Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,323 results found
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Frontozygomatic suture

The frontozygomatic suture (or zygomaticofrontal suture) is between the frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
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Fundus (disambiguation)

Fundus (plural: fundi) is used as an anatomical term for many organs and is generally used in the sense of a part that is the lower part or is distant from the main aperture: fundus (stomach) fundus (gallbladder) fundus (uterus) fundus (eye) fundus (urinary bladder) fundus (internal acoust...
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Fusiform gyrus

The fusiform gyrus, also known as the temporo-occipital gyrus is a structure that lies on the basal surface of the temporal and occipital lobes. It forms part of Brodmann area 37, along with the inferior and medial temporal gyri. As its name suggests, it is composed of a temporal or anterior por...
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Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the Galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly o...
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Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped musculomembranous sac, lodged in a fossa on the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, and extending from near the right extremity of the porta hepatis to the anterior border of the liver.  Gross anatomy It typically measures from 7 to 10 cm in length and...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly. Epidemiology The incidence is <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%). There is strong female predominance present among the symptomatic cases. Clinical presentation Most patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are asymptomatic. Although some patie...
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Gallbladder duplication

Gallbladder duplication is a rare anatomic anomaly characterised by the presence of an accessory gallbladder. There is no increased risk for malignancy or calculi compared to a single gallbladder. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated at 1 in 3000.  Classification Boyden's classification divi...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastrocnemius muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is one of the calf muscles (triceps sure) in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg which sits superificial to the much larger soleus muscle. It gives the calf its distinctive two-headed appearance and is a primary plantarflexor. Summary origin: superior to a...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of the most important sour...
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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal. 
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Gastro-oesophageal junction

The gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) (also known as the oesophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the oesophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GOJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the oesophagus slides in ...
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Gastrosplenic ligament

The gastrosplenic ligament is a peritoneal ligament which is formed by ventral part of dorsal mesentery. Gross anatomy The gastrosplenic ligament extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen. It contains the short gastric arteries. Related anatomy During porta...
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General anatomy

General anatomy is best described as the study of general anatomic concepts and structures removed from the specific regional anatomy focus.
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Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate ganglion contains fibres for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tympanic segment...
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Genioglossus muscle

The genioglossus muscle is a fan-shaped extrinsic muscles of the tongue which makes up the bulk of the tongue. Summary origin: superior mental spine of the symphysis menti (posterior surface of midline mandible) insertion: entire tongue mass and body of the hyoid bone nerve supply: hypogloss...
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Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is one of the suprahyoid muscles of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. Geniohyoid draws the hyoid bone up and forward during mastication and assists the opening of the mandible. Summary origin: inferior mental spine of the mandible also known as the g...
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Genitofemoral nerve

The genitofemoral nerve is a branch of the lumbar plexus arising within the substance of the psoas major muscle from the union of anterior rami of L1 and L2 spinal nerves. The nerve descends in the retroperitoneum to give off genital and femoral terminal branches supplying the skin over the ante...
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Gerdy's tubercle

Gerdy's tubercle is the eponymous name for the lateral condyle of the proximal tibia (where it is located anterolaterally). It is where the iliotibial band and anterior tibialis muscle inserts. 
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Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the short saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy where the short saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chronic ...
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Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs refer to the alignment described on posteroanterior or anteroposterior wrist radiographs and are used to assess normal alignment of the carpus: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: traces the...
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Glabella

The glabella is the smooth midline bony prominence between the supraciliary arches of the frontal bone, representing the most anterior part of the forehead when standing erect and look straight ahead. The metopic suture traverses the glabella, between the two frontal bones. Just below it is the ...
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Glenohumeral joint

The glenohumeral joint is a synovial joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid. Summary articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid joint: shoulder ligaments: glenohumeral, coracohumeral and transverse humeral ligaments movements: arm flex...
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Glenohumeral ligaments

