Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of dura mater (endosteal layer and meningeal layer). They can be conceptualised as trapped epidural veins. Unlike other veins in the body they run alone, not parallel to arteries. Furthermore, they are valvele...
Ectopic intracaval liver is a rare congenital abnormality of the liver in which a part of the liver invaginates the inferior vena cava (IVC). Lobar or segmental agenesis, Riedel lobe, and ectopic hepatic lobes have been described as congenital abnormalities 1. The term ectopic intracaval may be ...
Ectopic kidney (or renal ectopia) is a developmental renal anomaly characterised by abnormal anatomical location of one or both of the kidneys.
They can occur in several forms:
cross fused renal ectopia
ectopic thoracic kidney
The estimated incidence of an ectopi...
Ectopic pancreatic tissue (or heterotopic pancreatic tissue) refers to the situation where rests of pancreatic tissue lie outside and separate to the pancreatic gland. Most patients are completely asymptomatic.
It is reportedly relatively common, affecting ~5% (range 1-10%) 1 of p...
An ectopic posterior pituitary reflects a disruption of normal embryogenesis of the posterior pituitary and is one of the more common causes of pituitary dwarfism. Although it can be an isolated abnormality, numerous other congenital central nervous system malformations have been identified.
An ectopic thyroid gland is one which is located in a location other than the normal position anterior to the laryngeal cartilages.
During embryological development, the thyroid gland migrates down from the foramen caecum at the posterior aspect of the tongue to its permanent location. This nor...
An ectopic ureter is a congenital renal anomaly that occurs as a result of abnormal caudal migration of the ureteral bud during its insertion to the urinary bladder. Normally the ureter drains via the internal ureteral orifice at the trigone of the urinary bladder.
In females, the most common ...
The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid.
Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens and is approximately 2 cm long. They course throu...
A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is:
S: seminiferous tubules
V: vas (ductus) deferens
E: ejaculatory duct
The elbow is a complex synovial joint formed by the articulations of the humerus, the radius and the ulna.
The elbow joint is made up of three articulations 2,3:
radiohumeral: capitellum of the humerus with the radial head
ulnohumeral: trochlea of the humerus wi...
Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicodylar fracture for a normal ossification center.
The order of appearances of the elbow os...
The atypical 11th rib is one of two floating ribs.
The 11th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T11 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. The angle is slight. Its costal groove is shallow. The internal surface of this rib faces slightl...
The embryonic/fetal rhombencephalon is visible with endovaginal ultrasound at ~8-10 weeks as a hypoechoic region in the embryonic/fetal head. The hypoechoic region represents the developing rhombencephalon/hindbrain (medulla, pons, and cerebellum).
This is a normal structure, and is reportedly ...
An empty sella, also known as an empty pituitary fossa, is a relatively common incidental finding and posed more of a diagnostic problem before modern cross-sectional imaging. In addition to being incidental, a well-established association with benign intracranial hypertension is also recognised...
Endochondral ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) with a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures.
Bone formation occurs at centers of ossification (or ossification centres) which are either primary or secondary...
Endolymph is a one of two type of cochlear fluids, the other being perilymph. It is located in the scala media of the cochlea.
It is secreted by the stria vascularis (colloquially called 'battery of the cochlea') on the outer wall of the scala media.
It has a high level of potassium (K+) and g...
An enthesis (pl. entheses) is the connective tissue junction where ligaments and tendons attach to bone.
There are two types of entheses:
The ligament or tendon attaches directly to the bone.
The entorhinal cortex (Brodmann area 28) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and acts as the interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex. It has been considered part of the hippocampal formation (along with Ammon’s horn, subiculum and presubiculum), but is difficult to precisely local...
The eparterial bronchus is a synonymous term for the right superior lobar bronchus. Its name is derived from the bronchus being the only one originating superior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, all other bronchi can be referred to by their anatomical relationship to the pulmona...
Epicardial (pericardial) fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic, more so on the right. Unsurprisingly, they are more prominent in obese patients.
They can be affected by fat necrosis (see: epipericardial fat necrosis).
An epididymal appendix (or alternatively appendix of the epididymis or appendix epididymis) is a testicular appendage that is a developmental remnant of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) which can be found in the head of the epididymis 1. In 78% of the cases, it is stalked and is thus easily ...
The epididymis (plural: epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testes within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens.
The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to testes, with head, body ...
The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx.
The epiglottis projects posterosuperiorly from its stem-like base, which is attached to the thyroid cartilage. It ...
The epiphysis (pl: epiphyses) is the rounded portion at the end of a bone distal to the physis. The epiphysis contributes to a joint, compared with an apophysis which is a site of tendon or ligament attachment. Once the growth plate has fused, the epiphysis and metaphysis are joined.
Epiploic appendages (or appendix epiploica, plural: appendices epiploicae) are peritoneum-lined protrusions of subserosal fat that arise from the surface of the large bowel.
