atlanto-occipital assimilation is the fusion of the atlas (C1) to the occiput and is one of the transitional vertebrae.
Atlanto-occipital assimilation occurs in approximately 0.5% (range 0.25-1%) of the population 2-4.
It is typically asymptomatic but sym...
The atlas is the first cervical vertebra, commonly called C1. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features. It articulates with the dens of the axis and the occiput, respectively allowing rotation of the head, and flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the head. Unlike the rest o...
Of the cervical vertebrae, the atlas (C1), axis (C2) and vertebra prominens (C7) are considered atypical cervical vertebrae.
The atlas (C1) lacks a body or spinous process. It has an anterior and posterior arches with lateral masses. Its superior articular surfaces articulate with the occiput a...
Of the five lumbar vertebrae, L5 is considered atypical due to its shape. The remaining lumbar vertebrae are largely typical.
For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
Owing to their features, the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs are considered atypical ribs.
Of all ribs, the first is the strongest, broadest and most curved. Ribs eleven and twelve are unique, among other reasons, by not being attached to the sternum.
T1 and T9 - T12 are considered atypical thoracic vertebrae. T1 bears some resemblance to low cervical vertebrae. T9 has no inferior demifacet. T10 often, but not always, shares features with T11 and T12.
For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
The auriculotemporal nerve is a sensory branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
The auriculotemporal nerve divides posteriorly from the posterior division of the mandibular division before dividing into two roots separate to encircle t...
The avascular plane of Brodel is the section of renal parenchyma between 2/3 anterior and 1/3 posterior kidney on the cross-section that is relatively avascular. The reason for its relative avascularity is that it represents the plane where the anterior and posterior segmental renal artery branc...
The axial skeleton is the central portion of the bony skeleton comprising the head, neck and trunk (80 bones in total). It has many functions including housing and protecting the central nervous system as well as the organs of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It enables movement and supports the u...
The axilla is a space located between the upper limb and the neck and thorax, which permits the passage of the major neurovascular structures.
The axilla is pyramidal in shape with its apex opening superiorly into the base of the neck between the subclavius muscle, first rib and ...
The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb.
origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib
termination: continues as the brachial ar...
Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are:
S AL SAP
Screw the lawyer, save a patient!
S AL SAP
S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part)
A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part)
L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part)
The axillary nerve is one of five terminal branches of the brachial plexus, supplying motor and sensory branches to the shoulder.
origin: posterior cord of the brachial plexus
course: passes out of axilla through the quadrangular space to the upper arm
major branches: superior later...
Axillary lymph nodes (LN) are in the axilla and receive lymph from vessels that drain the arm, the walls of the thorax, the breast and the upper walls of the abdomen.
There are five axillary lymph node groups, namely the lateral (humeral), anterior (pectoral), posterior (subscapu...
The axillary vein is one of the major veins of the upper limb. It is formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the basilic vein and contributes to the drainage of the axilla, arm and superolateral chest wall.
origin: formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the b...
The axis is the second cervical vertebra, commonly called C2. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features and important relations that make it easily recognisable. Its most prominent feature is the odontoid process, which is embryologically the body of the atlas (C1) 1,2. It plays a...
The azygo-oesophageal recess (also known as the line/interface) (AER) is a prevertebral space formed by the interface of the posteromedial segments of the right lower lobe and the azygos vein and oesophagus 1-3. The AER extends from the azygos arch to the aortic hiatus and has the following bord...
An azygos anterior cerebral artery is uncommon to rare variant of the circle of Willis where the two A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) join to form a single trunk. As a result, there is no anterior communicating artery. This organisation is similar to that seen in lower primates ...
Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (also known as absence of the hepatic segment of the IVC with azygos continuation) is an uncommon vascular anomaly and is a cause of a dilated azygos vein.
Azygos continuation of the IVC has a prevalence ~1.5% (range 0.2-3%) 1.
An azygos lobe is created when a laterally displaced azygos vein creates a deep pleural fissure into the apical segment of the right upper lobe during embryological development. It is a normal anatomic variant of the right upper lobe due to invagination of the azygos vein and pleura during devel...
The azygos vein is a unilateral vessel that ascends in the thorax to the right side of the vertebral column, carrying deoxygenated blood from the posterior chest and abdominal walls. It forms part of the azygos venous system.
The azygos vein is formed by the union of the...
The azygos (venous) system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos veins and left superior intercostal vein.
It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal v...
Babcock triangle is a relatively radiolucent triangular area seen in the subcapital region of the femoral neck on an anteroposterior radiograph of the hip. In this region, the trabeculae are loosely arranged and surrounded by more radiodense normal bony trabeculae groups. It may be the initial s...