There are three glenohumeral ligaments (GHL), which are thickenings of the glenohumeral joint capsule and are important passive stabilisers of the joint.  Gross anatomy Superior glenohumeral ligament runs from the superior aspect of the glenoid and coracoid process to the fovea capitis just s...
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Glenoid

The glenoid or glenoid cavity or fossa is the shallow depression of the scapula found on the lateral angle. Gross anatomy Attachments  glenoid labrum: the cavity has a fibrocartilaginous structure on its margin called the glenoid labrum which is continuous superiorly with the tendon of the lo...
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Glenoid labrum

The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure that attaches as a rim to the articular cartilage of the glenoid fossa and serves to deepen and increase the surface area. In this capacity, it acts as a static stabiliser of the glenohumeral joint, preventing dislocation and subluxation at th...
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Glenoid labrum variants

There are a number of glenoid labral variants, whose importance is mainly due to the fact that the unwary may misinterpret them as pathology (e.g. Bankart lesion or labral tear). These include: Buford complex sublabral foramen superior sublabral sulcus
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Globe

The globes or simply, the eyes are paired spherical sensory organs, located anteriorly on the face within the orbits, which house the visual apparatus. Gross anatomy Location The globe is suspended by the bulbar sheath in the anterior third of the bony orbit.  Size Each globe is an approxim...
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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (plural: globus pallidi) is a paired structure and one of the nuclei that make up the basal ganglia. It is a subcortical structure at the base of the forebrain and in anatomical relation to the caudate nucleus and putamen. It forms the lentiform nucleus with the putamen. Eac...
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Glomus body

The glomus body is a component of the dermis that is involved in thermoregulation.  Gross anatomy It consists of a specialised arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. They are most numerous in the fingers and toes and exist to shunt blood from the skin surface when...
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Glossopharyngeal nerve

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve and has sensory, motor, and autonomic components. Gross anatomy Origin The sensory ganglion cells lie in the supe...
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Gluteal muscles

The superficial gluteal muscles lie within the gluteal region posterolateral to the bony pelvis and proximal femur. From superficial to deep lie the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus. The gluteus maximus is an important in hip extension and lateral rotation. Gluteus medius and minimus are hip ...
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Gluteus maximus muscle

The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the gluteal region and overlies most of the other gluteal muscles. Summary origin gluteal surface of the ilium behind the posterior gluteal line the lumbar fascia lateral mass of sacrum sacrotuberous ligament insertion: gluteal tuberosity of th...
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Gluteus medius muscle

The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles are two muscles of the more superficial group in the gluteal region. Summary origin: gluteal surface of the ilium between the posterior and anterior gluteal line insertion: posterolateral surface of the greater trochanter of femur arterial suppl...
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Gluteus minimus muscle

The gluteus minimus and gluteus medius muscles are two muscles of the more superficial group in the gluteal region. Summary origin: gluteal surface of the ilium between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines insertion: anterior surface of the greater trochanter of femur arterial supply: sup...
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Glymphatic pathway

The glymphatic pathway has only recently been described and functionally represents the brain’s lymphatic system, although no anatomical structure equivalent to the peripheral lymphatic system is present within the brain parenchyma. It is believed to be a crucial normal homeostatic feature allow...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins ascend with the gonadal arteries in the abdomen along the psoas muscle anterior to the ureters. Like the s...
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Gracilis muscle

The gracilis is the most superficial muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh and descends almost vertically down the medial side of the thigh. Summary origin: a line on the external surfaces of the body of the pubis, inferior pubic ramus, and the ramus of the ischium insertion: medial s...
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Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.  Gross anatomy It begins on the anterior surface of th...
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Greater auricular nerve

The greater auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin of the auricle as well as skin over the parotid gland and mastoid process. The greater auricular nerve also supplies branches that innervate the deep layer of the parotid fascia.   Gross anatomy O...
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Greater (descending) palatine artery

The greater (descending) palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery which passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply most of the hard palate. Gross anatomy After branching off from the third (pterygopalatine) part of the maxillary artery, the greater palat...
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Greater occipital nerve

