Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,247 results found
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Femoral triangle

The femoral triangle is found in the anterior upper thigh. Gross anatomy Boundaries The major boundaries can be recalled with the mnemonic SAIL 1,2: lateral border: medial border of sartorius medial border: medial border of adductor longus superior border: inguinal ligament floor: iliopso...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Femoral vein

The femoral vein is the main deep vein of the lower limb, and accompanies the superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery. The term 'superficial femoral vein' is to be avoided as it is a misnomer (i.e. it is not a superficial vein). Gross anatomy Origin and course The femoral vein fo...
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Femoroacetabular joint

The femoroacetabular or hip joint is a large ball-and-socket synovial joint between the femoral head and the acetabulum. Summary articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum ligaments: ischiofemoral, iliofemoral, pubofemoral and transverse acetabular li...
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Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, neck, greater tr...
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Fetal circulation

Fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation due to the presence of certain vessels and shunts.  These shunts will close after birth, and most of these fetal vessels will be seen as remnants in the adult circulation. The function of these shunts is to direct oxygen-rich venous blood to ...
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Fibrous joints

Fibrous joints are a type of joint where the bones are joined by strong fibrous tissue rich in collagen. These joints allow for very little movement (if any) and are often referred to as synarthroses. Examples cranial sutures between bones of the skull gomphosis joints between teeth and alveo...
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Fibula

The fibula (plural: fibulae) is the smaller of the two bones of the leg. It is not directly involved in the transmission of weight but is important for ankle stability and acts as a source for numerous muscle attachments. It is commonly raised as a flap for reconstructive surgery.  Gross anatom...
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Fibular artery

The fibular or peroneal artery is one of the three arteries of the leg, along with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Gross anatomy Origin and course arises from the tibioperoneal trunk approximately 2.5 cm distal to popliteus and passes obliquely to the fibula, descending along its ...
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Fifth lumbar vertebra (L5)

The fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is the largest of the five lumbar vertebrae and is considered an atypical vertebra due to its shape.  Gross anatomy L5 is the largest, most inferior lumbar discovertebral unit in the vertebral column, and participates in forming the lumbar lordosis (from L1 to L5...
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Filum terminale

The filum terminale is a filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris. Gross anatomy The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections: filum terminale internum: upper three quarters of the filum; covere...
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First rib

The first rib is the most superior of the twelve ribs. It is an atypical rib and is an important anatomical landmark and is one of the borders of the superior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy Osteology Compared to a typical rib, the first rib is short and thick and it has a single articular f...
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Fissula ante fenestram

The fissula ante fenestram (FAF), also known as the cochlear cleft, is a small connective tissue-filled cleft located where the tendon of the tensor tympani muscle turns laterally toward the malleus. It is situated immediately anterior to the oval window, and posterior to the cochleariform proce...
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Flat bones

Flat bones are 1 of the 5 types of bones in the body and represent a group of bones (predominantly of the cranium) that have a relatively flat shape and form from intramembranous ossification.
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Flexor carpi radialis

Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) is a muscle found in the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. It does not pass through the carpal tunnel, but rather by itself in a small separate tunnel between the superficial and deep layers of the flexor retinaculum along the scaphoid and trapez...
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Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) is a muscle of the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. Summary origin humeral head: medial epicondyle of the humerus ulnar head: medial border of olecranon and posterior border of ulna insertion: base of 5th metacarpal; hook of hamate, pisiform...
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Flexor digiti minimi brevis

The flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle lies lateral to the abductor digiti minimi. Summary origin: hook of the hamate and flexor retinaculum insertion: proximal phalanx of 5th digit action: flexes 5th finger at metacarpophalangeal joint arterial supply: ulnar artery innervation: deep branc...
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Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle

The flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle lies under the 5th metatarsal bone. Summary origin: base of metatarsal V and related sheath of fibularis longus tendon insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe action: flexes 5th toe at metatarsophalangeal joint arterial supply: l...
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Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

The flexor digitorum brevis muscle lies immediately superior to the plantar aponeurosis and inferior to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus in the sole of the foot. Summary origin: medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis insertion: sides of plantar surface of mid...
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Flexor digitorum longus muscle

The flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle is located on the tibial side of the leg within the deep posterior compartment of the leg. At its origin it is thin but as it descends, the muscle increases in size. Summary origin: medial side of posterior surface of the tibia insertion: plantar surfa...
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Flexor digitorum profundus

Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) makes up the third layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm along with flexor pollicis longus. It passes through the carpal tunnel. Summary origin: proximal, anterior surface of ulna and adjacent interosseous membrane insertion: volar surface of distal...
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Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) is a muscle in the second (intermediate) layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm that splits into four tendons, passes under the flexor retinaculum and through the carpal tunnel, to insert into the middle phalanx of the 2nd-4th digits.  Summary ori...
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Flexor hallucis brevis muscle