A ball and socket ankle joint is a variant affecting the ankle where there is a rounded or spherical configuration to the talar dome with the corresponding concavity of the tibial plafond. The distal fibula may or may not be involved.
The aetiology has been debated with two theories ...
Ball and socket joints are a type of synovial joint where the spheroid articular surface of one bone sits within a cup-like depression of another bone.
The ball and socket configuration allows for movement with 3 degrees of freedom, which is more than any other type of synovial joint...
The band of Giacomini, also known as the tail of the dentate gyrus is the anteromedial continuation of the dentate gyrus, which in turn is part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus, subicular complex and entorhinal cortex. It is an important anatomical landmark of the inferio...
The Bartholin glands (or greater vestibular glands) are paired pea-sized structures, lying on either side of the vaginal opening, and are homologous to the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands in the male. They form part of the vulva.
These glands are described as less than 1 cm in diam...
The basal ganglia are a group of grey matter nuclei in the deep aspects of the brain that is interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalami and brainstem.
In a strict anatomical sense, it contains three paired nuclei that together comprise the corpus striatum:
The basal lamella, also known as basal lamella of the middle turbinate, is an osseous lamella that separates the anterior from the posterior ethmoid sinuses 1.
Internal anterior to posterior partitions of the ethmoid sinuses are called basal lamellae. According to a concept propose...
The basal nucleus of Meynert, also known as the nucleus basalis of Meynert, is formed by a group of cells that lies in the substantia innominata. It is rich in acetylcholine and its degeneration has been correlated to Alzheimer disease. It lies anterior to the anterior commissure.
The basal plate is a synonym for the maternal side of the placenta. The fetal side of the placenta is termed the chorionic plate.
Some pathologies and processes are localized to the basal plate, and evaluation of the basal plate is a part of placental grading.
The basal veins, also known as the veins of Rosenthal, are paired, paramedian veins which originate on the medial surface of the temporal lobe and run posteriorly and medially. It passes lateral to the midbrain through the ambient cistern to drain into the vein of Galen with the internal cerebra...
The base of the skull (or skull base) forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from the structures of the neck and face.
The base of the skull is a bony diaphragm composed of a number of bones - from anterior to posterior:
Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery, thought to occur due to failed fusion of plexiform primitive longitudinal neural arteries 4. Its reported prevalence is h...
The basilar venous plexus lies between the endosteal and visceral layers of the dura on the inner surface of the clivus. It connects the:
inferior petrosal sinuses
superior petrosal sinuses
internal vertebral venous plexus
marginal sinus (around the...
The basilic vein, along with the cephalic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm, and contributes to the formation of the axillary vein.
origin: ulnar aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum ...
The basion is the median (midline) point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament attaches to it.
It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement.
Various lines and measurements using the ...
Batson venous plexus (or Batson veins) is a network of veins with no valves that connect deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1. These veins are important because they are believed to provide a route for spread of pelvic cancer meta...
Beaver tail liver, also known as a sliver of liver, is a variant of hepatic morphology where an elongated left liver lobe extends laterally to contact and often surround the spleen. It is more common in females. The parenchyma is normal and thereby has the same risks of hepatic pathology as the ...
Betz cells are pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex. They are some of the largest in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100 µm in diameter and send their axons down the corticospinal tracts to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
The biceps brachii muscle (also known simply as biceps) is a two-headed muscle in the anterior compartment of the arm that flexes at the elbow and supinates the forearm.
short head: coracoid process of the scapula
long head: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
The biceps femoris is one of the large muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh and a component of the hamstrings. It has a long and a short head, each with different functions and innervation.
long head: medial facet of the ischial tuberosity
short head: lateral line...
Biceps pulley refers to a complex capsuloligamentous structure which provides stability and hold the long head of biceps tendon within the bicipital groove. It comprises of the coracohumeral ligament, superior glenohumeral ligament, and distal attachment of the subscapularis tendon.
The bicipitoradial bursa is located between the distal biceps brachii tendon and the tuberosity of the radius. The bursa partially or completely wraps around the biceps tendon. It ensures frictionless motion between the biceps tendon and the proximal radius during pronation and supination of the...
A bicornuate uterus is a type of uterine duplication anomaly. It can be classified as a class IV Mullerian duct anomaly.
Overall, congenital uterine anomalies occur in ~1.5% of females (range 0.1-3%). Bicornuate uteri are thought to represent ~25% (range 10-39%) of Mullerian duct ...
