Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,351 results found
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Coronary veins

The coronary veins return deoxygenated blood from the myocardium back to the right atrium. Most venous blood returns via the coronary sinus. Coronary venous anatomy is highly variable, but is generally comprised of 3 groups of veins: cardiac veins which drain into the coronary sinus: great car...
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Coronoid process (disambiguation)

Coronoid process can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: coronoid process (mandible) coronoid process (ulna)
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Corpora quadrigemina

The corpora quadrigemina (Latin for "quadruplet bodies") are the four colliculi, two inferior and two superior, that sit on the quadrigeminal plate on the posterior surface of the midbrain. The corpora quadrigemina are reflex centres involving vision and hearing: superior colliculi: involved i...
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Corpus albicans

The corpus albicans is a fibrous scar that results from the involution of the corpus luteum if fertilisation does not occur. When seen on ultrasound, it is a small, lobulated echogenic intra-ovarian lesion.  History and etymology It is Latin for "whitening body", after the white appearance of ...
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Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum is the largest of the commissural fibres, linking the cerebral cortex of the left and right cerebral hemisphere. It is the largest fibre pathway in the brain. Gross anatomy The corpus callosum is approximately 10 cm in length and is C-shaped, like most of the supratentorial...
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Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube. The...
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Corpus striatum

The corpus striatum is a collective name given to the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus. History and etymology The term originates from the Latin "striatus", meaning "striped", referring to the caudatolenticar bridges of grey matter crossing the internal capsule from the putamen to the cau...
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Corrugator supercilii

The corrugator supercilii are two small, triangular muscles that allow facial expression through movement of the eyebrows, including frowning. They originate from the medial end of the supraorbital margins and insert deep to and can cause traction on the skin over the middle of the supraorbital ...
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Cortical bone

The outer shell of compact bone is called cortical bone or cortex.  Gross anatomy Cortical bone contains Haversian systems (osteons) which contain a central Haversian canal surrounded by osseous tissue in a concentric lamellar pattern. Two fibrovascular layers surround the cortical bone which...
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Corticorubral tract

The corticorubral tract contains neurons that connect the primary motor and sensory areas to the red nucleus. The rubrospinal tract then descends through the spinal cord.  The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The corti...
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Corticospinal tract

The corticospinal tract is a descending neural pathway primarily concerned with motor function extending from the motor cortex down to synapse with motor neurones of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy Central connections Corticospinal fibres arise from neurones in the cerebral cortex. Most of th...
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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages form part of the thoracic cage and anterior chest wall. There are 10 costal cartilages, one for rib 1-10, with each of which forms a costochondral joint. Costal cartilages 1-7 articulate with the sternum at sternocostal joints, and costal cartilages 8-10 are attached to eac...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Costochondral joint

The costochondral joints are the joints between each rib and its costal cartilage.  They are primary cartilaginous joints.  These joints represent the demarcation of the unossified and ossified part of the rib 1.  The joint is held together by periosteum, with the lateral aspect of the costal ca...
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Costoclavicular ligament

The costoclavicular ligament or rhomboid ligament is the major stabilising factor of the sternoclavicular joint. Gross anatomy The costoclavicular ligament binds the inferior medial clavicle (via the rhomboid fossa) to the first costal cartilage and adjacent end of the first rib. It is compose...
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Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the interscalene space, and distally thr...
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Costovertebral joint

The costovertebral joint is an articulation between the ribs and the vertebral column. Gross Anatomy The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae via two distinctly different joints: costovertebral joint - articulation between the head of the rib and the vertebral body costotransverse joi...
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Costoxiphoid ligament

The costoxiphoid ligaments, also known as the chondroxiphoid ligaments, are inconstant fibrous structures joining the anterior and posterior surfaces of the xiphoid to the respective surfaces of the adjacent seventh and, occasionally, sixth costal cartilages.
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Couinaud classification of hepatic segments

The Couinaud classification (pronounced kwee-NO) is currently the most widely used system to describe functional liver anatomy. It is the preferred anatomy classification system as it divides the liver into eight independent functional units (termed segments) rather than relying on the tradition...
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Couinaud classification of hepatic segments (mnemonic)