The flexor hallucis brevis muscle is one of the small muscles of the foot that is involved in flexion of the 1st toe. The hallux sesamoid bones are embedded within its tendon.  Summary origin: plantar surface of cuboid insertion: medial and lateral sesamoid bones of first metatarsal action: ...
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Flexor hallucis longus

The flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle is one of the muscles of the posterior deep compartment of the leg and along with flexor hallucis brevis, is involved in flexion of the great toe. Its tendon passes between the medial and lateral tubercles of the talus. It's tendon sheath may communicate w...
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Flexor pollicis brevis

The flexor pollicis brevis muscle is distal to the abductor pollicis brevis. Summary origin: tubercle of the trapezium and flexor retinaculum insertion: proximal phalanx of the thumb action: flexes thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint arterial supply: superficial palmar arch innervation: rec...
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Flexor pollicis longus

Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) is one of the two muscles that make up the third layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm along with the flexor digitorum profundus. It is a deep muscle under abductor pollicis brevis muscle. It passes through the carpal tunnel. Summary origin: mid-anterior...
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Flexor retinaculum

The flexor retinaculum (also known as the transverse carpal ligament) is a rectangular-shaped fibrous band located at the ventral aspect of the wrist. Gross anatomy On the radial side, it attaches to the scaphoid tubercle and the ridge of the trapezium. On the ulnar side, it attaches to the pi...
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Flexor retinaculum at the ankle

Flexor retinaculum at the ankle is formed by reinforcement of the deep fascia of the leg by transverse collagen bundles and functions to prevent 'bowstringing' of tendons as they pass the tibiotalar joint. It forms the roof of the tarsal tunnel 1, 2. insertions medial malleolus of the tibia m...
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Floor of mouth

The floor of mouth is an oral cavity subsite and is a common location of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.  Gross anatomy The floor of mouth is a U-shaped space extends (and includes) from the oral cavity mucosa superiorly, and the mylohyoid muscle sling 2,3.  Boundaries superiorly: oral ...
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Focal fatty deposits in spinal bone marrow

Focal fatty deposits/replacement in spinal bone marrow are well-defined focal fat islands within the bone marrow of spine or other parts of axial skeleton. Epidemiology Common in older individuals, related to age and not related to sex. Pathology This process is a normal variant. Histologica...
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Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum is located in the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable distance from the crista galli. The foramen caecum is frequently found in infants, uncomm...
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Foramen caecum (disambiguation)

Foramen caecum can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: foramen caecum (tongue) foramen caecum (anterior cranial fossa)
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Foramen lacerum

The foramen lacerum is a triangular opening located in the middle cranial fossa anterior to the petrous apex, which forms its posterior border. Its anterior border is formed by the body of the sphenoid bone at the junction of greater wing and pterygoid process and medial border is formed by the ...
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Foramen magnum

The foramen magnum is the largest foramen of the skull and is part of the occipital bone 1. It is oval in shape with a large antero-posterior diameter 2. Gross anatomy The foramen magnum is found in the most inferior part of the posterior cranial fossa 3. It is traversed by vital structures in...
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Foramen of Langer

The foramen of Langer is a defect in the deep pectoralis fascia. It is a defect at the level of the third intercostal space, through which the upper lateral portion of the breast extends into the axilla forming the axillary tail of Spence.
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Foramen of Magendie

The foramen of Magendie (also called median aperture) is one of the foramina in the ventricular system and links the fourth ventricle and the cisterna magna. It is one of the three ways that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can leave the fourth ventricle and enter the subarachnoid space.
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Foramen of Rouviere

The foramen of Rouviere is a rarely seen space in the shoulder joint capsule between middle and inferior glenohumeral ligaments and it may communicate with the subcoracoid recess (inferior subscapularis recess). It should not be confused with an acquired defect.
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Foramen of Weitbrecht

The foramen of Weitbrecht is a small opening in the glenohumeral joint capsule between superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments and is seen communicating with the subtendinous bursa of the subscapularis muscle.
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Foramen ovale (cardiac)

The foramen ovale (or ovalis) is the opening in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to bypass the right ventricle and non-ventilated lungs, shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium. Specifically it represents the opening between the upper and lower portions of the...
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Foramen ovale (disambiguation)

Foramen ovale can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: foramen ovale (head) foramen ovale (cardiac)
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Foramen rotundum

The foramen rotundum is located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Its medial border is formed by lateral wall of sphenoid sinus. It runs downwards and laterally in an oblique path and joins the middle crani...
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Foramen spinosum

