Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

393 results found
Article

Accessory occipital bone sutures

The parietal and occipital bones in particular are common regions for accessory sutures because of their multiple ossification centres. The occipital bone has complex development, ossifying from six centres. The foramen magnum is surrounded by four ossification centres. On each side are the exo...
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Accessory parotid glands

Accessory parotid glands are a normal variant and represent ectopic salivary tissue present away and separate from the main parotid gland 1. Epidemiology Accessory parotid glands are not rare and are seen in ~20% of the general population 2. Gross anatomy Located on the masseter muscle, ante...
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Agger nasi cells

Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells lying anterolateral and inferior to the frontoethmoidal recess and anterior and above the attachment of the middle turbinate. They are located within the lacrimal bone and therefore have as lateral relations the orbit, the lacrimal s...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anatomy Lower limb anatomy Upper limb anato...
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Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis is a component of the cervical plexus which gives muscular branches to the geniohyoid muscle of the suprahyoid group and all 4 of the infrahyoid muscles.  Gross anatomy Roots superior root: derived from the anterior primary rami of C1 inferior root: derived from the anter...
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Anterior cervical space

The anterior cervical space is a small infrahyoid compartment of the head and neck. It is a fat containing space and is not enclosed by fascia 1. Gross anatomy Contents areolar fat Relations posterior: carotid space medial: visceral space superior: submandibular space Related pathology ...
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Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa constitutes the floor of cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes of the brain. Gross anatomy Structures present in the midline of anterior cranial fossa from anterior to posterior are:  groove for superior sagittal sinus groove for anterior meningeal vessels ...
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Anterior jugular vein

The anterior jugular vein is a paired tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course The anterior jugular vein has its origin in the region of the hyoid bone or suprahyoid neck, as the confluence of several small superficial veins. It descends near the midline, medial...
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Anterior lacrimal crest

The anterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the frontal process of the maxilla continuous with the orbital rim which creates the lateral margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. The medial palpebral ligament is attached to anterior lacrimal crest. Immediately anterior to the anterior lacrimal ...
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Anterior superior alveolar canal

The anterior superior alveolar canal courses through the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and contains the anterior superior artery, vein and nerve. Usually, it shares a common channel with the infraorbital canal but when seen separately should not be confused for a fracture. 
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Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and and subclavian arteries. common carotid external carotid superior thyroid superior laryngeal ascending pharyngeal lingual facial occipital posterior auricular superficial temporal maxillary (1st part) mandibular...
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Arytenoid cartilage

The arytenoid cartilages are paired cartilages that articulate with the sloping upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage by the cricoarytenoid joint. This joint allows movement of the arytenoid cartilages, which is vital in approximating, tensing and relaxing the vocal folds. Gross a...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
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Ascending pharyngeal artery

The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus. Summary origin: a branch of the external carotid artery course: vertically with...
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Asterion

The asterion is the the star shaped junction on the side of the calvarium where 3 sutures meet: parietomastoid suture occipitomastoid suture lambdoid suture It is located at the the posterior end of the parietomastoid suture, where as the pterion is located at the anterior end. It is one of...
Article

Base of skull

The base of skull (or skull base) forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from the structures of neck and face. Gross anatomy The base of skull is a bony diaphragm composed of number of bones including (from anterior to posterior): frontal bone ethmoid bone sphenoid bo...
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Basion

The basion is the median (midline) point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement. Clinical importance Various lines and measurements using the basion are made in the diagnosis of ...
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Bill's bar

Bill's bar is a landmark that divides the superior compartment of the internal acoustic meatus into an anterior and posterior compartment. Anterior to Bill bar, in the anterior superior quadrant, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and nervus intermedius, and posterior to it in the posterior superior ...
Article

Body of sphenoid

The body of the sphenoid bone is a cubical portion, hollowed by the sphenoid air sinuses.  Gross anatomy The body has superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, and lateral surfaces. The superior surface features: ethmoidal spine: prominent spine that articulates with the cribiform plate and g...
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Bouthillier classification of ICA segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid 2016). There are few others classifications systems including proposed by Fisher (1938), Gi...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People Mnemonic ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pectoral D...
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Bregma

The bregma is the midline bony landmark where the coronal and sagittal sutures meet, between the frontal and two parietal bones. It is the anterior fontanelle in the neonate and closes in the second 2 (typically around 18 months after birth). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric poin...
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Buccal space