Epiploic appendages typically measure 1.5 x 3.5 cm but have been reported to measure up to 15 cm in lengt...
The epiploic foramen, also called the foramen of Winslow), is a passage between the greater (general peritoneal space) and lesser sac (omental bursa) allowing communication between these two spaces.
It has the following borders:
anterior: the free edge of the lesser ...
Episternal (or suprasternal) ossicles are accessory bones and a normal variant of the sternum. They result from supernumerary ossification centers and are seen in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population.
Episternal ossicles are usually located posterior or superior to the superior bor...
The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal gland. Its function is the connection between the limbic system to other parts of the brain.
Epitransverse process is a rare anatomical variant of the atlas, consisting of a bony exostosis which extends cephalad from from the transverse process of the atlas to articulate with the occipital bone. This process sometimes meets with a paracondylar process, forming a pseudoarthrosis at the i...
The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. The iliocostalis group occurs most laterally, followed by the longissimus group, and finally the spinalis as the most me...
The ethmoid bone is a single midline facial bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain and is located at the roof of the nose and between the two orbits. It is a cubical shape and is relatively lightweight because of its spongy construction. It contributes to the anterior cranial fossa....
The ethmoidal air cells (or less commonly, the ethmoidal sinuses) form one of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses. They are located within the single, midline ethmoid bone. They are present at birth and they develop rapidly from 0-4 year-old; they further mature from 8-12 year-old during puberty...
The Eustachian tube is the channel through which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. It is approximately 36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sagittal plane and one of 30 to 40 degrees with the horizonta...
The Eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.
Incomplete regression of ...
Extensor carpis radialis brevis (ECRB) is a muscle of superficial layer on posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. ECRB is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry.
origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ann...
Extensor carpis radialis longus (ECRL) is a muscle of the superficial layer in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry.
origin: lateral supracondyle ridge of hu...
Extensor carpis ulnaris (ECU) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is separated from the extensor digitorum and the extensor digiti minimi muscles by a distinct intermuscular septum. It is the only forearm extensor that lies in its own fibro-osseou...
The extensor tendons at the level of the wrist are divided into six extensor compartments that are designated by Roman numerals from lateral to medial 1:
I: extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus
II: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis
III: extensor poll...
Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, and with other extensor muscles arises from a common extensor tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The EDM represents a medial group of superficial extensor muscles...
Extensor digitorum (ED), also known as extensor digitorum communis (EDC), is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and with other extensor muscles arises from a common tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. ED represents a medial group o...
The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle is an accessory muscle in the hand and is a normal anatomical variant.
origin: distal radius and posterior radiocarpal ligament
insertion: extensor hood of 2nd or 3rd digits (variable)
innervation: posterior interosseous nerve
The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps extend digits 2 through 4.
origin: superolateral surface of calcaneus
insertion: lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV
action: extension of toes II to I...
Extensor digitorium longus (EDL) is a thin muscle situated in the anterior leg lateral to extensor hallucis longus and extends the lateral four toes.
origin: lateral tibial condyle, medial surface of the middle portion of the fibula and superior portion of the anterior surface of the i...
The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps to extend the big toe.
superolateral surface of calcaneus
base of proximal phalanx of great toe
extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe
Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus.
origin: anterior surface of the middle portion of the fibula and the interosseous membrane
insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the distal pha...
The extensor indicis muscle is an accessory extensor of the 2nd digit. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and its tendon passes through the 4th extensor compartment of the wrist.
origin: posterior surface of the ulna (distal to extensor pollicis...
The extensor mechanism of the knee comprises of:
medial patellar retinaculum
lateral patellar retinaculum
extensor mechanism of the knee injuries
Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis longus...
Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues medially towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The EPL defines the ulnar border of the anatomic snuff ...
The extensor retinaculum is located at the dorsal aspect of the foot and consists of the superior and inferior extensor retinacula.
The superior extensor retinaculum is located proximally to the dorsal aspect of the ankle joint and houses the tibialis anterior, extensor digitoru...
The external capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain. They are situated between the putamen and claustrum.
The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA.
origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery
course: under the submandibular gland an...
The external ear comprises the auricle (or pinna), the external auditory meatus, and the tympanum (eardrum). The pinna concentrates and amplifies sound waves and funnels them through the outer acoustic pore into the external auditory meatus, which carries them to the tympanic membrane.
The external iliac artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery.
The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.
The external iliac vein (EIV) is located along the pelvic brim between the inguinal ligament and the sacroiliac joint.
posterior to inguinal ligament within lacuna vasorum 1 as continuation of femoral vein
The external iliac vein unites with the internal il...
The external (or outermost) intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal space, expanding the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during inspiration.
The external intercostal muscles are the o...
The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the pectoral region.
Origin and course
The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite to form the external jugular vein at the angle of the mandible. It courses inferiorly in...