Pauli et al published a "handy" way to remember the Couinaud classification of hepatic segments 1. Make a fist with your right hand. The fingers should be wrapped around the flexed thumb and the fist should face you. The segments are represented by the following: segment I (caudate): the thumb...
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Coumadin ridge

A coumadin ridge, also called warfarin ridge or left lateral ridge, is a band-like embryological remnant in the left atrium between the left superior pulmonary vein and the left atrial appendage. It is considered an anatomical variant.  The ridge is formed by the coalition of the left superior ...
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Cranial foramina

The cranial foramina are the holes that exist in the base of skull to allow the passage of structures into and out of the cranium: anterior ethmoidal foramen condylar canal foramen caecum foramen lacerum carotid canal foramen magnum foramen ovale foramen rotundum foramen spinosum foram...
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Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the cerebrum or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foraminae rather than through the spine.  Cerebrum The first and second cranial nerves derive from the telencephalon and diencephalon respectively ...
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII: On ol...
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Cranial vault

The cranial vault, also known as the skull vault, skullcap or calvaria, is the cranial space that encases and protects the brain together with the base of the skull (chondrocranium). The cranial vault and the base of skull together form the neurocranium. Gross anatomy The cranial vault consist...
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Cremasteric artery

The cremasteric artery is a small branch of the inferior epigastric artery that enters the deep inguinal ring of the inguinal canal and supplies the layers of the spermatic cord and also the skin of the scrotum, including the cremaster muscle. History and etymology The word "cremaster" derives...
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Cremaster muscle

The cremaster muscle is the thin fascial muscle of the spermatic cord made of skeletal muscle. It is also referred to as cremaster fascia or simply the cremaster. Its action is to retract the testes, important in thermoregulation and spermatogenesis.  Gross anatomy It is derived from the inter...
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Crests of Duret

The crests of Duret attach the most numerous superficial breast lobes by their summit to the superficial layer of fascia. The deepest crests connect the anterior lobes to the deep layer through the Cooper's ligament. Breast lobe groups about one hundred lobules separated by interlobular connect...
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Cribriform plate

The cribriform plate is a sieve-like structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity. It is a part of ethmoid bone and supports the olfactory bulb, which lies in the olfactory fossa. It is perforated by foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerves and the anterior ethmoidal...
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Cricoid cartilage

The cricoid cartilage is a ring shaped structure that sits just below the thyroid cartilage. It is the only complete cartilaginous ring of the whole airway. Gross Anatomy The anterior portion is called the arch and the posterior quadrangular shaped portion is the lamina. It articulates with th...
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Crista galli

The crista galli is a thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa. It separates the olfactory bulbs, which lie either side of it in the olfactory fossae of the cribriform plate. It serves as an anteri...
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Crista terminalis

The crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of right atrium. It represents the junction between the sinus venosus and the heart. It divides the pectinate muscle origin and the right atrial appendages in the right atrium. Its identification is significant in the deter...
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Critical zone in rotator cuff tendons

The critical zone of the rotator cuff is an area approximately 8-15 mm from the insertion of the rotator cuff tendons onto the greater tubercle of the humeral head, mainly within the supraspinatus tendon. This is a watershed zone between the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral, thoracoacro...
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Crossed fused renal ectopia

Crossed fused renal ectopia essentially refers to an anomaly where the kidneys are fused and located on the same side of the midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 1000 births 1. There is a recognised male predilection with a 2:1 male to female ratio. More than 90% of...
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Crossed renal ectopia

Crossed renal ectopia is said to be present when the kidney is seen in the opposite retroperitoneal space. It is more common for the left kidney to be ectopically located on the right side. More than 85% of these get fused resulting in crossed fused renal ectopia. Less than 15% cases are non-fus...
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Cruciate ligament of the atlas

The cruciate ligament of the atlas (also known as the cruciform ligament) is an important ligamentous complex that holds the posterior dens of C2 in articulation at the median atlantoaxial joint. It lies behind a large synovial bursa (surrounded by loose fibrous capsule) and consists of two band...
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CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
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CT cerebral venography