The foramen spinosum is located in the posteromedial part of greater wing of sphenoid bone posterolateral to foramen ovale which connects the middle cranial fossa with the infratemporal fossa. It transmits the middle meningeal artery, middle meningeal vein, and (usually) the nervus spinosus. Va...
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Foramen tympanicum

The foramen tympanicum (also known as foramen of Huschke) is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a foramen tympanicum in the asym...
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Forceps major

The forceps major, also known as the posterior forceps, is a fibre bundle which connects the occipital lobes and crosses the midline via the splenium of the corpus callosum. 
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Forceps minor

The forceps minor, also known as the anterior forceps, is a fibre bundle which connects the lateral and medial surfaces of the frontal lobes and crosses the midline via the genu of the corpus callosum.
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Forearm

The forearm is part of the upper limb below the (upper) arm and above the hand and wrist, comprising the radius and ulna bones. In the supinated anatomical position, the radius is lateral and the ulna is medial. The elbow joint is superior and the wrist joint inferior. Forearm flexion and exten...
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Forefoot

The forefoot is the portion of the foot distal to the midfoot and is composed of the metatarsals and the phalanges. The tarsometatarsal joints (TMTJ) joins the midfoot to the forefoot.
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Fornix

The fornix is the main efferent system of the hippocampus and an important part of the limbic system. It is one of the commissural fibres connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Gross anatomy Roughly C-shaped, the fornix extends from the hippocampus to the mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus and...
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Fossa navicularis

The fossa navicularis refers to a normal mild dilatation of the urethra. It occurs at the most distal/downstream portion of the urethra. It is more evident in males, where it occurs in the penile/pendulous urethra, near the urethral meatus. There is also a fossa navicularis in women: the more f...
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Fossa of Rosenmüller

The fossa of Rosenmüller, also known as the posterolateral or pharyngeal recess, is the most common site of origin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Gross anatomy It is located superior and posterior to the torus tubarius (the posterior projection of the cartilaginous portion of the eustachian tub...
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Fossa ovale

The fossa ovale (or ovalis) is the small oval depression in the interatrial septum at the site of the closed foramen ovale, which closes once fetal circulation ceases in the first few minutes of postnatal life. It represents the overlapping primary and secondary septa of the interatrial septum. ...
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Fourth ventricle

The fourth ventricle is one of the components of the ventricular system in the brain, along with the lateral and third ventricles. It extends from the cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) to the obex and is filled with CSF. CSF enters the ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct and leaves via one of four...
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Fovea ethmoidalis

The fovea ethmoidalis is a portion of the ethmoid bone and represents its superior portion (part of the ethmoid roof) which is seen as a continuation of the superior orbital roof to the cribriform plate.  
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Foveola pharyngica recess

A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2. 
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Frontal bone

The frontal bone is a skull bone that contributes to the cranial vault. It contributes to form part of the anterior cranial fossa. Gross anatomy The frontal bone has two portions: vertical portion (squama): has external/internal surfaces horizontal portion (orbital): has superior/inferior su...
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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe is by far the largest of the four lobes of the cerebrum, and is responsible for many of the functions which produce voluntary and purposeful action.  Gross anatomy The frontal lobe is the largest lobe accounting for 41% of the total neocortical volume 8. The frontal lobe resid...
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Frontal nerve

The frontal nerve is a largest and main branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It divides off the ophthalmic division just before entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure outside and superolateral to the tendinous ring, where it lies between the lacrimal nerve ...
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Frontal pole

The frontal pole is one of the three poles of the brain (along with the occipital pole and temporal pole), and corresponds to the anterior most rounded point of the frontal lobe. It does not have easily defined boundaries, but is roughly equivalent to the frontopolar cortex, which in turn is co...
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Frontal sinus

The frontal sinus develops from anterosuperior pneumatisation of the frontal recess into the frontal bone. Development begins late in intrauterine life or may start after birth (from one to twenty years and starts in the vertical segment). Pneumatisation develops from one to twelve years-old. G...
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Frontoethmoidal suture

The frontoethmoidal suture is a short cranial suture located in the anterior cranial fossa, between the orbital process of frontal and orbital plate of ethmoid bones. It forms part of the medial wall of the orbit. The anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina are seen just superior to it, throu...
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Frontolacrimal suture

The frontolacimal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal and lacrimal bones.
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Frontomaxillary-suture

The frontomaxillary suture is the site where the nasal process of frontal bone meets the frontal process of the maxilla.
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Frontonasal suture

The frontonasal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal bone and the two nasal bones. This suture meets the internasal suture at the nasion.
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Frontopolar artery

The frontopolar artery is a branch of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), commonly arising after the medial frontobasal artery and coursing obliquely across the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere towards the frontal pole.
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Frontopolar cortex

