Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,555 results found
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Ethmoidal air cells

The ethmoidal air cells (or less commonly, the ethmoidal sinuses) form one of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses. They are located within the single, midline ethmoid bone. Summary location: between the orbit and the nasal cavity, within the ethmoid labyrinth of the ethmoid bone blood supply:...
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Ethmoid bone

The ethmoid bone is a single midline facial bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain and is located at the roof of the nose and between the orbits. It is a cubical shape and is relatively lightweight because of its spongy construction. It contributes to the anterior cranial fossa. Gr...
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Ethmoid bulla

The ethmoid bulla, also known as bulla ethmoidalis, is the largest and most consistent air cell of the anterior ethmoid air cells. Gross anatomy It is located posterior to the frontal recess and enclosed laterally by the lamina papyracea. It forms the roof of the middle meatus. It can be clas...
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Ethmoid infundibulum

The ethmoid infundibulum is a curved cleft of the ethmoid bone which leads into the anterior portion of the hiatus semilunaris. It is bordered medially by the uncinate process and laterally by the orbital plate of the ethmoid. The infundibulum is often continuous with the frontal recess into whi...
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Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube, or more appropriately the pharyngotympanic tube, is the channel through which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. It is approximately 36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sagittal pl...
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Eustachian valve

The Eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.   Incomplete regression of ...
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Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

Extensor carpis radialis brevis (ECRB) is a muscle of superficial layer on posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. ECRB is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ann...
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Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

Extensor carpis radialis longus (ECRL) is a muscle of the superficial layer in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 2nd extensor compartment of the wrist. It is one of the three muscles forming the mobile wad of Henry. Summary origin: lateral supracondyle ridge of hu...
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Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor carpis ulnaris (ECU) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is separated from the extensor digitorum and the extensor digiti minimi muscles by a distinct intermuscular septum. It is the only forearm extensor that lies in its own fibro-osseou...
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Extensor compartments of the wrist

The extensor tendons at the level of the wrist are divided into six extensor compartments that are designated by Roman numerals from lateral to medial 1: I: extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus II: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis III: extensor poll...
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Extensor digiti minimi

Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, and with other extensor muscles arises from a common extensor tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The EDM represents a medial group of superficial extensor muscles...
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Extensor digitorum

Extensor digitorum (ED), also known as extensor digitorum communis (EDC), is a muscle of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and with other extensor muscles arises from a common tendon attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. ED represents a medial group o...
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Extensor digitorum brevis manus

The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle is an accessory muscle in the hand and is a normal anatomical variant.  Summary origin: distal radius and posterior radiocarpal ligament insertion: extensor hood of 2nd or 3rd digits (variable) innervation: posterior interosseous nerve actio...
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Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps extend digits 2 through 4. Summary origin: superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion: lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV action: extension of toes II to I...
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Extensor digitorum longus muscle

Extensor digitorium longus (EDL) is a thin muscle situated in the anterior leg lateral to extensor hallucis longus and extends the lateral four toes. Summary origin: lateral tibial condyle, medial surface of the middle portion of the fibula and superior portion of the anterior surface of the i...
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Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the dorsal surface of the foot which helps to extend the big toe. Summary origin superolateral surface of calcaneus insertion base of proximal phalanx of great toe action extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe arterial supply dors...
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Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Summary origin: anterior surface of the middle portion of the fibula and the interosseous membrane insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the distal pha...
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Extensor indicis

The extensor indicis muscle is an accessory extensor of the 2nd digit. It is located in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm and its tendon passes through the 4th extensor compartment of the wrist. Summary origin: posterior surface of the ulna (distal to extensor pollicis...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee

The extensor mechanism of the knee comprises: quadriceps muscle quadriceps tendon medial patellar retinaculum lateral patellar retinaculum patella patellar tendon tibial tuberosity Related pathology extensor mechanism of the knee injuries
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Extensor pollicis brevis

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) is one of the muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm, inserting into the base of the proximal phalynx of the thumb. Along with extensor pollicis longus, it is responsible for extension of the thumb. Along with abductor pollicis longus...
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Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a muscle of the deep compartment in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It passes through the 3rd extensor compartment of the wrist, then continues laterally towards the thumb around Lister's tubercle. The tendon of EPL defines the ulnar border of the Anat...
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Extensor retinaculum