CT cerebral venography is a rapid technique which provides an accurate detailed depiction of the cerebral venous system. Indications Rapid diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. Contraindications general CT contraindications such as pregnancy, claustrophobia, etc. iodinated contrast contr...
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Cubital fossa

The cubital fossa is a triangular space which forms the transition between the arm and the forearm. It is located anterior to the elbow joint. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: the line joining the medial and lateral humeral epicondyles lateral: medial border of brachioradialis medial: lat...
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Cubital tunnel

The cubital tunnel is a space through which the ulnar nerve passes posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.  Gross anatomy Boundaries roof cubital tunnel retinaculum (a.k.a. ligament or band of Osborne), extends from the olecranon to the medial epicondyle anconeus epitrochlearis (...
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Cuboid

The cuboid bone is one of the tarsal bones located lateral to the lateral cuneiform bone and has an important articulation with the calcaneus. Gross anatomy Osteology The cuboid is a wedge shaped bone, being widest at its medial edge and narrow at its lateral edge. It has three main articular...
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Cuneiform cartilage

The cuneiform cartilage is a small, paired cartilage which resides in the aryepiglottic fold. It takes the form of a club-like nodule, visible as an elevation beneath the mucosa (the cuneiform tubercle) anterosuperior to the corniculate cartilages. History and etymology The word cuneiform deri...
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Cuneus

The cuneus is a wedge-shaped region on the medial surface of the occipital lobe. Gross anatomy Relations Anterosuperiorly the parieto-occipital sulcus separates the cuneus from the precuneus of the parietal lobe. Posteroinferiorly the cuneus abuts the calcarine sulcus which separates it from...
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Cyamella

A cyamella is a rare sesamoid bone that exists as a normal variant within the popliteus tendon, characteristically located at the lateral aspect of the distal femur in the popliteal groove. Cyamella is best seen on the AP view of plain radiograph as opposed to fabella, which is best appreciated...
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Cystic artery

The cystic artery represents the main blood supply to the gallbladder. It most commonly arises from the right hepatic artery within Calots triangle 1. Gross anatomy The cystic artery passes posterior to the cystic duct to reach the neck of the gallbladder. At this point, it gives off two-to-fo...
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Cystic duct

The cystic duct connects the neck of the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct (CHD), draining bile to and from the biliary tree. Gross anatomy The confluence of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct forms the common bile duct. The cystic duct is approximately 2-3 cm long and 2-3 mm in ...
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Danger space

The danger space is a potential space located behind the true retropharyngeal space, which connects the deep cervical spaces to the mediastinum.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly: alar fascia posteriorly: prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia superiorly: clivus inferiorly: post...
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Dartos muscle

The dartos muscle is the thin rugated fascial muscle of the scrotum made of smooth muscle. Hence it is also referred to as dartos fascia or simply the dartos. It forms from the subcutaneous tissue of the scrotum and base of the penis and attaches to the scrotal skin and fibrous midline septum be...
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Deep auricular artery

The deep auricular artery is the first named branch of the maxillary artery and passes through the bony or cartilaginous wall of the external acoustic meatus to supply the skin of that canal and part of the tympanic membrane. It can sometimes contribute a small branch to the arterial supply of t...
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Deep brachial artery

The deep brachial artery or profunda brachii artery is a large branch of the brachial artery, located in the arm. Summary origin: brachial artery location: posterior aspect of the arm supply: triceps brachii main branches: middle collateral and radial collateral arteries Gross anatomy Ori...
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Deep Bursae

Deep bursae are those bursae that are located deep to the fibrous fascia and are normally located between muscles or muscle and bone.  These bursae form in utero alongside synovial joint formation 1. In contrast, superfical bursae are located superficial to the fibrous fascia.
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Deep cervical fascia

The deep cervical fascia consists of 3 separate but related fascial layers that encircle structures in the neck and allow anatomic compartmentalisation. These layers cannot be visualized directly by cross sectional imaging. All 3 layers meet to form the carotid sheath. From superficial to deep, ...
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Deep circumflex iliac artery

