Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

419 results found
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Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion cavernous sinus portion orbital portion Gross anat...
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Aberrant arachnoid granulations

Aberrant arachnoid granulations (AbAG) are arachnoid granulations that penetrated the dura but failed to migrate normally in the venous sinus. They are most often located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Occasionally, they are seen in the posterior temporal bone wall. Clinical presenta...
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Accessory middle cerebral artery

The accessory middle cerebral artery is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). It is different from a duplicated middle cerebral artery, in which the duplicated vessel originates also from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (...
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Ambient cistern

The ambient cistern is part of the subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The ambient cistern is a thin, sheet-like extension of the quadrigeminal cistern that extends laterally surrounding around the midbrain and posterior to the thalami. It acts as the connection between the quadrigeminal cist...
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Amygdala

The amygdala is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The amygdala is a complex structure, located dorsomedially in the temporal lobe, forming the ventral superior, and medial walls of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other part being the supramarginal gyrus. It plays a part in language and number processing, memory and reasoning 1. Gross anatomy Relations It lies as a horseshoe...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
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Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (AC) is a transversely oriented commissural white matter tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres along the midline. It is a very important anatomical landmark that connects different parts of the limbic system on both sides and plays a role in the interhemispheri...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterio...
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Anterior ethmoidal foramen

The anterior ethmoid foramen is a small opening in the ethmoid bone. It is the anatomical border of anterior and posterior ethmoid air cells. It transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery, vein and nerve. The anterior ethmoid foramen is situated 25 mm away from the lacrimal crest, 12 mm anterior t...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Anterior perforated substance

The anterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata anterior, is an area in the basal forebrain that plays an important role with regards to the blood supply of deep grey matter structures of the brain. Gross anatomy Located within the basal forebrain, the anterior perforated substance...
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Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is by far the largest part of the pituitary gland, and is responsible for synthesis and release of most pituitary hormones (with the exception of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which are released by the posterior pituitary). It consists of 3 ...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Anterior temporal artery

The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri.  Variant anatomy The temporopolar arter...
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Arachnoid granulation

Arachnoid granulations, also known as a Pacchionian granulation, are projections of the arachnoid membrane (villi) into the dural sinuses that allow CSF entrance from the subarachnoid space into the venous system. They most frequently occur in a parasagittal location with the transverse and sup...
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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater forms the middle layer of the meninges and together with the pia mater is sometimes referred to as the leptomeninges.  Gross anatomy The arachnoid mater is a membrane that comes into direct contact with the dura mater and is separated from the pia mater by a CSF filled spac...
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Area postrema

The area postrema is one of the so-called circumventricular organs located on the dorsal inferior surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle. The specialised ependymal cells in the area postrema detect toxins in the blood and act as a vomit-inducing centre, along...
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Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries. common carotid artery carotid body carotid bifurcation internal carotid artery (segments) caroticotympanic artery persistent stapedial artery ophthalmic artery supraorbital artery lacrimal arte...
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Artery of Adamkiewicz

The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord. Gross anatomy Origin The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
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Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterised by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. Gross anatomy The term is used to refer to a solitary arterial trunk that branches from...
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Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
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Asymmetric fatty bone marrow of the petrous apex

Asymmetric pneumatisation of petrous apex results in asymmetric fatty bone marrow within the petrous apex. It is a common incidental finding on brain and skull base MRI. Clinical presentation Asymptomatic. Pathology Asymmetric pneumatisation of the petrous apex results in the presence of bon...
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Azygos anterior cerebral artery

An azygos anterior cerebral artery is uncommon to rare variant of the circle of Willis where the two A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) join to form a single trunk. As a result, there is no anterior communicating artery. This organisation is similar to that seen in lower primates ...
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Band of Giacomini

The band of Giacomini, also known as the tail of the dentate gyrus is the anteromedial continuation of the dentate gyrus, which in turn is part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus, subicular complex and entorhinal cortex. It is an important anatomical landmark of the inferio...
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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the deep white matter of the brain that is interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalami and brainstem. In a strict anatomical sense, it contains three paired nuclei that together comprise the corpus striatum: caudate nucleus putamen globus palli...
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Basal nucleus of Meynert

The basal nucleus of Meynert, also known as the nucleus basalis of Meynert, is formed by a group of cells that lies in the substantia innominata. It is rich in acetylcholine and its degeneration has been correlated to Alzheimer disease. It lies anterior to the anterior commissure. 
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Basal vein of Rosenthal