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size.
They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
The median nerve may divide into two nerve bundles in
the distal forearm and appear as a bifid median nerve in the carpal tunnel. It has an incidence of ~3%.
The median nerve usually divides into two or three branches after exiting the distal edge of the transverse carpal ligament that covers...
A bifid ureter, or ureter fissus, is an example of incomplete duplication of a duplex collecting system.
Present in ~5% (range 1-10%) of the population 1-2.
A bifid ureter is formed when there is a duplex kidney (separate pelvicalyceal collecting systems) drain i...
The bifurcate ligament arises from the anterior process of the calcaneus as a single band and divides into calcaneocuboid (lateral) and calcaneonavicular (medial) parts forming a Y-shape.
Various channels that collect bile from the hepatic parenchyma and transport it to the duodenum constitute the biliary tree.
By convention the biliary tree is divided into intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts 1. There is significant variation in the biliary tree with the classical...
Bill bar is a bony anatomical landmark that divides the superior compartment of the internal acoustic meatus into an anterior and posterior compartment. Anterior to Bill's bar, in the anterior superior quadrant, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and nervus intermedius, and posterior to it, in the po...
Bilobed testis, also known as incomplete unilateral polyorchidism, is a very rare variant in children.
The exact aetiology is unknown but is thought be a form of incomplete polyorchidism. It has been proposed that bilobed testis results from incomplete division of the urogenital ridg...
A bipartite patella (two-part patella) is a patella with an unfused accessory ossification center at the superolateral aspect.
The superolateral accessory ossification center of the patella is usually present by 12 years of age and may persist into adult life. Prevalence of a bipa...
A bipartite scaphoid is a rare example of a divided carpus. There is controversy whether this condition is congenital (i.e. normal variant) or post-traumatic. Bipartite scaphoids may be unilateral or bilateral.
Diagnostic criteria have been proposed 3:
no history of traumatic injury
Neuroanatomy of the bladder is complex, described here is a summary of the co-ordination of micturition.
The bladder acts as a reservoir normally storing 400-500 mL of urine under low pressure (<15 cmH2O) before voluntary voiding can occur at a socially-convenient time. Bladder filling and empt...
Block vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly where there is a failure of separation of two or more adjacent vertebral bodies.
In a block vertebra, there is partial or complete fusion of adjacent vertebral bodies.
hemivertebrae/absent vertebra above or below block leve...
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) forms a physical resistance to the passage of lipophobic substances from cerebral capillaries into the brain and is a key reason why there is no CSF enhancement following intravenous contrast media in CT and MR imaging.
The BBB is formed by a combina...
The blood supply of the meninges generally concerns the blood supply of the outer layer of dura mater rather than the inner layer of dura mater, arachnoid or pia mater which do not require a large blood supply. There are several arteries that supply the dura in the anterior, middle, and posterio...
Bochdalek's flower basket is the eponymous name for the incidental finding of protrusion of the choroid plexus through the foramina of Luschka. This is a relatively common finding.
It is an important normal variant to recognise as the presence of protruding calcified choroid tissue in the fourt...
The body of the sphenoid bone is the midline cubical portion of the sphenoid bone, hollowed by the sphenoid air sinuses.
The body has superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, and lateral surfaces.
The superior surface features:
ethmoidal spine: prominent spine that articulates...
Bone macroscopic structure allows a bone to be divided into regions based on position or morphology. This is important for a number of reasons including how growth may be affected by injury.
Bones can be separated into:
The bones in the lower limb can be divided into those within the thigh and leg (4) and those within the foot (26).
Bones of the thigh and leg
Bones of the foot
The bones in the upper limb can be divided into those within the arm and pectoral girdle (3), forearm (2) and wrist and hand (27). There are also a number of accessory ossicles, predominantly occurring at the wrist.
Bones of the arm and pectoral girdle
Bones of the...
There are many types of bone within the body:
long bones (longer than they are wide)
short bones (not long bones)
sesamoid bones (for within a tendon)
irregular bones (don't fit into a category)
The majority of the bones of the appendicular skeleton are long bones. However, the ...
The bony orbit refers to the bones that constitute the margins of the orbits, that is the roof, medial and lateral walls and floor. The orbital margin or rim refers to the anterior circular margin of the orbit. The orbital apex refers to the posterior confluence of the orbit, where the optic can...
The bony pelvis is formed by the sacrum and coccyx and a pair of hip bones (os coxae or innominate bones), comprising the ischium, pubis and ilium and are part of the appendicular skeleton.
Its primary function is the transmission of forces from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs as well as...