The frontopolar cortex is located at the frontal pole of each frontal lobe, and is comprised of three roughly horizontal gyri: superior, middle and inferior frontopolar gyri.  It contains Brodmann area 10, which is thought to contribute to many aspects of cognition 1,2. Despite many studies re...
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Frontozygomatic suture

The frontozygomatic suture (or zygomaticofrontal suture) is between the frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
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Fusiform gyrus

The fusiform gyrus, also known as the temporo-occipital gyrus is a structure that lies on the basal surface of the temporal and occipital lobes. It forms part of Brodmann area 37, along with the inferior and medial temporal gyri. As its name suggests, it is composed of a temporal or anterior por...
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Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the Galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly o...
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Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped musculomembranous sac, lodged in a fossa on the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, and extending from near the right extremity of the porta hepatis to the anterior border of the liver.  Gross anatomy It typically measures from 7 to 10 cm in length and...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly. Epidemiology The incidence is <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%). There is strong female predominance present among the symptomatic cases. Clinical presentation Most patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are asymptomatic. Although some patie...
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Gallbladder duplication

Gallbladder duplication is a rare anatomic anomaly characterised by the presence of an accessory gallbladder. There is no increased risk for malignancy or calculi compared to a single gallbladder. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated at 1 in 3000.  Classification Boyden's classification divi...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastro-oesophageal junction

The gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) (also known as the oesophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the oesophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GOJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the oesophagus slides in ...
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Gastrocnemius muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is one of the calf muscles (triceps sure) in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg which sits superificial to the much larger soleus muscle. It gives the calf its distinctive two-headed appearance and is a primary plantarflexor. Summary origin: superior to a...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of the most important sour...
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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal. 
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Gastrosplenic ligament

The gastrosplenic ligament is a peritoneal ligament which is formed by ventral part of dorsal mesentery. Gross anatomy The gastrosplenic ligament extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen. It contains the short gastric arteries. Related anatomy During porta...
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General anatomy

General anatomy is best described as the study of general anatomic concepts and structures removed from the specific regional anatomy focus.
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Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate ganglion contains fibres for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tympanic segment...
Article

Genioglossus muscle

The genioglossus muscle is a fan-shaped extrinsic muscles of the tongue which makes up the bulk of the tongue. Summary origin: superior mental spine of the symphysis menti (posterior surface of midline mandible) insertion: entire tongue mass and body of the hyoid bone nerve supply: hypogloss...
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Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is one of the suprahyoid muscles of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. Geniohyoid draws the hyoid bone up and forward during mastication and assists the opening of the mandible. Summary origin: inferior mental spine of the mandible also known as the g...
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Genitofemoral nerve

The genitofemoral nerve is a branch of the lumbar plexus arising within the substance of the psoas major muscle from the union of anterior rami of L1 and L2 spinal nerves. The nerve descends in the retroperitoneum to give off genital and femoral terminal branches supplying the skin over the ante...
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Gerdy's tubercle

Gerdy's tubercle is the eponymous name for the lateral condyle of the proximal tibia (where it is located anterolaterally). It is where the iliotibial band and anterior tibialis muscle inserts. 
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Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the short saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy where the short saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chronic ...
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Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs refer to the alignment described on posteroanterior or anteroposterior wrist radiographs and are used to assess normal alignment of the carpus: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: traces the...
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Glabella

The glabella is the smooth midline bony prominence between the supraciliary arches of the frontal bone, representing the most anterior part of the forehead when standing erect and look straight ahead. The metopic suture traverses the glabella, between the two frontal bones. Just below it is the ...
Article

Glenohumeral joint

The glenohumeral joint is a synovial joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid. Summary articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid joint: shoulder ligaments: glenohumeral, coracohumeral and transverse humeral ligaments movements: arm flex...
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Glenohumeral ligaments

There are three glenohumeral ligaments (GHL), which are thickenings of the glenohumeral joint capsule and are important passive stabilisers of the joint.  Gross anatomy Superior glenohumeral ligament runs from the superior aspect of the glenoid and coracoid process to the fovea capitis just s...
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Glenoid

The glenoid or glenoid cavity or fossa is the shallow depression of the scapula found on the lateral angle. Gross anatomy Attachments  glenoid labrum: the cavity has a fibrocartilaginous structure on its margin called the glenoid labrum which is continuous superiorly with the tendon of the lo...
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Glenoid labrum

The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure that attaches as a rim to the articular cartilage of the glenoid fossa and serves to deepen and increase the surface area. In this capacity, it acts as a static stabiliser of the glenohumeral joint, preventing dislocation and subluxation at th...

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