The deep circumflex iliac artery arises from the external iliac artery. Gross anatomy origin: lateral aspect of the external iliac artery above the inguinal ligament, almost opposite to the inferior epigastric artery course: travels superiorly parallel to the inguinal ligament towards the ant...
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Deep femoral vein

The deep femoral vein or the profunda femoris vein lies anterior to its artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the artery. Through these tributaries it connects distally with the popliteal and proximally with the inferior gluteal veins. It sometimes drains the medial a...
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Deep inguinal lymph nodes

The deep inguinal nodes lie medially to the femoral vein. There are around three in number and receive lymphatic channels that run with the deep femoral vessels and from the glans penis / clitoris from the perineum. There are common channels with the superficial inguinal nodes, and they drain in...
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Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space above the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle. Bou...
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Deep peroneal nerve

The deep peroneal (fibular) nerve is one of two terminal branches of the common peroneal nerve. Summary origin: the terminal branch of common peroneal nerve in the lateral compartment of the leg course: passes into the anterior compartment of the leg, where it courses inferiorly into the dors...
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Deep petrosal nerve

The deep petrosal nerve transmits post-ganglionic sympathetic fibres from the internal carotid plexus to the Vidian nerve on its way to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The nerve begins at the internal carotid plexus and runs alongside the lateral aspect of the internal carotid arte...
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Deep posterior compartment of the leg

The deep posterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle plantarflexion and toe flexion, with exception of the popliteus which acts on the knee. Of the two posterior compartments, the d...
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Deep spaces of the head and neck

Head and neck anatomy is described in slightly different terms in the radiology literature reflecting the importance of fascia lined spaces in confining various pathologies. As such the neck has been divided into a number of 'deep spaces' which overlap with traditional anatomical description. A...
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Deep temporal branches

The deep temporal arteries (anterior and posterior) are branches from the second part of the maxillary artery. They ascend between the temporalis muscle and the pericranium supplying the overlying muscle. The anterior branch communicates with the lacrimal artery by means of small branches which...
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Deep temporal nerves

The deep temporal nerves are a pair of motor branches of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It should not be confused with the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Gross anatomy The two deep temporal nerves divide off the anterior division and course abov...
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Delphian node

The Delphian (prelaryngeal/precricoid) node is one of the cervical lymph node groups that comprise level VI cervical lymph nodes and is not routinely excised in radical neck dissections. Gross anatomy It is located between the cricothyroid muscles, above the thyroid isthmus, lying directly ant...
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Deltoid ligament of the ankle

The deltoid ligament or medial collateral ligament of the ankle forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones.  Gross anatomy The ligament is composed of two layers. The superficial layer has variable attachments and crosses two joints whil...
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Deltoid muscle

The deltoid muscle is the largest of the shoulder muscles. The muscle is composed of three heads (clavicular, acromial and spinous), although electromyography suggests that there are at least seven control regions that could act independently 1. Summary origin: lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, acr...
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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is located in the mesial temporal lobe and forms part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus proper and subiculum.  The dentate gyrus receives fibres from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path and projects fibres to the CA3 portion of the hippocampus. ...
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Dentate nucleus

The dentate nucleus is the largest and most lateral of the cerebellar nuclei, located medially within each cerebellar hemisphere, just posterolateral to the fourth ventricle 1.  It is part of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, connected to the contralateral red nucleus via the superior cere...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal cord wit...
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Depressor anguli oris

The depressor anguli oris (triangularis) muscle is one of the muscles of facial expression. Summary origin: oblique line of the mandible insertion:  ​angle of the mouth superficial fibres from both sides merge to form the transversus menti innervation: facial nerve action:  depresses the...
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Descending aorta

The descending aorta is the continuation of the aortic arch in the posterior mediastinum. Gross anatomy The descending aorta commences at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra body, on its left, in the plane of Ludwig as the continuation of the aortic arch. It descends in the posterior med...
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Descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery descends from the lateral aspect of the femoral neck and extends as far as the knee where it provides blood to the patellar network (the complex arterial anastomosis around the knee). Summary origin: lateral circumflex femoral arte...
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Descending colon