The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve that innervates the skin of the occiput and upper neck. Gross anatomy Origin The greater occipital nerve arises from the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of C2. Course The greater occipital nerve emerges between axis (C2) and the obliquus capit...
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Greater palatine foramen

The greater palatine foramen is the opening in the posterior hard palate of the greater palatine canal, which is formed between the articulation of maxillary bone and the greater palatine sulcus of palatine bone. The canal is also known as the pterygopalatine canal. A small accessory canal branc...
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Greater palatine nerve

The greater palatine nerve (or anterior palatine nerve) is a branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and contributes to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The greater palatine nerve divides off the maxillary division just after emerging from the foramen rotundum to en...
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Greater sciatic foramen

The greater sciatic foramen is a foramen within the pelvis and is a major conduit of neurovascular structures from the pelvis to the lower limb.  Gross anatomy Boundaries In a clockwise fashion, its boundaries include: superior: anterior sacroiliac ligament posteromedial: sacrotuberous liga...
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Greater sciatic notch

The greater sciatic notch is a large notch in the pelvis above the ischial spine. The addition of the sacrospinous ligament converts the notch into the greater sciatic foramen.
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Greater superficial petrosal nerve

The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve originates at the geniculate ganglion, where the nervus intermedius and facial nerve join. It contains mainly preganglionic parasympathetic fibers and some sensory taste afferent from the soft palate. It arises at the geniculate ganglion, passes through ...
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Greater trochanteric bursa

The greater trochanteric bursa is located posterior to the greater trochanter of the femur, subjacent to the iliotibial band. Related pathology The clinical importance of the bursa lies in the fact that it commonly becomes inflamed (see: trochanteric bursitis). See also bursae
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Greater wing of sphenoid

The greater wing or ali-sphenoid of the sphenoid bone is a process which projects from either side of the lower part of the sphenoid body, at a common junction with the pterygoid process. 1 It is a paired structure, which curves upward, backward and laterally from each side of the sphenoid body,...
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Great saphenous vein

The great saphenous vein (GSV) forms part of the superficial venous system of the lower limb.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The GSV lies within the subcutaneous tissues of the leg in the thigh in the saphenous compartment, which is bounded posteriorly by the deep fascia and superficially b...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1, 2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease process affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also ...
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Griffiths point

The Griffiths point (or Griffiths critical point) refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the transverse co...
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Guyon's canal

Guyon’s canal is a fibro-osseous tunnel extending from the transverse carpal ligament at the proximal aspect of the pisiform to the origin of the hypothenar muscles at the hook of hamate. It is approximately 4 cm in length. Gross anatomy Boundaries roof: palmar carpal ligament, palmaris brevi...
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Gyrus rectus

The gyrus rectus, or straight gyrus, is located at the medial most margin of the inferior surface of frontal lobe 1,2. Its function is unclear but it may be involved in higher cognitive function (e.g. personality) 3. Gross anatomy The gyrus rectus is bounded medially by the interhemispheric fi...
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Habenula

The habenula is part of the epithalamus and receives input from the brain via the stria medullaris. It outputs to many midbrain areas involved in releasing neuromodulators, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The habenula was traditionally divided into lateral (limbic) and medial (...
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Haller index

The Haller index, also known as pectus index, is a simple mathematical way to assess and describe the chest cage on CT of the chest and is used in the detection of pectus excavatum as well as preoperative and postoperative assessment 1,5. Technique The Haller index is calculated by dividing th...
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Hallux sesamoid

The hallux sesamoid bones are paired ossicles of the foot. They function as a fulcrum to increase the leverage of both flexor hallucis brevis and longus.  Gross anatomy The hallux sesamoids are ovoid-shaped ossicles. There is a medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) hallux sesamoid and are embe...
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Hamate

The hamate is one of the carpal bones, forms part of the distal carpal row and has a characteristic hook on its volar surface. Gross anatomy Osteology The hamate has a wedge-shaped body. It bears an uncinate (unciform) hamulus (hook of hamate) which projects in a volar fashion from the dista...
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Hamstring muscles