The buccal space (or buccinator space) is one of the seven suprahyoid deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy  The buccal spaces are paired fat contained spaces on each side of the face forming cheeks. Each space is enveloped by the superficial (investing) layer of the deep cervi...
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Buccinator artery

The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
Article

Carina

The carina is part of the trachea and is an important reference point in chest imaging. Gross anatomy The carina is found at the base of the trachea and it is formed as the main bronchi divide into right and left branches. The carina usually sits in the T4/T5 plane and is at the level of the ...
Article

Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
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Carotid bifurcation

The carotid bifurcation is the point at which the common carotid artery terminates. As it does so, it forms the internal and external carotid arteries which go on to supply the head and neck. It is closely related anatomically to the carotid body, a small group of chemoreceptors and supporting ...
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Carotid body

The carotid body is located within the neck, and in close proximity to the carotid bifurcation. It is composed of a number of chemoreceptor cells and supporting matrix and detects changes in the composition of blood in the common carotid as it forms the internal and external carotid arteries. I...
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Carotid canal

The carotid canal is a passage within the petrous temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery and sympathetic plexus. Its inferior opening is called the carotid foramen and is situated anteriorly to the jugular fossa and medially to the tympanic plate. The carotid canal is initially ...
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Carotid space

The carotid space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy The carotid space is a roughly cylindrical space that extends from the skull base through to the aortic arch.  It is circumscribed by all three layers of the deep cervical fascia, forming the carotid sh...
Article

Cervical lymph node groups

Cervical lymph node groups describe the anatomic position of the nodes. It differs from cervical lymph node levels, covering all lymph nodes not just those relevant to head and neck surgery.  Gross anatomy Groups described in the literature include but are not limited to:  facial group parot...
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Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is formed by the ventral (anterior) rami of the C1 to C5 nerve roots and innervates the diaphragm, provides motor supply to some neck muscles and cutaneous sensation to the skin of the head, neck and chest. Gross anatomy Roots anterior rami of C1 to C5 nerves Course runs...
Article

Chorda tympani

Chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of tongue via the lingual nerve as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. Gross anat...
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Cloquet's canal

Cloquet's canal, also known as the hyaloid canal or Stilling's canal, is a transparent canal that runs from the optic nerve disc to the lens traversing the vitreous body. It serves as a perivascular sheath surrounding the hyaloid artery in the embryonic eye.
Article

Cochlea

The cochlea is part of the inner ear osseous labyrinth found in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy The cochlea is a shell-shaped spiral that turns between two-and-a-half and two-and-three-quarters times around the modiolus (a central column of bone).  Communications cochlear aperture:...
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Cochlear promontory

The cochlear promontory is the name given to the bone that overlies the basal turn of the cochlea protruding into the middle ear cavity.  Related pathology glomus tympanicum paragangliomas typically arise in the region of the cochlear promonotory
Article

Colliscalene triangle

The colliscalene triangle is an important anatomical region of the neck, situated medial to the scalenus anterior muscle. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: lateral border of longus colli lateral: medial border of scalenus anterior inferior: first part of the subclavian artery apex: carotid ...
Article

Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired structure that supplies blood to the head and neck.  Summary origin: branch of the aorta (left) and brachiocephalic trunk (right) course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and neck main branches: none (usua...
Article

Concha bullosa

Concha bullosa (also known as a middle turbinate pneumatisation) is a common finding and although associated with deviation of the nasal septum, it is usually of little clinical importance. Epidemiology Concha bullosa is a normal variant and is one of the most common variations of sinonasal an...
Article

Condylar canal

The condylar canal (canalis condylaris) is located in the condylar fossa, posterior to the occipital condyles. It transmits the emissary veins which originate at the sigmoid sinus and drain into the occipital vein. The condylar canaI has a variable presence and seen only in ~55% (range 50-60%) ...
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Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...
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Coronal suture

The coronal suture is the cranial suture formed between the two parietal bones and the frontal bone. At the junction of coronal, sagittal and frontal sutures is the anterior fontanelle which is open at birth and usually fuses at around 18-24 months after birth. Fusion of the coronal suture occu...
Article

Corrugator supercilii

The corrugator supercilii are two small, triangular muscles that allow facial expression through movement of the eyebrows, including frowning. They originate from the medial end of the supraorbital margins and insert deep to  and can cause traction on the skin over the middle of the supraorbital...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Cribriform plate

The cribriform plate is a sieve-like structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity. It is a part of ethmoid bone and supports the olfactory bulb. It is perforated by foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerves and the nerves to the upper part of the nasal septum, the lat...
Article