The descending colon is the continuation of the transverse colon after the left colic flexure, where the colon loses its mesentery.  Gross anatomy The descending colon measures up to 25 cm length and is secondarily retroperitoneal. It descends down and is attached to the left posterior abdomin...
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Descending geniculate artery

The descending geniculate artery arises from the distal portion of the superficial femoral artery before it becomes the popliteal artery. Along with other arterial branches, it provides blood to the patella network and the knee. Summary origin: superficial femoral artery supply: patella netwo...
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Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of the cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features ...
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Developmental anomalies of the kidney and ureter

Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters are numerous and not only potentially render image interpretation confusing but also, in many instances, make the kidneys more prone to pathology: number renal agenesis supernumerary kidney fusion horseshoe kidney: most common cross fused ...
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Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle.
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy The muscular fibres of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
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Diaphragma sellae

The diaphragma sellae is one of the folds (or reflections) of the dura mater. It covers the sella turcica and forms the roof over the pituitary fossa 1. Gross anatomy The diaphragma sellae consists of two horizontal leaves of dura mater on the sphenoid bone. It extends from the tuberculum sell...
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Diaphragmatic apertures

The diaphragmatic apertures are a series of apertures that permit the passage of structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are three main apertures: aortic hiatus (T12) (not a true aperture) oesophageal hiatus (T10) vena caval foramen (T8) The vertebral levels of these ap...
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragm is: I ate (8) 10 eggs at 12 Mnemonic I ate (8): inferior vena cava at T8 10 eggs: (o)esophagus at T10 at 12: aorta at T12
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Diaphysis

The diaphyses (singular: diaphysis), sometimes colloquially called the shafts, are the main portions of a long bone (a bone that is longer than it is wide) and provide most of their length.  The diaphysis has a tubular composition with a hard outer section of hard cortical bone and a central po...
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Diarthroses

Diarthroses are a functional class of joint that are freely mobile. All synovial joints are considered diathroses.    See also  synarthroses amphiarthroses
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brai...
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Difference in vertical mid-vertical angle (lumbar spine)

The difference in vertical mid-vertical angle is the difference in the vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) between the caudal segment angle and the adjacent cephalad segment angle of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine as measured on a mid-sagittal MRI or a lateral radiograph. Ra...
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Digastric muscle

The digastric muscle is composed of two bellies, anterior and posterior, connected by an intermediate round tendon. The two bellies of the muscle have different embryonic origins and hence are supplied by different cranial nerves. Summary origin anterior belly: digastric fossa on the deep sur...
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Digastric triangle

The digastric triangle is one of the paired triangles in the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spaces of...
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Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to the displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge. A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteop...
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Discoid meniscus

Discoid menisci are those that have a body that is too wide, usually affecting the lateral meniscus. They are incidentally found in 3-5% of knee MRI examinations. Epidemiology Discoid menisci condition is congenital, frequently bilateral (up to 50%) and has been reported in twins, although no ...
Article

Distal dural ring

The distal dural ring is an anatomical landmark that separates the extradural from the intradural intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). It is located at the junction of the cavernous, clinoid and ophthalmic segments of the ICA. Gross anatomy Anatomy of this region is complex and varied a...
Article

Distal radioulnar joint

The distal radioulnar joint is a pivot type synovial joint between the distal radius and ulna. Summary articulation: pivot type synovial joint between the distal aspect of the radius and the ulna movement: rotation of the distal radius ligaments: triangular ligament, and anterior and posteri...
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Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis

The tibiofibular syndesmosis is a complex fibrous joint composed of multiple ligaments and a broad fibrous membrane (the interosseous membrane) that spans between the tibia and fibula throughout the length of both bones. The distal osseous part of this syndesmotic joint includes the following f...
Article

Dominant ovarian follicle

A dominant ovarian follicle refers to the follicle that enlarges to release an ovum during a menstural cycle. Usually approximately 10 Graafian follicles begin to mature where one becomes a dominant follicle and the rest become atretic ovarian follicles. After release of the ovum the remainder o...
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Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...

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