The hamstrings are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh and include the: lateral: biceps femoris medial: semimembranosus and semitendinosus Apart from the short head of biceps femoris, the muscles share two common features: span both the hip and knee joints and therefore pro...
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Hand intrinsic muscles innervated by the median nerve (mnemonic)

All the intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve, except four muscles which are supplied by the median nerve and are easily recalled with the mnemonic: FOAL or LOAF Mnemonic F: flexor pollicis brevis O: opponens pollicis A: abductor pollicis brevis L: lateral two lum...
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Hands

The hand is part of the upper limb below the forearm and wrist. In the supinated anatomical position, the palm is facing anteriorly. The bones of the hand are: carpals (8) scaphoid lunate triquetrum pisiform trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate metacarpals (5) phalanges (13) thumb pr...
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Hard palate

The hard palate is the anterior horizontal bony part of the palate that forms the roof of the oral cavity and floor of the nasal cavity. It is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. On its inferior oral surface it is lined by oral mucosa...
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Haustral folds

The haustral folds represent folds of mucosa within the colon. They are formed by circumferential contraction of the inner muscular layer of the colon. The outer longitudinal muscular layer is organised into three bands (taeniae coli) which run from the caecum to the rectum. These muscular band...
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Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy is important when considering pathology affecting the same area. In radiology, the 'head and neck' refers to all the anatomical structures in this region excluding the central nervous system, that is, the brain and spinal cord and their associated vascular structures and en...
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Heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ of the middle mediastinum, designed to pump oxygenated blood around the systemic circulation and de-oxygenated blood around the pulmonary circulation Gross anatomy The heart has a somewhat conical form and is enclosed by pericardium. It is positioned poste...
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Heart chambers

There are four heart chambers, the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. These receive blood from the body and lungs, and contract to transmit blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to the body for use in metabolism. It is best to list the four chambers in order of the ...
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Hemiazygos vein

The hemiazygos vein is the asymmetric counterpart to the azygos vein and forms part of the azygos venous system.  Gross anatomy Origin The hemiazygos vein is formed by the confluence of the left ascending lumbar and left subcostal veins.  Course The hemiazygos vein enters the thorax either ...
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Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It can be a common cause of a congenital scoliosis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2. Pathology It falls under the spectrum of segmentation...
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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper or the proper hepatic artery arises from the common hepatic artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the hepatic artery proper and the gastroduodenal artery.  Gross anatomy Course The hepatic artery proper runs anterior to the portal vein and to the left ...
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Hepatic veins

The hepatic veins are three large intraparenchymal veins which drain the liver substance into the inferior vena cava (IVC), named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and hence defining the segments of the liver....
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Hepatobiliary system

The hepatobiliary system consists of the: liver biliary tree (both intra- and extra-hepatic) gallbladder The pancreas is included by some. 
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Hepatoduodenal ligament

Hepatoduodenal ligament is the peritoneal ligament of lesser omentum, which attaches the duodenum to the liver. Hepatoduodenal ligament contains: portal vein hepatic artery  common hepatic duct  part of cystic duct Hepatoduodenal ligament is a rout of spread of diseases of pancratic head t...
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Hepatogastric ligament

The hepatogastric (gastrohepatic) ligament is a peritoneal ligament that together with the hepatoduodenal ligament forms the lesser omentum. It derives from the embryonic ventral mesentery. Gross anatomy The hepatogastric ligament extends from the fissure of the ligamentum venosum and porta he...
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Heschl's gyrus

Heschl's gyrus, also known as transverse temporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and contains the primary auditory cortex (Brodmann area 41). It is entirely hidden within the Sylvian fissure, with the planum temporale and superior temporal gyrus located lateral to it. 
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Hesselbach's triangle

