Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

46 results found
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Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Abdominal surface anatomy

Abdominal surface anatomy can be described when viewed from in front of the abdomen in 2 ways: divided into 9 regions by two vertical and two horizontal imaginary planes divided into 4 quadrants by single vertical and horizontal imaginary planes These regions and quadrants are of clinical imp...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Bartholin glands

The Bartholin glands (or greater vestibular glands) are paired pea-sized structures, lying on either side of the vaginal opening, and are homologous to the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands in the male. They form part of the vulva. Gross anatomy These glands are described as less than 1 cm in diam...
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Broad ligament

The broad ligament is the lateral folds of the parietal peritoneum which reflect over the upper genital tract. Gross anatomy The broad ligament extends from the lateral aspect of the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall and can be divided into three main components - the mesosalpinx, mesovarium a...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artefacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Canal of Nuck

The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of parietal peritoneum extending anteriorly from the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora through the inguinal ring into the inguinal canal. Incomplete obliteration of this canal is known as a patent processus vaginalis and can result i...
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Cervical plicae palmatae

Cervical plicae palmatae are normal folds seen on the anterior and posterior walls of the cervical canal. They are often described as longitudinal ridges or oblique elevation. Sometimes they are identified on MRI, and one must make sure not to misinterpret this finding as abnormal. Studies repo...
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Cervix

The cervix or uterine cervix is the lower constricted segment of the uterus providing the passage between the uterus proper and the vagina.  Gross anatomy The cervix is somewhat conical in shape, with its truncated apex directed posteriorly and inferiorly. The inferior aspect of the cervix pro...
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Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...
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Corpus albicans

The corpus albicans is a fibrous scar that results from the involution of the corpus luteum if fertilisation does not occur. When seen on ultrasound, it is a small, lobulated echogenic intra-ovarian lesion.  History and etymology It is Latin for "whitening body", after the white appearance of ...
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Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube. The...
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Deep inguinal lymph nodes

The deep inguinal nodes are located within the femoral sheath, medial to the femoral vein. They receive afferent lymphatic drainage from the deep lymphatics of the distal lower extremity and perineum (e.g. glans penis / clitoris), and drain proximally into external iliac lymph nodes via channels...
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Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space superior (deep) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital t...
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Dominant ovarian follicle

A dominant ovarian follicle refers to the follicle that enlarges to release an ovum during a menstural cycle. Usually approximately 10 Graafian follicles begin to mature where one becomes a dominant follicle and the rest become atretic ovarian follicles. After release of the ovum the remainder o...
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Endometrium

The endometrium refers to the inner lining of the uterine lumen, composed of endometrial glands surrounded by loose highly cellular connective tissue. Gross anatomy Layers In women of reproductive age, the endometrium is composed of two layers: stratum basale (basal layer): describes the de...
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Fallopian tube segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the order of the 5 segments of the Fallopian tube, from lateral to medial, the direction an ovum would pass following ovulation, is: Four INches Across IS IMpossible Four inches (10 cm) is the approximate length of the Fallopian tube. ​Mnemonic F: fimbriae IN: ...
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Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system (or tract) comprises of the vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries. It can be imaged using almost the entire range of modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most useful. 
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Fornix (disambiguation)

The term fornix (plural: fornices) is used for anatomical structures in multiple organ systems that all share an arch-like morphology: fornix (brain) fornix (eye) fornix (lacrimal) fornix (pharynx) fornix (renal) fornix (stomach) fornix (vagina) History and etymology Fornix is Latin for...
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Fornix (vagina)

The fornices are superior recesses of the vagina formed by the protrusion of the cervix into the vaginal vault. There is a large posterior fornix and a smaller anterior fornix with two small lateral fornices.  History and etymology Fornix is Latin for 'arch'.
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) form the anteroinferior most part of the vulva, they are continuous with the mons pubis anteriorly and the perineum posteriorly. The labia meet in the midline forming the pudendal cleft. Gross anatomy The labia majora have an outer and an inner surface...
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Levator ani