Cricoid cartilage

The cricoid cartilage is a ring shaped structure that sits just below the thyroid cartilage. It is the only complete cartilaginous ring of the whole airway. Gross Anatomy The anterior portion is called the arch and the posterior quadrangular shaped portion is the lamina. It articulates with th...
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Crista galli

The crista galli is a thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa. It separates the olfactory bulbs, which lie either side of it in the olfactory fossae of the cribriform plate. It serves as an anteri...
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Danger space

The danger space is a potential space located behind the true retropharyngeal space, which connects the deep cervical spaces to the mediastinum.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly: alar fascia posteriorly: prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia superiorly: clivus inferiorly: post...
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Deep cervical fascia

The deep cervical fascia consists of 3 separate but related fascial layers that encircle structures in the neck and allow anatomic compartmentalisation. All 3 layers meet to form the carotid sheath. From superficial to deep, the 3 layers are: 1. Investing layer of the deep cervical fascia is th...
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Deep spaces of the head and neck

Head and neck anatomy is described in slightly different terms in the radiology literature reflecting the importance of fascia lined spaces in confining various pathologies. As such the neck has been divided into a number of 'deep spaces' which overlap with traditional anatomical description. A...
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Deep temporal branches

The deep temporal arteries (anterior and posterior) are branches from the second part of the maxillary artery. They
 ascend between the temporalis muscle and the pericranium supplying the overlying
 muscle. The anterior
 branch communicates with the lacrimal artery by means of smal...
Article

Delphian node

The Delphian node (prelaryngeal) along with paratracheal nodes, pretracheal nodes, perithyroidal nodes make up level VI cervical lymph nodes, and is not routinely excised in radical neck dissections. It receives lymph from the thyroid and larynx.  History and etymology The Delphian node gains ...
Article

Digastric muscle

The digastric muscle is composed of two bellies, anterior and posterior, connected by an intermediate round tendon. The two bellies of the muscle have different embryonic origins and hence are supplied by different cranial nerves. Summary origin anterior belly: mandible posterior belly: mast...
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Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc, but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge. A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteophyt...
Article

Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal sinus, basal sinus and cavernous sinus. Boundaries superiorly: petro...
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Dorsum sellae

The dorsum sellae is the square shaped process of the sphenoid bone. It ascends superiorly from the posterior part of the sphenoid body to form the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Gross anatomy Relations The dorsum sellae forms the posterior wall of the sella turcica, which houses the pi...
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Duct of Rivinus

The duct of Rivinus connects the sublingual gland to the floor of the mouth. Despite its name, it is not a single duct, but numerous small ducts all of which open into the floor of the mouth and are collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these little ductules is the major duct...
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Ducts of the salivary glands

The ducts of the salivary glands allow the passage of salivary juice from the glands to the oral cavity: parotid duct (Stenson duct): connects the parotid gland to the buccal mucosa, adjacent to maxillary second molar submandibular duct (Wharton duct): connects the submandibular gland to the f...
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Ectopic thyroid

An ectopic thyroid gland is one which is located in a location other than the normal position anterior to the laryngeal cartilages. The during embryological development, the thyroid gland migrates down from the foramen caecum at the posterior aspect of the tongue, to its permanent location. Thi...
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Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx.  Gross anatomy The epiglottis projects posterosuperiorly from its stem-like base, which is attached to the thyroid cartilage. It ...
Article

Ethmoid bone

The ethmoid bone is a single midline facial bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain and is located at the roof of the nose and between the two orbits. It is a cubical shape and is relatively lightweight because of its spongy construction. It contributes to the anterior cranial fossa....
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Ethmoidal sinus

The ethmoidal sinuses (or ethmoidal air cells) are one of the four paranasal sinuses. They are located within the ethmoid bone. They are present at birth and they develop rapidly from 0-to-4 year-old; they further mature from 8-to-12 year-old during puberty. Some of the ethmoidal air cells have...
Article

Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube is the channel through which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. It is approximately 36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sagittal plane and one of 30 to 40 degrees with the horizonta...
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External auditory canal

The external auditory canal (EAC) extends from from the tympanic membrane medially to the external auditory meatus (EAM) laterally. It is typically 2.5 cm in overall length. The lateral 1.5 cm are bounded by a fibrocartilaginous tube continuous with the auricle. The medial 1 cm is formed by the ...
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External carotid artery

The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA. Summary origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery course: under the submandibular gland an...
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External ear