The basal veins, also known as the veins of Rosenthal, are paired, paramedian veins which originate on the medial surface of the temporal lobe and run posteriorly and medially. It passes lateral to the midbrain through the ambient cistern to drain into the vein of Galen with the internal cerebra...
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Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery. Its reported prevalence is highly variable depending on the technique used: ~0.5% (0.3-0.6%) at angiography (presumably ...
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Basilar venous plexus

The basilar venous plexus lies between the endosteal and visceral layers of the dura on the inner surface of the clivus. It connects the: inferior petrosal sinuses cavernous sinuses intercavernous sinuses superior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus marginal sinus (around the...
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Basion

The basion is the median (midline) point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament attaches to it. It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement. Clinical importance Various lines and measurements using the ...
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Betz cells

Betz cells are pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex. They are some of the largest in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100 µm in diameter and send their axons down the corticospinal tracts to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.  ...
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Blood brain barrier

The blood brain barrier (BBB) forms a physical resistance to the passage of lipophobic substances from cerebral capillaries into the brain and is a key reason why there is no CSF enhancement following IV contrast media in CT and MR imaging. Gross anatomy The BBB is formed by a combination of e...
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Blood supply of the meninges

The blood supply of the meninges generally concerns the blood supply of the outer layer of dura mater rather than the inner layer of dura mater, arachnoid or pia mater which do not require a large blood supply. There are several arteries that supply the dura in the anterior, middle, and posterio...
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Bochdalek's flower basket

Bochdalek's flower basket is the eponymous name for the incidental finding of protrusion of the choroid plexus through the foramina of Luschka. This is a relatively common finding. It is an important normal variant to recognise as the presence of protruding calcified choroid tissue in the fourt...
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Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
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Bracket sign (pars marginalis)

The bracket sign of the pars marginalis, also known as the pars bracket sign, refers to the appearances of the superior most extent of the pars marginalis of the cingulate sulcus on axial imaging. It forms two roughly symmetric brackets, open anteriorly. The next sulcus anteriorly is the central...
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Brain development

Brain development occurs from the three vesicles of the embryo's neural tube. prosencephalon/forebrain mesencephalon/midbrain rhombencephalon/hindbrain By approximately 4.5 to 5 menstrual weeks, the primitive neural plate has developed. The neural plate then divides into the neural crest and...
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Brainstem

The brainstem is the most caudal part of the brain. It adjoins, is structurally continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the: midbrain (mesencephalon) pons (part of the metencephalon) medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to t...
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Brainstem nuclei

The brainstem nuclei are the nuclei in the brainstem. These include: the cranial nerve nuclei red nucleus substantia nigra
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Broca's area

Broca's area (Brodmann area 44) is an area of the lateral frontal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the production of speech. Gross anatomy Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis and pars triangularis) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior...
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Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas are a system to divide the cerebral cortex according to cytoarchitectural organization, and are, despite controversy, still very widely used as a standardised nomenclature which is superimposed on the somewhat variable gyral and sulcal anatomy.  The classification relies on the f...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches.  It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to th...
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Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
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Callosal sulcus

The callosal sulcus is a sulcus of the brain, located on the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, deep within the medial longitudinal fissure.  Gross anatomy The callosal sulcus runs posteriorly from the genu to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It separates the cingulate gyrus dorsally...
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Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery (also known as median artery of corpus callosum) is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It runs in or posteriorly to the cingulate sulcus and runs a course parallel to the pericallosal artery where it divide to give two or more cortical branches to supply th...
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Callososeptal interface

The callososeptal interface is located on the inferior surface of the corpus callosum, when the septum pellucidum abuts it.  It came to radiological attention when T2 hyperintense lesions affecting this region were believed to be specific for multiple sclerosis. This has, as is usually the case...
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of clinoid segment of internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. The ICA's clinoid segment is bounded by proximal and distal dural ...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  It is said to look like a horses tail.
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioural functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controll...
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Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus, and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the leve...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The normal lateral wall should be either straight or concave.  ...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), or more grammatically correct cavum septi pellucidi, is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology It is sometimes called the fifth ventricle but this term is not in current use as a CSP does not have any direct communic...
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Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI) is a normal variation where there is a dilated CSF space involving the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect, the term cyst of the velum interpositum or cavum veli interposit...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...
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Central canal

The central canal is a CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fourth ventricle to the conus medullaris. T...
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Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and also separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory cortex posterio...
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Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter, superior to the lateral ventricles/corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres under cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibers. Inferiorly these fibres are continuous w...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise of 4 paired deep grey matter deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medial) They receive inhibitory...
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Cerebellar tonsils