The extensor retinaculum is located at the dorsal aspect of the foot and consists of the superior and inferior extensor retinacula.  Gross anatomy The superior extensor retinaculum is located proximally to the dorsal aspect of the ankle joint and houses the tibialis anterior, extensor digitoru...
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External auditory canal

The external auditory canal (EAC) extends from the external auditory meatus (EAM) medially to the tympanic membrane. Terminology The external auditory meatus (EAM) may either refer to the canal or the round lateral opening of the EAC. Gross anatomy The EAC is typically 2.5 cm in length and i...
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External capsule

The external capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain situated between the putamen and claustrum. It is composed of claustrocortical fibres dorsally and the combined mass of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus ventrally.  Relationships The putamen s...
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External carotid artery

The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA. Summary origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery course: under the submandibular gland an...
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External ear

The external ear comprises the auricle (or pinna), the external auditory meatus, and the tympanic membrane (eardrum). The auricle concentrates and amplifies sound waves and funnels them through the outer acoustic pore into the external auditory meatus to the tympanic membrane. Gross anatomy Au...
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External iliac artery

The external iliac artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery. Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.  Course The ext...
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External iliac lymph nodes

The external iliac lymph nodes can be found surrounding the external iliac artery and act as the draining nodes for several regions of the pelvis and lower limb.  Gross anatomy The external iliac lymph nodes lie anterior to the internal iliac lymph nodes and usually form three separate subgrou...
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External iliac vein

The external iliac vein (EIV) is located along the pelvic brim between the inguinal ligament and the sacroiliac joint.  Gross anatomy Origin posterior to inguinal ligament within lacuna vasorum 1 as continuation of femoral vein Termination The external iliac vein unites with the internal il...
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External intercostal muscle

The external (or outermost) intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal space, expanding the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during inspiration. Gross anatomy The external intercostal muscles are the o...
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External jugular vein

The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face, and part of the pectoral region. Gross anatomy Origin and course The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite to form the external jugular vein at the angle of the mandible. It courses inferiorly ...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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External oblique muscle

The external oblique muscle (EOM) is one of the muscles that forms the anterior abdominal wall. Its free inferior border forms the inguinal ligament, and its aponeurotic part contributes to the anterior wall of the inguinal canal.  Summary origin: outer surface of the shaft of the lower 8 ribs...
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External petrosal nerve

The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers to the middle meningeal artery.
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Extraconal orbital compartment

The extraconal orbital compartment or extraconal space is the space within the orbit outside the musculofascial cone. The base of which is anterior and is formed by the orbital septum that surrounds the equator of the globe. The external sides are formed by the bones of the orbit and their perio...
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Extradural space

The extradural (epidural) space is a potential space between the cranial bones and the endosteal layer of the dura mater, which is otherwise adherent to the cranial bone.  Gross anatomy The extradural space is a potential space inside the cranial vault and is not normally appreciable unless th...
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
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Extraocular muscle nerve supply (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the nerve supply to the extraocular muscles: LR6SO4O3 (mock 'chemical formula') Mnemonic The letters represent the extraocular muscles and numbers represent their respective cranial nerve supply: LR6: lateral rectus, innervated by the 6th (abducens) nerve  SO4: superi...
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Extra-ocular muscles

The extra-ocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion inferior rectus: depression Innervation oculomotor ...
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Extrapyramidal system

The extrapyramidal system is the part of the motor system involved in modulation and regulation of movement. As its name suggests, it is distinct from the motor fibres that are relayed through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata (corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts). It is composed of nerv...
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Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum; it is a normal anatomic variant. Epidemiology It is found in ~10% of the population 2.  Radiographic features Ultrasound An extrarenal pelvis usually appears dilated, erroneously suggesting...
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Extreme capsule

The extreme capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain that run between the claustrum and insular cortex.
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue are a group of 4 muscles of the tongue. They all arise outside the tongue, which is in comparison to the intrinsic muscles of the tongue which are entirely within the tongue with no external attachments. They act to alter the position of the tongue where as th...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

 The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonics Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
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Eyelid

The eyelid covers the eye and is covered in front with loose skin and behind with adherent conjunctiva. The lower lid possesses very little mobility; lids are closed gently by palpebral fibres and forcefully by orbicularis oculi.    Gross anatomy The eyelid comprises of a number of key featur...
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Eye movements