Hesselbach's triangle or the inguinal triangle is a triangular area on the inferior interior aspect of the anterior abdominal wall within the groin. Gross anatomy Boundaries base: inguinal ligament lateral border: inferior epigastric vessels medial border: lateral border of the rectus sheat...
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Heterotaxy syndrome

Heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus (also commonly, but etymologically less correctly, spelled situs ambiguous) is a disturbance in the usual left and right distribution of the thoracic and abdominal organs which does not entirely correspond to the complete or partial mirror image. It occurs ...
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Hiatus semilunaris

The hiatus semilunaris is a semicircular shaped opening located on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. It is a component of the ostiomeatal complex and serves as the opening for the frontal and maxillary sinuses and the anterior ethmoid air cells. It is inferior to the ethmoid bulla and the un...
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Hilar point

The hilar point on chest radiographs is formed by the outer margins of the superior pulmonary vein and the descending pulmonary artery as they cross past each other. 
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Hilton's law

Hilton's law states that a joint tends to be innervated by a branch of a motor nerve which also supplies a muscle extending and acting across the joint. Another branch of the nerve often supplies the overlying skin.
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Hindfoot

The hindfoot is the most posterior portion of the foot and is composed of the talus and calcaneus. The mid-tarsal joint (Chopart joint) joins the hindfoot to the midfoot.
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Hinge joint

Hinge joints are a type of synovial joint that permit movement in one direction like the hinge on a door. Usually this is achieved by a concave surface articulating with a corresponding convex surface.   Movements Hinge joints allow for movement in a single translational plane only. This one d...
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Hip joint

The hip joint is a synovial joint between the femoral head and the acetabulum of the pelvis. This article considers the hip joint specifically, however it is worth noting that the word hip is often used to refer more generally to the anatomical region around this joint. Summary articulation: b...
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Hip joint capsule

The hip joint capsule is strong and dense, and is attached above to the acetabular margin 5-6 mm beyond its labrum, in front to the outer labral aspect and, near the acetabular notch, to the transverse acetabular ligament and the adjacent rim of the obturator foramen. It surrounds the femoral ne...
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Hippocampal sulcus remnant cyst

Hippocampal sulcus remnant cysts are remnants of incomplete involution of the embryonic hippocampal fissure and are an incidental finding.   Epidemiology They are seen in ~25% (range 10-40%) of the adult population 1,3. Radiographic features MRI They consist of small (1-2 mm) cystic lesions...
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Hippocampus

The hippocampus is an important component of the human brain, situated in the temporal lobe. It plays a role in information processing and the reproductive cycle and is involved in Alzheimer disease. Gross anatomy Location The hippocampus lies in the hippocampal sulcus immediately below the f...
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Histology of blood vessels

The walls of arteries and veins are composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix (including collagen and elastin).  These are arranged into three concentric layers: intima, media and adventitia. The intima is the inner layer abutting the vessel lumen. The adventit...
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Hoffa's fat pad

Hoffa's fat pad is the largest of the anterior knee fat pads. Anatomy Boundaries anterior antero-inferior: infra patella tendon antero-superior: patella posterior postero-central: knee joint postero-inferior:  tibia postero-superior: femur Related pathology patellar tendon lateral fem...
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Hoffa's fat pad herniation

Hoffa's fat pad herniation is defined as herniation of infrapatellar fat through a defect in the lateral retinaculum. It is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass often detected at the fully flexed knee 1. Clinical presentation Mainly occurs in preschool-aged and young children as a p...
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Horizontal fissure

The horizontal fissure (also called the minor fissure) is a unilateral structure in the right lung that separates the right middle lobe from the right upper lobe. Gross anatomy The horizontal fissure arises from the right oblique fissure and follows the 4th intercostal space from the sternum u...
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Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Epidemiology Horseshoe kidneys are found in approximate...
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Horseshoe lung

Horseshoe lung is one of the rare congenital anomalies of the lung. A band of pulmonary parenchyma is formed extending between the right and left lungs. The pulmonary tissue can be seen either anterior to the aorta or posterior to the pericardium at the caudal end. Pathology Associations card...

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