Gross Anatomy The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferiormedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surfa...
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Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern is a triangular subarachnoid space that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anterior surface of cerebellum inferior: lower cranial nerves...
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Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periacqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled...
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Cerebral hemisphere

There are two cerebral hemispheres, divided in the midline in the sagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave ...
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Cerebral meninges

The cerebral meninges surround the brain and is made up of three layers (from outermost to innermost): dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater The dura mater can also be known as pachymeninx. The arachnoid mater and pia mater are collectively known as the leptomeninges 3. The spinal meninges ar...
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Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles (also known as the cerebral crus) are the part of the midbrain that link the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami and thereby, the cerebrum. They are the most anterior structure in the midbrain and contain the large ascending and descending tracts that run to and from...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebrum

The cerebrum, or telencephalon, is paired structure composed of two cerebral hemispheres (left and right) each containing a central space, the lateral ventricle. Gross anatomy The cerebrum takes up most of the intracranial cavity and lies above the tentorium cerebelli. The cerebrum includes: ...
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement for the lumbar and ...
Article

Chorda tympani

The Chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
Article

Choroidal fissure

The choroidal fissure is a thin C-shaped cleft of the lateral ventricle, located along the medial wall, and to which choroid plexus is attached. It runs between the fornix and the thalamus, and it separates the temporal lobe from the optic tract, midbrain and hypothalamus. Related pathology ch...
Article

Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is located within the cerebral ventricles and is made of epithelial cells, loose connective tissue (tela choroidea) and permeable capillaries. It produces cerebrospinal fluid.  Gross anatomy Location roof of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, extending along the ...
Article

Cingulate gyrus

The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has functions in emotion and behaviour. The frontal portion is termed the anterior cingulate gyrus (or cortex) 1-2.  Gross anatomy The cingulate gyrus extends from the sub...
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Cingulate sulcus

The cingulate sulcus is situated directly superior to the cingulate gyrus, which is formed by the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere that is directly above the corpus callosum.
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of the brain,...
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Claustrum

The claustrum is a vertical curved sheet of subcortical grey matter oriented sagittally between the white matter tracts of the external capsule and extreme capsule. It is lateral to the putamen and medial to the insular cortex. It is not part of the basal ganglia. There are lateral and medial t...
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Collateral sulcus

The collateral sulcus, also known as the medial occipitotemporal sulcus, runs anteroposteriorly on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Anteriorly it is sometimes continuous with the rhinal sulcus 1-3.  Anteriorly, it separates the fusiform gyrus laterally, from the par...
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Column of Burdach

The column of Burdach, also known as the cuneate fasciculus or fasciculus cuneate, represents the lateral portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from between and including C1 and T6 1.  Function The cuneate fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception...
Article

Column of Goll

The column of Goll, also known as the gracile fasciculus or fasciculus gracilis, represents the medial portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from below and including T7 1. Function The gracile fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (d...
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Commissures of the brain

There are a number of white matter tracts that cross the midline, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. These are known as commissures and include: corpus callosum anterior commissure hippocampal commissure (psalterium) habenular commissure posterior commissure supraoptic commissures G...
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Condylar canal

The condylar canal, or canalis condylaris, is a skull base canal in the posterior cranial fossa, located in the condylar fossa. Summary location: in the condylar fossa of the posterior cranial fossa, posterior to the occipital condyles contents emissary veins, connecting the sigmoid sinus to...
Article

Confluence of sinuses

The confluence of sinuses, also known as the torcula or torcular Herophili is the site of the confluence of: superior sagittal sinus straight sinus occipital sinus transverse sinuses The anatomy is highly variable and three types can be distinguished: type 1: superior sagittal sinus drains...
Article

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...
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Congenital anomalies of the posterior atlas arch

Congenital anomalies of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) are relatively common anomalies. They may range from partial defects presenting as clefts to complete absence of the posterior arch (aplasia). These anomalies are classified according to Currarino (see below). It should not be confuse...
Article

Conjoined nerve root

A conjoined root is a type of developmental anomaly involving a nerve root. It is the most common nerve root developmental anomaly of the cauda equina being twice as common as two roots in the same foramen, the next most common anomaly 1. Epidemiology The incidence in cadaveric studies is abo...
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Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy After the cord terminates, the nerve roots descend within the spinal canal as individual rootlets, collectively termed the cauda equina. The conus medullaris most commonly terminates at the L1/2 intervertebral disc leve...

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