The levator ani, also known as the muscular pelvic diaphragm, is the musculotendinous sheet that forms the majority of the pelvic floor, supports the pelvic viscera, and aids in urinary and faecal evacuation as well as maintaining continence. Gross anatomy The levator ani has three main compon...
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Mons pubis

The mons pubis (plural: montes pubis) refers to the rounded protuberant soft tissue overlying the symphysis pubis (in both sexes). It is most prominent in adult females. In females it forms the most superior part of the vulva and it is also called the mons Veneris (plural: montes Veneris).  Du...
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Müllerian duct

The Müllerian ducts (or paramesonephric ducts) are paired ducts of mesodermal origin in the embryo. They run laterally down the side of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the Müllerian eminence in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the Fallopian tubes, u...
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Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery. Course Descends caudally in the retroperitone...
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Ovarian follicle

An ovarian follicle (also known as a Graafian follicle in its mature state) is the basic unit of female reproductive biology and is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells. It contains a single oocyte.  An ovarian follicle can be initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulati...
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Ovary

The ovaries are paired female gonads of the reproductive and endocrine systems. They lie within the ovarian fossa on the posterior wall of the true pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ovaries are ovoid in shape and measure approximately 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.0-2.0 cm (length x width x thickness) ...
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Parametrium

The parametrium is a band of fibrous tissue that separates the supravaginal portion of the cervix from the bladder. It extends on to its sides and laterally between the layers of the broad ligaments. The uterine artery and ovarian ligament are located in the parametrium. The parametrium is imp...
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Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus.  Related pathology paraurethral duct cyst paraurethral duct abscess
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Pelvis

The term pelvis can refer to either the bony pelvis or the pelvic cavity. Bony pelvis The bony pelvis is formed by the sacrum and coccyx and a pair of hip bones ("ossa coxae"), which are part of the appendicular skeleton. Its primary function is the transmission of forces from the axial skelet...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
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Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
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Retroverted uterus

A retroverted uterus is a normal variation of female pelvic anatomy in which the body of the uterus is tilted backwards (usually leans forward, i.e. anteverted) on itself to match the isthmus of the neck and lower uterine segment. There are variable grades of uterine retroversion. Epidemiology ...
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Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the is...
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Transverse vaginal septum

Transverse vaginal (transvaginal) septum (TVS) is a type of rare congenital uterovaginal anomaly (class II under the Rock and Adam classification). Epidemiology It is rare with a frequency of 1 in 70,000 females. Clinical presentation In the case of a complete septum, patients commonly prese...
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Unicornuate uterus

A unicornuate uterus or unicornis unicollis is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class II) characterised by a banana shaped uterus usually draining into a single Fallopian tube. Epidemiology This type can account for ~10% (range 6-13%) of uterine anomalies and infertility is seen in ~12.5% (ra...
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Urogenital triangle

The urogenital triangle forms the anterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's corners are defined by the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterolateral borders are the ischiopubic rami and the posterior border is the transverse perinea...
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Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
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Uterine artery

The uterine artery is seen bilaterally and is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Gross anatomy Course It runs medially in the pelvis, within the base of the broad ligament, to the outer surface of the uterus. From lateral to medial it has a descending, transverse ...
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Uterine duplication anomalies

Uterine duplication anomalies are a group of Müllerian duct anomalies where fusion of the Müllerian duct associated structures fail to some degree: uterus didelphys: class III bicornuate uterus: class IV (second commonest duplication anomaly) septate uterus: class V (commonest duplication ano...
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Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the Fallopian tube or less commonly the oviduct, is a paired hollow tube that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affe...
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Uterus

The uterus is a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis.   Gross anatomy The uterus has an inverted pear shape. In the adult, it measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness. It weighs ...
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Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular structure positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the uterus. Th...
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Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (oesophagus) vestibule (vagina) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimately from the Lat...
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Vulva

The vulva is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular bulbs vestibule of the vulva urinary meatus vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features Individual component ...

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