Eye movements are a complex set of movements of the globe that are performed by the extra-ocular muscles that are grouped by the muscles that perform particular movements: ocular adductors ocular abductors ocular elevators ocular depressors ocular internal rotators ocular external rotators
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Fabella

The fabella is an accessory ossicle typically found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It occurs in ~20% (range 10-30%) of the population 1.  The fabella can also be fibrocartilaginous in nature and is occasionally found in the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The fabella articulates wi...
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Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Facet joint

The facet (or apophyseal or zygapophyseal) joints are the articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.  Gross anatomy They are symmetrical synovial-lined joints that have a fibrous capsule and connect the articular facets of the vertebrae. The sup...
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Facet joint capsule

Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.  In the cervical re...
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Facial artery

The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual artery, in the carotid triangle of the neck course: passes deep to the poster...
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Facial bones

The facial bones comprise a set of bones that make up the face: midline single sphenoid bone ethmoid bone vomer mandible paired bilateral palatine bone nasal bone lacrimal bone inferior nasal concha zygoma (zygomatic bone) maxilla Where these bones join each other, sutures occur.
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Facial-cavernous anastomoses

The facial-cavernous anastomoses are the communications of the facial and deep facial veins with the cavernous sinus. Gross anatomy At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally f...
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Facial colliculus

The facial colliculus is an elevation on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is not formed by the facial nerve nucleus, but by the fibres of the facial nerve arching backwards around the abducens nerve (CN VI) nucleus before turning forwards once more in the caudal pons. Related pathology A ...
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Facial muscles

The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin 1. Gross anatom...
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Facial nerve

The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
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Facial vein

The facial vein (previously known as the anterior facial vein) is the continuation of the angular vein and joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3. Gross Anatomy At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial ...
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Falciform crest

The falciform crest (or crista falciformis) is a horizontal ridge that divides the internal acoustic meatus (IAM) into superior and inferior portions. Superior The facial nerve (VII) and superior vestibular nerve (SVN) travel in the superior portion of the IAM with the facial nerve anterior to...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum beh...
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Fallopian canal

The Fallopian (facial) canal refers to a bony canal through which the facial nerve traverses the petrous temporal bone, from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen. It is, for those of you fond of trivia, the longest bony canal through which a nerve passes. It is also responsi...
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Fallopian tube segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the order of the 5 segments of the Fallopian tube, from lateral to medial, the direction an ovum would pass following ovulation, is: Four INches Across IS IMpossible Four inches (10 cm) is the approximate length of the Fallopian tube. ​Mnemonic F: fimbriae IN: ...
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False vocal cords

The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the vestibule above from the ventricle below.  Gross anatomy The vestibular ligaments are the ligamentous component of the false vocal cords and const...
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Falx cerebelli

The falx cerebelli is a small infolding of the dura in the sagittal plane over the floor of the posterior cranial fossa. It partially separates the two cerebellar hemispheres 1. Gross anatomy The falx cerebelli is attached posteriorly in the midline to the internal occipital crest of the occip...
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Falx cerebri

The falx cerebri is the largest of the four main folds (or septa) of the intracranial dura mater, separating the cerebral hemispheres 1.  Gross anatomy The falx cerebri is a double-fold of dura mater that descends through the interhemispheric fissure in the midline of the brain to separate the...
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Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system (or tract) comprises the vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries. It can be imaged using a wide range of imaging modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most useful. 
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Female urethra

The female urethra is a simple short tube, that transports the urine out of the body, extending from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice in the vestibule of the vagina.  Gross anatomy The female urethra measures approximately 4 cm in length. It is embe...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal, or the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is the inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expand ...
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Femoral nerve

The femoral nerve is a large nerve arising from the lumbar plexus and one of two major nerves supplying the lower limb. Gross anatomy Origin It arises from posterior divisions of L2-L4 roots of the lumbar plexus. Course emerges from the lateral border of the psoas muscle to descend between ...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and...
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Femoral sheath

The femoral sheath is the funnel-shaped fascial space that extends from the abdomen, inferior to the inguinal ligament, into the femoral triangle. It has variable length and terminates by blending in with the adventitia of the femoral vessels. It is formed from the transversalis and psoas fascia...
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Femoral triangle