The external oblique muscle (EOM) is one of the muscles that forms the anterior abdominal wall. Its free inferior border forms the inguinal ligament, and its aponeurotic part contributes to the anterior wall of the inguinal canal.
origin: outer surface of the shaft of the lower 8 ribs...
The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers to the middle meningeal artery.
The extra-ocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements:
superior rectus: elevation
superior oblique: intorsion
medial rectus: adduction
lateral rectus: abduction
inferior oblique: extorsion
inferior rectus: depression
The extraconal orbital compartment or extraconal space is the space within the orbit outside the musculofascial cone. The base of which is anterior and is formed by the orbital septum that surrounds the equator of the globe. The external sides are formed by the bones of the orbit and their perio...
The extradural (epidural) space is a potential space between the cranial bones and the endosteal layer of the dura mater, which is otherwise adherent to the cranial bone.
The extradural space is a potential space inside the cranial vault and is not normally appreciable unless th...
An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
The extrapyramidal system is the part of the motor system involved in modulation and regulation of movement. As its name suggests, it is distinct from the motor fibres that are relayed through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata (corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts).
It is composed of nerv...
Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum. It is a normal variant that is found in ~10% of the population 2.
The renal pelvis is formed by all the major calyces. An extarenal pelvis usually appears dilated giving a false indication of ...
The extreme capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain that run between the claustrum and insular cortex.
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue are a group of 4 muscles of the tongue. They all arise outside the tongue, which is in comparison to the intrinsic muscles of the tongue which are entirely within the tongue with no external attachments. They act to alter the position of the tongue where as th...
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic:
Paris St Germain's Hour
Paris St. Germain's Hour
Eye movements are a complex set of movements of the globe that are performed by the extra-ocular muscles that are grouped by the muscles that perform particular movements:
ocular internal rotators
ocular external rotators
The fabella is an accessory ossicle typically found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It occurs in ~20% (range 10-30%) of the population 1.
The fabella can also be fibrocartilaginous in nature and is occasionally found in the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The fabella articulates wi...
A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
The facet (or apophyseal or zygapophyseal) joints are the articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.
They are synovial-lined joints that have a fibrous capsule and connect the articular facets of the vertebrae. The superior facet ...
Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.
In the cervical re...
The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face.
origin: branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual artery
course: ascends anteriorly through the cheek with a tortuous route tow...
The facial bones comprise a set of bones that make up the face:
inferior nasal concha
zygoma (zygomatic bone)
Where these bones join each other, sutures occur.
The facial colliculus is an elevation on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is not formed by the facial nerve nucleus, but by the fibres of the facial nerve arching backwards around the abducens nerve (CN VI) nucleus before turning forwards once more in the caudal pons.
The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin 1.
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions.
Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include:
Tall Zulus Bear Many Children
Two Zulus Bit My Cat
Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx
Ten Zebras Buggered My Car
To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include:
I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1
I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts
both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve
I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions
The facial vein (previously known as the anterior facial vein) is the continuation of the angular vein and joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3.
At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial ...
The facial-cavernous anastomoses are the communications of the facial and deep facial veins with the cavernous sinus.
At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally f...
The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus.
It is situated in an anteroposterior plane, but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum be...
The Fallopian (facial) canal refers to a bony canal through which the facial nerve traverses the petrous temporal bone, from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen.
It is, for those of you fond of trivia, the longest bony canal through which a nerve passes. It is also responsi...
The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the vestibule above from the ventricle below.
The vestibular ligaments are the ligamentous component of the false vocal cords and const...
The falx cerebelli is a small infolding of the dura in the sagittal plane over the floor of the posterior cranial fossa. It partially separates the two cerebellar hemispheres 1.
The falx cerebelli is attached posteriorly in the midline to the internal occipital crest of the occip...
The falx cerebri is the largest of the four main folds (or septa) of the intracranial dura mater, separating the cerebral hemispheres 1.
The falx cerebri is a double-fold of dura mater that descends through the interhemispheric fissure in the midline of the brain to separate the...
The female reproductive system (or tract) comprises of the vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries.
It can be imaged using almost the entire range of modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most useful.
The female urethra is a simple tube that extends from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.
The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embedded in the anterior vaginal wall and runs with...
The femoral canal, or the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is the inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes:
allows the femoral vein to expand ...
The femoral nerve is a large nerve arising from the lumbar plexus and one of two major nerves supplying the lower limb.
It arises from posterior divisions of L2-L4 roots of the lumbar plexus.
emerges from the lateral border of the psoas muscle to descend between ...
The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. It boundaries are:
medial: lacunar ligament
anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament
lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath
posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and ...
The femoral sheath is the funnel-shaped fascial space that extends from the abdomen, inferior to the inguinal ligament, into the femoral triangle. It has variable length and terminates by blending in with the adventitia of the femoral vessels. It is formed from the transversalis and psoas fascia...