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External jugular vein

The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the pectoral region. Gross anatomy Origin and course The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite to form the EJV at the angle of the mandible. It courses inferiorly in the subcutaneous ...
Article

Extra-ocular muscles

The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion inferior rectus: depression Associated pathology ophthalmoplegia
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla and not the ethmoidal bone are examples of extramural air cells.
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Eye movements

Eye movements are a complex set of movements that are performed by the extra-ocular muscles that are grouped by the muscles that perform particular movements: ocular adductors ocular abductors ocular elevators ocular depressors ocular internal rotators ocular external rotators
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Facial artery

The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face. Summary origin - branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual course - ascends anteriorly through the cheek with a tortuous route towards ...
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Facial bones

The facial bones comprise a set of bones that make up the face: midline single sphenoid bone ethmoid bone vomer mandible ​paired bilateral palatine bone nasal bone lacrimal bone inferior nasal concha zygoma (zygomatic bone) maxilla Where these bones join each other, sutures occur.
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Facial muscles

The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no deep fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin of the face...
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Facial nerve

The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves  with a complex range of functions. Although at first glance it is a motor nerve to facial expression, which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic here), it has taste and parasy...
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
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Falciform crescent

The falciform crescent is a horizontal ridge that divides the internal acoustic meatus into superior and inferior portions. Superior The facial nerve and superior vestibular nerve (SVN) travel in the superior portion of the IAM with the facial nerve
 anterior to the SVN and separated from ...
Article

Fallopian canal

The Fallopian (facial) canal refers to a bony canal through which the facial nerve traverses the petrous temporal bone, from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen. It is, for those of you fond of trivia, the longest bony canal through which a nerve passes. It is also responsi...
Article

Fissula ante fenestram

The fissula ante fenestram is a small connective tissue-filled cleft located where the tendon of tensor tympani turns laterally toward the malleus. It is situated immediately anterior to the oval window, and posterior to the cochleariform process 1.  The fissula ante fenestrum is the most commo...
Article

Floor of mouth

The floor of mouth is an oral cavity subsite, and is a common location of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.  Gross anatomy The floor of mouth is a U-shaped space extends (and includes) from the oral cavity mucosa superiorly, and the mylohyoid muscle sling 2,3.  Boundaries superiorly: oral...
Article

Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum is located in the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to cribriform plate of ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable distance from the crista galli. The foramen caecum is frequently found in infant, uncommonly in c...
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Foramen caecum (disambiguation)

Foramen caecum can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: foramen caecum (tongue) foramen caecum (anterior cranial fossa)
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Foramen ovale (head)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular nerve branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the cavern...
Article

Foramen rotundum

The foramen rotundum is located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of sphenoid. Its medial border is formed by lateral wall of sphenoid sinus. It runs downwards and laterally in an oblique path and joins the middle cranial fossa ...
Article

Foramen tympanicum

The foramen tympanicum (also known as foramen of Huschke) is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a foramen tympanicum in the asym...
Article

Foveola pharyngica recess

A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2. 
Article

Frontal bone

The frontal bone is a skull bone that contributes to the cranial vault. It contributes to form part of the anterior cranial fossa. Gross anatomy The frontal bone has two portions vertical portion (squama): has external/internal surfaces horizontal portion (orbital): has superior/inferior sur...
Article

Frontal sinus

The frontal sinus develops from anterosuperior pneumatisation of the frontal recess into the frontal bone. Development begins late in intrauterine life or may start after birth (from one to twenty years and starts in the vertical segment). Pneumatisation develops from one to twelve years-old. G...
Article

Frontoethmoidal suture

Frontoethmoidal suture is a short cranial suture located in the anterior cranial fossa, between the orbital process of frontal and orbital plate of ethmoid bones. It forms part of the medial wall of the orbit. The anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina are seen just superior to it, through w...
Article

Frontolacrimal suture

The frontolacimal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal and lacrimal bones.
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Frontomaxillary-suture

The frontomaxillary suture is the site where nasal process of frontal bone meets the frontal process of maxilla.
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Frontonasal suture

The frontonasal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal bone and the two nasal bones. This suture meets the internasal suture at the nasion.
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Frontozygomatic suture

The frontozygomatic suture (or zygomaticofrontal suture) exists between the zygomatic process of the frontal bone and the frontal process of the zygomatic bone.
Article

Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is a suprahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. Geniohyoid draws the hyoid bone up and forward during mastication and assists the opening of the mandible. Summary origin: inferior mental spine of the mandible also known as the genial tube...

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