The femoral triangle is found in the anterior upper thigh. Gross anatomy Boundaries The major boundaries can be recalled with the mnemonic SAIL 1,2: lateral border: medial border of sartorius medial border: medial border of adductor longus superior border: inguinal ligament floor: iliopso...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Femoral vein

The femoral vein is the main deep vein of the thigh and accompanies the superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery. Terminology The term "superficial femoral vein" or its abbreviation, "SFV" should not be used as it is a misnomer (i.e. it is not a superficial vein), and can be especi...
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Femoroacetabular joint

The femoroacetabular or hip joint is a large ball-and-socket synovial joint between the femoral head and the acetabulum. Summary articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum ligaments: ischiofemoral, iliofemoral, pubofemoral and transverse acetabular li...
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Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, neck, greater tr...
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Fetal circulation

Fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation due to the presence of certain vessels and shunts.  These shunts will close after birth, and most of these fetal vessels will be seen as remnants in the adult circulation. The function of these shunts is to direct oxygen-rich venous blood to ...
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Fibrous joints

Fibrous joints are a type of joint where the bones are joined by strong fibrous tissue rich in collagen. These joints allow for very little movement (if any) and are often referred to as synarthroses. Examples cranial sutures between bones of the skull gomphosis joints between teeth and alveo...
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Fibula

The fibula (plural: fibulae) is the smaller of the two bones of the leg. It is not directly involved in the transmission of weight but is important for ankle stability and acts as a source for numerous muscle attachments. It is commonly raised as a flap for reconstructive surgery.  Gross anatom...
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Fibular artery

The fibular or peroneal artery is one of the three arteries of the leg, along with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Gross anatomy Origin and course arises from the tibioperoneal trunk approximately 2.5 cm distal to popliteus and passes obliquely to the fibula, descending along its ...
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Fifth lumbar vertebra (L5)

The fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is the largest of the five lumbar vertebrae and is considered an atypical vertebra due to its shape.  Gross anatomy L5 is the largest, most inferior lumbar discovertebral unit in the vertebral column, and participates in forming the lumbar lordosis (from L1 to L5...
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Filum terminale

The filum terminale is a filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris. Gross anatomy The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections: filum terminale internum: upper three quarters of the filum; covere...
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First rib

The first rib is the most superior of the twelve ribs. It is an atypical rib and is an important anatomical landmark and is one of the borders of the superior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy Osteology Compared to a typical rib, the first rib is short and thick and it has a single articular f...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Fissula ante fenestram

The fissula ante fenestram (FAF), also known as the cochlear cleft, is a small connective tissue-filled cleft located where the tendon of the tensor tympani muscle turns laterally toward the malleus. It is situated immediately anterior to the oval window, and posterior to the cochleariform proce...
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Flat bones

Flat bones are 1 of the 5 types of bones in the body and represent a group of bones (predominantly of the cranium) that have a relatively flat shape and form from intramembranous ossification.
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Flexor carpi radialis

Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) is a muscle found in the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. It does not pass through the carpal tunnel, but rather by itself in a small separate tunnel between the superficial and deep layers of the flexor retinaculum along the scaphoid and trapez...
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Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) is a muscle of the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. Summary origin humeral head: medial epicondyle of the humerus ulnar head: medial border of olecranon and posterior border of ulna insertion: base of 5th metacarpal; hook of hamate, pisiform...
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Flexor digiti minimi brevis

The flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle lies lateral to the abductor digiti minimi, within the hypothenar eminence. Summary origin: hook of the hamate and flexor retinaculum insertion: proximal phalanx of 5th digit action: flexes 5th finger at metacarpophalangeal joint arterial supply: ulnar...
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Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle

The flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle lies under the 5th metatarsal bone. Summary origin: base of metatarsal V and related sheath of fibularis longus tendon insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe action: flexes 5th toe at metatarsophalangeal joint arterial supply: l...
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Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

The flexor digitorum brevis muscle lies immediately superior to the plantar aponeurosis and inferior to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus in the sole of the foot. Summary origin: medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis insertion: sides of plantar surface of mid...
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Flexor digitorum longus muscle

The flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle is located on the tibial side of the leg within the deep posterior compartment of the leg. At its origin it is thin but as it descends, the muscle increases in size. Summary origin: medial side of posterior surface of the tibia insertion: plantar surfa...

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